Ibn al-Fakih al Hamadhani (903) Kitab al Buldan
(Book of Countries) from Hamadan Iran's ancient capital.


Taken from : www.colorq.org
Neville Chittick: East Africa and the Orient
N. Levtzion and J.F.P.Hopkins; Corpus of early Arabic Sources for West
African History.
Friedrich Storbeck; (1914) Mitteilungen des Seminars fur orientalische
Al Hamadani : Abrege du livre des pays
Serjeant; Society and Trade in South Arabia
Socotra island: Socotran aloes is called after it. It and the island of Barbara are part of (the area) that intervenes between
Aden and the land of the negroes (Zinj), situated on the route (to it). A person putting to sea from Aden to the land of the Zinj
starts out as if making for Oman and Socotra island runs along with him on his right until its end and he turns in the direction
of the Zinj sea.

The gold of the Waq-waq of Yaman (south) (is west on our maps, so east Africa) is inferior to that of the Waq-waq of Sin.
(East India).

There is no bigger sea in the world then the Big Sea. She starts at the Magrib and through the Kolzon sea reaches Wakwak
and China. The Wakwak of China is different from the Wakwak of the south which only produces pour quality gold.

Some people say that the Nile issues beyond the Equator from two lakes called the Two Lakes of the Nile. It flows around the
land of the Habasha, then it passes between Bahr al-Qulzum (Red Sea) which is the same as Bahr al-Farama, and the desert
to flow on and pour itself out at Dimyat into al-Bahr al Rumi al Maghribi, The Western Roman Sea. Dimyat is on the coast of
that sea. Abu 'l-Khattab related that al-Mushtari b. al-Aswad said: I have raided the land of Anbiya twenty times from al-Sus
al-Aqsa, and I have seen there the Nile. Between the river and the salty sea is a dune of sand and the Nile emerges from
beneath it. (Note: his raids were from Marocco to the Sahara)

Behind Alwa is a strong nation of blacks, called Bukna. They are naked like the Zang. Their country produces gold. In the
country of these, the Nil splits in two. A big channel which splits of that becomes green of color. The big watermass, (the Nil)
goes further through the country of Nubie, without changing color. Every now and then, it happens that the water in the channel

becomes less, and the big water becomes white from color, the small one green. Each channel then goes through thickly
populated valleys, and ends close to Chalabis and the desert, where they end in the ocean.

If nobody had ever traveled,...... then the kings would not have collected the blades from Yemen, the swords from India, lances
from Baloutchistan (Balus), the iron for lances from the land of Hazar, ........ the leader bags from Magrib, the bags from Tibet,
the leather from the land of Zang, the panther skins from Barberia, the brides handadiyya, ........

The Egyptians count the crocodile in the Nil as one of the curiosities of their country. That animal swims around in the bays of
Sindan and the land of the Zang, ......

The Buga are of different sorts. By the Nubians and the Buga, Allah is called Bahir, with the Zang, Lamaklujlu (or Mkulu njulu )(la-makalujalu)

with the Coptes, Abnudah (pnuti), with the berbers, Madikas.

One of the faults of Syria is its many bad insects; one says; the fever of Haybar, the pests of Syria, the beetles of Mesopotamia,
the scabies of the Zang, and the rat problems of Bahrain.
It has been said: he who lives for one year in Mossoul sees his strength increase, he who prolongs his fast in Mopsueste, is
thought to become crazy, he who continues from the frontiers of Iraq towards the land of Zang is always feeling bad, the worse
as longer they stay there. Those who drink alcohol and the coconut milk (whine), become crazy.

A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq have sound minds, commendable passions, balanced natures, and high
proficiency in every art, together with well-proportioned limbs, well-compounded humors, and a pale brown color, which is
the most apt and proper color. They are the ones who are done to a turn in the womb. They do not come out with something
between blonde, buff, blanched, and leprous coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs
and others of similar light complexion; nor are they overdone in the womb until they are burned, so that the child comes out
something between black, murky, malodorous, stinking and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, deficient minds, and depraved passions,

such as the Zanj, the Ethiopians (Hubsan), and other blacks who resemble them. The Iraqis are neither half-baked
dough nor burned crust but between the two.

The people of the Magrib have the mules of Barbarie; the slave girls from Spain, the panthers from the land of Zang.

The barastug (kind of fish) is he not swimming to Basra, setting of from the land of Zang, looking for the sweet water of the
Tigris. All sailors know this. And all sailors know, and they believe it, that the distance between Basra and Oman bigger is
then between Basra and Zeng, and the people mistakenly believe that China further is then the sea of Zeng.
The sea of Zeng is a deep white channel, with big waves, and over this sea blows a heavy wind, and from Oman to Zeng you
need two months, and because the sea is deep, the wind strong, and the waves big, what makes that proper trading goods in
Zang are scares, so one does not leaves the sail down, that one navigates with the cord and not with the bow without knowing

kannab or makaand the trip goes fast, all this makes the trip to Zeng shorter.
The barastug goes through the waves, swimming from Zang to Basra, then the ones who have escaped the fishermen return
to Zang.

According to Plato (Aflatun), there is no good faith with the Turks (waja). Neither is there in existence munificence (sakha)
amongst the Byzantines (Rum); bashfulness (haya) amongst the Khazar; worry (and sadness) (ghamm) amongst the blacks
(Zanj); valor (shaja’a) amongst the Saqaliba, and chastity (iffa) amongst the Sind.


Ibn Wahshiyya: Filahat al-Nabatiyyah (Nabatean agriculture) (904) Kufa in Iraq


Taken from: The last pagans of Iraq: Ibn Waḥshiyya and his Nabatean agriculture by Jaakko Hameen-Anttila, Aḥmad ibn Ali Ibn Waḥshiyah

The book mentions Misr, bilad al Waqwaq, Bilad al Zanj, bilad al Arab and Uman on p 351 and also on p 1280: az-Zanj; Kalah….
In the land of al-Bakiyan there is a tree which Illuminates its surroundings like a lamp, so that the nocturnal traveller does not need any

additional lights. In the neighborhood there is a major island, like the islands of Ceylon, Kalah, az-Zanj and other such large islands (p355)

As the river Nile of Egypt runs from Abyssinia to Egypt, coming out of the mountains behind the country of Sudan, who are called the

Mountains of the Moon,

As for the climats, which tells about the people they grow certain things do not grow in other than Earth, such as the al-balsam plant

in the land of Egypt and the plants of Ebony in the land of alwaqwaq and the plants of wood called al-Zanjy (Negro) in the country of Zinj

and banana trees and cactus in the land of the Arabs and the other …

Ibn Wahshiya; Kitab as-sumum (Book of Poison) (900AD)


Taken from: Medieval Arabic toxicology: The book on poisons of Ibn Waḥshīya and its ... By Aḥmad ibn ʻAlī Ibn Waḥshīyah, Martin Levey

Preparation of Necklaces like Stone. When a Man sees it he dies on the Spot

…………………Knead them well and make of it a half sphere, one side flat and the other surface convex. Smooth it well and polish it until

it appears like the best smooth stone. Since some of the blood which was used in this operation is left over and will not be needed again,

it is dried, pounded, and mixed well with the remedies. Make the stone in the shape that I described to you Leave it to dry as I ordered.

When it is dry and wholly fashioned, take a little each of minium , and reboudia microcarpa Coss.,195 and mix them well with the urine of

a camel. Put vine leaf on your palm; on it put the hemisphere. Spot it with a quill pen until it is. Moisten it with the quill pen which has been

wetted with camel’s urine. On the flat side, draw a figure of a cross; in each angle formed by the cross, put three spots. Leave it exposed to

the air until the spots on it are well dried. Put on it any leaf and a sheet of paper made in the country of Sacad.188 Take four ratls of a man’s

urine which has been weighed on a balance. Pour the urine in an earthenware container which has been smeared with sesame oil three times.

Take equal amounts of verdigris, table salt, ashes of walnut rinds pounded reed charcoal, saruq which is bat urine, dove [droppings], dung of

sheep, bovine manure, and hairs of Negroes, two dirhams each of tamarisk fruit, pepper seed, camel dung, gum ammoniac, and seeds of

the mahaleb and black pepper, white pottery