This is a specific subject page, dealing exclusively with, or primarily with, the subject in the title. Because of need, there are many such pages at RHWW: usually, but not always, linked to primary pages. For those in a hurry, they enable a quick summary of many important subjects. The menu for these pages is here: Click>>>

 

 

prologue

Medieval Authors (Muslim), about East Africa By Pieter Derideaux.

Is a work specifically searching for mention of the Zanj: (purportedly Africans from the area of Southern East Africa).

 

 

We cannot judge the veracity of Mr. Derideaux, or the many sources that he quotes, because there are no translations of these works by Black translators, to compare them to. And as we have seen in Hammurabi's code of laws as Translated by L. W. King - Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi (1898). Where the degenerate racist King, inserted the word White to describe Hammurabi: Whites simply cannot be trusted to tell the truth. Robert Francis Harper - The Code of Hammurabi King of Babylon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1904). Later corrected Kings work, and he was White, but how are we to know which Whites to trust?

Some may be surprised at the vitriol aimed against Blacks in these texts - particularly the Zanj. Underneath the guise of Muslim unity, the Muslim world of today is replete with racial hatreds, resentments, and disenfranchisement. These texts show that this condition is over a thousand years old. If one is to have any hope of understanding the meanings behind these texts, one must be able contextualize them in ethnic and historical realities, and be able to identify the true ethnicity of the author.

 

EXAMPLE:

Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari, popularly known as Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (194/810-256/870), was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry. He was, perhaps, best known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari. Sahih al-Bukhari, as it is commonly referred to as, is one of the six canonical hadith collections of Islam (Sunni). These prophetic traditions, or hadith, were collected by the Muslim scholar Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810-870) and compiled during his lifetime. Most Sunni Muslims view this as their most trusted collection of hadith and it is considered the most authentic book after the Qur'an.

The Hadith Sahih Bukhari has many instances of insults to Blacks, and where Al-Bukhari claims that the Prophet Muhammad was White.

Other examples of racism in Muslim religious texts:

Bukhari: "The Prophet said, 'Let the negro slave of Dinar perish. And if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him.... If he [the black slave] asks for anything it shall not be granted, and if he needs intercession [to get into paradise], his intercession will be denied.'"

Bukhari: "Allah's Apostle said, 'You should listen to and obey your ruler even if he is a black African slave whose head looks like a raisin.'"

But Al-Bukhari was NOT a Persian, he was a Tajik: Tajiks descended from ancient peoples of Central Asia, such as the Soghdians and the Bactrians (Turks). His people were simply vassals of the Persian Empire, and unscrupulas Whites use that relationship to falsely claim that he was a Persian.

Tabari II:11 "Shem, the son of Noah was the father of the Arabs, the Persians, and the Greeks; Ham was the father of the Black Africans; and Japheth was the father of the Turks and of Gog and Magog who were cousins of the Turks. Noah prayed that the prophets and apostles would be descended from Shem and kings would be from Japheth. He prayed that the African's color would change so that their descendants would be slaves to the Arabs and Turks."

Tabari II:21 "Ham [Africans] begat all those who are black and curly-haired, while Japheth [Turks] begat all those who are full-faced with small eyes, and Shem [Arabs] begat everyone who is handsome of face with beautiful hair. Noah prayed that the hair of Ham's descendants would not grow beyond their ears, and that whenever his descendants met Shem's, the latter would enslave them."

Tabari IX:69 "Arabs are the most noble people in lineage, the most prominent, and the best in deeds. We were the first to respond to the call of the Prophet. We are Allah's helpers and the viziers of His Messenger. We fight people until they believe in Allah. He who believes in Allah and His Messenger has protected his life and possessions from us. As for one who disbelieves, we will fight him forever in Allah's Cause. Killing him is a small matter to us."

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari was one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian historian and exegete of the Qur'an, most famous for his Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Mulouk, or abbreviated as: "Tarikh al-Tabari" and Tafsir al-Tabari. He was born in Amol, Tabaristan (some twenty kilometres south of the Caspian Sea) in the winter of 838–9.

Here again, al-Tabari was NOT a Persian. The place of his birth was Parthian territory, they also were simply vassals of the Persian Empire.

Ishaq:243 "I heard the Apostle say: 'Whoever wants to see Satan should look at Nabtal!' He was a black man with long flowing hair, inflamed eyes, and dark ruddy cheeks.... Allah sent down concerning him: 'To those who annoy the Prophet there is a painful doom." [9:61] "Gabriel came to Muhammad and said, 'If a black man comes to you his heart is more gross than a donkey's.'"

Ishaq:144 "A rock was put on a slave's chest. When Abu Bakr complained, they said, 'You are the one who corrupted him, so save him from his plight.' I will do so,' said Bakr. 'I have a black slave, tougher and stronger than Bilal, who is a heathen. I will exchange him. The transaction was carried out."

Ishaq:450 "It is your folly to fight the Apostle, for Allah's army is bound to disgrace you. We brought them to the pit. Hell was their meeting place. We collected them there, black slaves, men of no descent."

Ishaq:374 "The black troops and slaves of the Meccans cried out and the Muslims replied, 'Allah destroy your sight, you impious rascals.'"

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah (837 - 923 A.D.) was a prominent Muslim hadith and Shafi'i fiqh scholar best known for his hadith collection, Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah. He was born in Nishapur a year earlier than Ibn Jarir al-Tabari and outlived him by one year.

Here again, Ishaq was NOT a Persian. The place of his birth was also Parthian territory, they were simply vassals of the Persian Empire.

Note: Please rest assured, those slurs are very mild, when compared to these in the body of the works.

EXAMPLE:


Al-Mas'udi - Arab historian and geographer, known as the "Herodotus" of the Arabs (916) Muruj al-Dhahab wa-Manadin al-Jawhar
(Meadows of gold and mines of gems)

The Indians are different from all other races of Negroes, like the Zendjis, the Dendemes, etc. Galen states the ten qualities of the Zendjs thus: Kinky hair, thick eyebrows, broad noses, thick lips, sharp teeth, malodorous skin, dark pupils, small hands and feet, elongated penises and excessive merriment.... Galen also said; surely the dark complexion person (al-aswad) is overwhelmed by merriment due to the imperfection (fasad) of his brain; therefore his intellect is weak. The liveliness of the negro, the empire that takes upon him the joy, and the extreme freakishness distinguishes Zendjis from among all black races, inspired other authors to comment that what we inserted in our former books.

Taous el-Yemani, companion d'Abdallah, son of el-Abbas, never touches the meat of an animal killed by a Zendji, because he says, Zendji are deformed creatures. I've heard say that Abou'l-Abbas er-Radi billah, son of el-Moktadir, never accepts anything from the hands of a black, because those are deformed slaves.

From Jahiz's Kitab al-Hayawan (book on animals)

Allah has made the Zanj black and misshapen so all will know they are cursed. For it is written: Like the crow among mankind are the Zanj for they are the worst of men and the most vicious of creatures in character and temperament.

If it (the pigeon) is black, then this can be brought back to too high temperatures in the ovaries when it was conceived and the limits of maturity have been passed. (in the egg). The same happens with the Zindj among the humans, because the body of the mother lives in bigger heat than normal they become dark and their hair shrinks and curls together.

Just like the intelligence of the Black people and the Red(white-people) people is smaller then the intelligence of the Braun ones, as well is with the godly guiding (instinct) of the black pigeons which is less then of the dark ones.

Taken from: "Kitab al Akhbar" ("The Book of the New")

Found in: Gerald Messadie : A History of the Devil

Having become interested in the Byzantine, we found that they were doctors, philosophers, and astronomers. They are familiar with the principles of music, are able to create Roman(weights and measures) and know the world of books. They are excellent painters........ They possess an architecture different from any other.... It is unarguable that they have beauty, are familiar with arithmetic, astrology, and calligraphy, and that they possess courage and a variety of great talents. The Blacks and similar peoples have less intelligence because they lack these qualities.

Taken from: Dan Shapira; Zoroastrian Sources on Black People in Arabica nr 49
Friedrich Max Miller; The Sacred Books of the East. Volume 5. Pahlavi Texts. Part 1

Regarding the black people, the (text) says: During his sovereignty Azi Dahak let loose a dew on a young girl and let loose a young man on a parig and they had sex with the visible image of the male; through this new way of the action the Black people appeared.

Ibn al-Fakih al Hamadhani (903) Kitab al Buldan
(Book of Countries) from Hamadan Iran's ancient capital.

A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq have sound minds, commendable passions, balanced natures, and high
proficiency in every art, together with well-proportioned limbs, well-compounded humors, and a pale brown color, which is
the most apt and proper color. They are the ones who are done to a turn in the womb. They do not come out with something
between blonde, buff, blanched, and leprous coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs
and others of similar light complexion; nor are they overdone in the womb until they are burned, so that the child comes out
something between black, murky, malodorous, stinking and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, deficient minds, and depraved passions,
such as the Zanj, the Ethiopians (Hubsan), and other blacks who resemble them. The Iraqis are neither half-baked
dough nor burned crust but between the two.

Al-Kisa'i (d904) Qia Al-Anbiy
(Narration of the prophets)

-------------------------------------
Taken from: www.yale.edu
groups.google.com
D.M. Goldenberg : the curse of Ham, Race and slavery ........
He recalls a story of Ka'b al-Ahbar (a rabbi turned Muslim who accompanied Umar during the conquest of Jerusalem in 638)

He writes in his chapter on Noah: It is said that one day Noah came to his son and said, "My son, I have not slept since I boarded the ark, and now I desire to sleep my fill." So saying, he put his head on Shem's lap and went to sleep. Suddenly a gust of wind uncovered Noah's genitals; Ham laughed, but Shem jumped up and covered him. When Noah awoke he said, "What was that laughter?" Shem told him what had happened, and Noah grew angry with Ham. "Do you laugh at your father's genitals?" he said. "May God change your complexion and may your face turn black!" And that very instant his face did turn black. Turning to Shem, he said, "You covered your father: may God shield you from harm in this world and have mercy upon you in the next! May He make prophets and nobles of your progeny! May He make bondswomen and slaves of Ham's progeny until the Day of Resurrection! May He make tyrants, kings and emperors of Japheth's progeny!" And God knows best.

When Noah died, Ham lay with his wife, and God opened his gaul-vesicle and that of his wife also so that they mingled and she conceived a black boy and girl. Ham despised them and said to his wife, They are not mine. They are yours, said the wife, for the curse of your father is upon us. After that he did not approach her until the children had grown, when he lay again with her, and she bore two more black children, male and female. Ham knew that they were his, therefore he left his wife and fled. When the first two children grew up, they went out in search of their father; but when they reached a village by the edge of the sea, they stayed there. God sent desire to the boy so that he lay with his sister, and she conceived. They remained in that village with no food except the fish they caught and ate. Then she gave birth to her brother's children, a black boy and girl.
Ham, meanwhile returned seeking the two children and , not finding them, died soon afterwards of anxiety over them. His wife also died, and the other two children set out in search of their brother and sister until they came to a village by the shore, where they stayed. They then joined the other two along with their own two children. They remained there and each brother lay with his sister, begetting black (aswadayn) male and female children until they multiplied and spread along the shore. Among them are the Nubians (n-ba), the Negroes (zanj), the barbers (b-rb-r), the sindhis (sind), the Indians (hind) and all the blacks (s-d-n) : they are the children of Ham.

Ibn Butlan : Risala fi shira al-raqiq wa-taclib al-abib :

A slave-traders vademecum (d1066) a Christian monk and doctor in Baghdad.

The Zanj women have many bad qualities. The blacker they are, the uglier their faces, the more pointed their teeth, the less use they are and the more likely to do some harm. For the most part, they are of bad character, and they frequently run away. It is not in their nature to worry. Dancing and rhythm are innate and ingrained in them. Since their utterance is obscure, they have been compensated with music and dance. It is said that if a Zanji were to fall from heaven to earth, he would beat time as he fell. They have the cleanest teeth of mankind because they have much saliva, and they have much saliva because they have bad digestion. They can endure hard work. If the Zanji has enough to eat, you can chastise him heavily and he will not complain. There is no pleasure to be got from their women because of their stench and the coarseness of their bodies.

Al Marvazi - Persian astronomer, geographer, and mathematician from Merv in Khorasan: Kitab Taba'i al Hayawan (1120) (Book on Animals) from Persia.

As for the heat in the lands of Habasha and Zanj, it reaches the extreme limit in scorching. They find beauty in the intensity of blackness and abhor whiteness and hold that a white man cannot be healthy. There are some among them who eat the whites. Some people prefer the blacks to the whites. What led them to this assumption was the fact that they had seen many Arabs and Indians who possessed an abundant share of spiritual and physical gifts and whose complexion was blackish, as they also had seen that, if some whites had black moles, it added to their beauty and pleasantness....

It is said in the Tawarikh (Histories) that one of the kings of Khorasan crossed the Oxus in order to fight the Turks. In his troops there were some Zanj. When the Turks sallied forth to meet them, they saw the Zanj, whose appearance frightened them, for they imagined that they were demons or some other kind of supernatural beings. So they put to flight and retreated without fighting. When the kings of Khorasan were informed of this they increased the numbers of Zanj and Habasha and put them forward in fighting the Turks. But finally the Turks got accustomed to seeing the Zanj, and killing one of them saw that his blood was red. So they said; His blood is like human blood and so are his limbs, and their fear ceased.

 

Obviously then, these so-called "Persian" and also, so-called "Arab" writers were in fact - Whites.

To understand WHY they direct so much vitriol towards Blacks, we must understand who they are, and their history. But first, who were the Blacks who engendered so much hatred in them.

 

Persian king Darius the Great
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Persians conquered many White tribes in Europe and West Asia, and made them vassals of the Persian Empire.

 

 

This list of the vassal people, is found above Darius's tomb.

 

Persian

1. iyam \ Pârsâ
2. iyam \ Mâda
3. iyam \ Uvja
4. iyam \ Parthava
5. iyam \ Haraiva
6. iyam \ Baxtriya
7. iyam \ Suguda
8. iyam \ Uvârazmiya
9. iyam \ Zrakâ
10. iyam \ Harauvatiya
11. iyam \ Thataguiya
12. iyam \ Gadâraya
13. iyam \ Hiduya
14. iyam \ Sakâ \ haumavargâ
15. iyam \ Sakâ \ tigraxaudâ

English

1. This is the Persian.
2. This is the Mede.
3. This is the Elamite.
4. This is the Parthian.
5. This is the Arian.
6. This is the Bactrian.
7. This is the Sogdian.
8. This is the Chorasmian.
9. This is the Drangian.
10. This is the Arachosian.
11. This is the Sattagydian.
12. This is the Gandaran.
13. This is the man of Sind.
14. This is the haoma-drinking Saca.
15. This is the Saca with the pointed hat.

Persian

16. iyam \ Bâbiruš
17. iyam \ Athuriya
18. iyam \ Arabâya
19. iyam \ Mudrâya
20. iyam \ Arminiya
21. iyam \ Katpatuka
22. imay \ Spardiya
23. iyam \ Yaunâ
24. iyam \ Sakâ \ paradraiya
25. iyam \ Skudra
26. iyam \ Yauna \ takabarâ
27. iyam \ Putâya
28. iyam \ Kušâya
29. iyam \ Maciya
30. iyam \ Karka

English

16. This is the Babylonian.
17. This is the Syrian.
18. This is the Arab.
19. This is the Egyptian.
20. This is the Armenian.
21. This is the Cappadocian.
22. This is the Lydian.
23. This is the Greek.
24. This is the Scythian from across the sea.
25. This is the Thracian.
26. This is the Macedonian.
27. This is the Libyan.
28. This is the Kushite.
29. This is the man of Maka.
30. This is the Carian.

Note above: No Kush was NOT a part of the Persian Empire. That's just a White translator, taking his turn at falsehood.

 

 

 

With the destruction of the second Persian dynasty - the Sassanian - by the Arabs, the White tribes now found themselves with new Black rulers - the Arabs.

But the Arabs were not a particularly bright Black people. In order to compensate for their small numbers, they took to importing Turkish Slave Soldiers called "Mameluks". This began around 800 A.D. By 1055 A.D. the last Black calif, the Abbasid Arab caliph al-Qa'im (reigned 1031–75) was forced to abdicate by the Slejuq Turk king Toghril Beg; and after protracted negotiation ensuring restoration of the caliph's dignity after Shi'ite subjugation, Toghril entered Baghdad in December 1055. The Arab caliph enthroned him and married a Seljuq princess. These Turkish victories eventually culminated in the creation of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. After which time, Islam and the territories was under the control of the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul. This Turkish Empire lasted until the end of World War I, at which time the Ottoman Empire was broken up. The Turks in Anatolia created a New Country called Turkey. The Turkish elite in the other territories - depending on local political realities, they called themselves: Berbers, Egyptians, Persians, Arabs, Yemenites - they created the countries of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the other peninsula countries, except Oman, which had remained under Black rule. Full histories can be found in the Elam pages, and other pages. Oman fluctuated between Black, Turk, and mulatto rule, but they DID take-on the depravity of Turkish custom. Click the link for a history of Oman/Zanzibar and the so-called "Arab" slave Trade.

Click Here: for a history of Oman/Zanzibar and the so-called "Arab" slave Trade.

 

 

 

Seljuq Sultan Alp-Arslan, became "Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri" when he embraced Islam. After Arab subjugation, it was no longer necessary for Turkish Sultans to take on Arab names.

Osman

The first Sultan of the Ottoman dynasty.

 

 

 

 

The Former Countries of the Ottoman Empire

Europe
Asia
Africa
Albania (1478-1912);
Armenia (1555-1918)
Arran Azerbaijan (1590–1612)
Bosnia (1463-1878/1908);
Bulgaria (1421/1453-1878);
Crete (1669–1913);
Crimea (1475–1774);
Cyclades Islands (1538–1828);
Cyprus (1570-1878/1914);
Dagestan (1590–1612)
Dodecanese Islands (1522-1912);
Eastern Thrace - (European Turkey) (1365-1923)
Epirus (1479-1912);
Georgia (1590–1612);
Greece (1460-1828(Morea&Epir)-1912(Current borders);
Herzegovina (1481-1878/1908);
Hungary as tributary state (1526–1541) direct rule (1541–1699);
Macedonia (1371/1395-1912);
Montenegro (1499–1697);
North Aegean Islands (1462-1912);
Otranto (1480–1481);
Podolia (1672–1699);
Rhodes (1522-1912);
Wallachia — as tributary state and/or vassal state, (1412–1456; 1456–1476, shifting alliances between the Porte and Moldavia; 1476–1594; 1601–1877);
Moldavia — as tributary state and/or vassal state, (1455–1473; 1503–1572; 1574–1600; 1601–1877);
Transylvania — only as vassal state, (1541–1699);
Saronic Islands (1460-1830);
Serbia (1459-1804/1878);
Slavonia (1592–1699);
Sporades Islands (1538–1828);
Ukraine - as tributary state (1676–1681);

Aden (1538–1635);
Abkhazia (1480-1810);
Anatolia (Asiatic Turkey) (1299-1923)
Jordan (1516-1918);
Lebanon (Beirut, Acre, Saidon) (1516-1918);
Israel (1516-1918);
Oman (1550–1551, 1581–1588, 1659–1741);
Palestine (1516-1918);
Qatar (1871–1916);
Saudi Arabia (El Hasa) (1871–1913);
Saudi Arabia (Hejaz) (1517-1916);
Saudi Arabia (Nejd) (1817–1902);
Saudi Arabia (Asir) (1871–1914);
Syria (Damascus, Aleppo) 1516-1918);
Yemen (1517–1636, 1872–1918).
Kuwait became a state in 1756, and gained independence from Britain in 1961

After World War I, the British took control of most of North Africa and the middle East.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Algeria (Algiers) (1536–1830);
Algeria (Constantine) (1637–1830);
Algeria (Oran) (1708–1732, 1792–1831);
Egypt Province (1517–1798, 1801–1867)    Egypt Khedivate (1867–1914)
Eritrea (Massawa/Habesh) (1557-1884);
Libya (Cyrenaica) (1521-1911);
Libya (Tripolitania) (1551-1912);
Libya (Fezzan) (1842–1912);
Somaliland (Zeila) (Hargeisa) (Burco) (Berbera) (1548-1884);
Sudan (1553-1914);
Sudan (Nubia) (1553-1885);
Sudan (Darfur) (1874–1883);
Sudan (Equatoria) (1871–1889);
Sudan (Kordofan) (1821–1883);
Tunisia (1534-1881);

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Major Works herein

Al-Jahiz: (776-869)
Al-Fakhar al-Sudan min al-Abyadh (the prides of blacks over the whites)
Al-Tabari: (838-922) The revolt of the Zanj
Al-Mas'udi: (916) Muruj al-Dhahab wa-Manadin al-Jawhar
(Meadows of gold and mines of gems)
Al-Jahiz's: Kitab al-Hayawan (book on animals)
Buzurg ibn Shahriyar - Persian sea captain
Kitab aja'ib al-Hind (The book of the wonders of india)
955 A.D.
 

 

 

Excerpts, sometimes small, and often about the Zanj, from:

Page Link Click >>>
Page Link Click >>>
Page Link Click >>>

Al-Bayan wa'l-tabyin (The explanation and the evidence):

Taken from: Al Jahiz, nine essays

Taken from Al Jahiz: Kitab al-Bukhala; Avarice & the Avaricious

Taken from: "Kitab al Akhbar" ("The Book of the New")

Taken from: Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World by Olivia Remie Constable, Irving W. Raymond,

Jahiz: Al-Barsan wal-Argan

Ibn Qutayba (880): Kitab al-ma'arif
(The book of knowledge)

9th century Book of useful knowledge the Uyun al-akhbar of Ibn Qutayba.

Taken from: Concepts and Ideas at the Dawn of Islam by M. J. Kister

Actes; XII congres inernational vol 1A D’histoire des sciences Paris 1968

Ibn Khordadbeh (886) Al-Masalik wa'l-Mamalik
(Book of Roads and Countries)

 

Ahmed bin Yahya bin Jabir also known as
(Al-Baladhuri) (AD 893): Ansab al-ashraf (Genealogy of Illustrious Men)

Al Baladhuri: about the Lion of the Zanj

Al-Ya'qubi ; Kitab al Buldan (Book of Countries)

Abu Al-'Abbas Muhammad Ibn Yazid, a book on grammar

Dan Shapira; Zoroastrian Sources on Black People in Arabica

Ibn Rosteh (903) Kitab al-a'lak an-nafisa
(book of precious stones)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn al-Fakih al Hamadhani (903) Kitab al Buldan
(Book of Countries)

Ibn Wahshiyya: Filahat al-Nabatiyyah (Nabatean agriculture) (904)

Ibn Wahshiya; Kitab as-sumum (Book of Poison) (900 AD)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page Link Click >>>
Page Link Click >>>

Al-Kisa'i (d904) Qia Al-Anbiy
(Narration of the prophets)

Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (925) Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine)

Al-Kulayni (d939) Usool al-Kafi
(basics of what suffices)

Liu Xu : (940) Jiu Tang Shu
(Old History of the Tang Dynasty)

Note on the Zangi slaves offered as tribute to China

Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani: Sifat Jazirat ul-Arab (Geography of the Arabian Peninsula)

 

 


Ibn al-Nadim: (987) Baghdad. Kitab al-Fihrist

Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi:
Kitab al-Imta' wa'l-Mu'anasa (930-d1023)

Kitab Al-Hawamil wal-Sawamil

Akhbar al-zaman (1000) (History of the Ages and Those Whom Events have Annihilated)

Miskawayh: Tahdhib al-Akhlaq

Miskawaihi; Kitab tajarib al-umam: (The Experiences of the Nations)

Ibn Sina (980-1037) Kitab Al-Qanon fit-tibb

Al Baghdadi; Al-Fark Bain al-Firak
(Moslem Schisms and Sects) (d1037)

 

 

 

Page Link Click >>>
Page Link Click >>>

Abu’l-Husayn al-Basri: al-Mu'tamad fi Usul al-Fiqh (Reliable sources of Jurisprudence) (d1044)

Al Biruni: Kitab al-Saydanah fi Al-Tibb

Kitab Ghara'ib al-funun wa-mulah al-'uyun (The Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes; The Book of Strange Arts and Visual Delights) (1050AD) written in Egypt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nasir-I Khusraw: Safar-nama
(Book of Travels) 1052

Ibn Butlan : Risala fi shira al-raqiq wa-taclib al-abib

Sa'id al-Andalusi: Kitab Tabaqat al-'Umam (1029-1070) (Book of the Categories of Nations) from Muslim Spain

Al Marvazi: Kitab Taba'i al Hayawan (1120) (Book on Animals) from Persia.

Abu Hamid Al-Garnati : Tuhfat al-Albab (The gift of the spirits) (1080-1169) from Andalusia.

Al-Saqati: Kitab fi adab al-hisba (1210) Manual for the overseer of public markets
from Spain

 

 

 

Pieter Derideaux - Link to his site

 

 

 

 

Click for Realhistoryww Home Page