UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Note: Just as modern Christian culture is far removed from ancient Hebrew culture - it is now European culture. So too is modern Arab culture far removed from original Arab culture - it is now Turkish culture. During the time of the Turkish Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1922), Islam was not known as the Arab religion, it was known as the Turkish religion.
The Thawb (Arab Robes) Emblematic of Arab culture, is not Arab at all. The original Arabs, like the Egyptians, Berbers, Mesopotamian's, Elamites/Persians: had Black skin, they did not need the Head to Toe protection from the Sun, that the Thawb affords. It is not known who invented the Thawb, but it is known that even though the Turks once ruled from Baghdad, they hated to go there because of the hot climate and burning Sunshine. Being that the original Turks were a very pale skinned people who needed protection from the Sun, it is likely that they invented the Thawb.
Modern man of Turkic ethnicity in a Thawb
Even with all of the above proofs and logic, we know that there are those delusional "Many" who will still insist that those Turks and Turk Mulattoes are really Arabs. In answer to those delusional people, we offer these comments:
François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
"OUTLINES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY"
TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY MARY BRODRICK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK, 1892
"How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."
“The inhabitants of this part of Arabia nearly all belong to the race of Himyar. Their complexion is almost as black as the Abyssinians,”-- Baron von Maltzan, 'Geography of Southern Arabia' (1872)
“ [the Hamida are] small chocolate colored beings, stunted and thin… with mops of bushy hair… straggling beards , vicious eyes, frowning brows … armed with scabbards slung over the shoulder and Janbiyyah daggers…” a people “of the great Hejazi tribe that has kept his blood pure for the last 13 centuries…”-- Sir Richard Burton (1879)
“The people of Dhufar are of the Qahtan tribe, the sons of Joktan mentioned in Genesis: they are of Hamitic or African rather than Arab types…”--Arnold Wilson, The Geographical Journal (1927)
“the most prosperous tribe of all the Hamitic group, possessing innumerable camels, herds of cattle and the richest frankincense country. They resemble the Bisharin tribe of the Nubian desert. Men of big bone , they have long faces long narrow jaws, noses of a refined shape long curly hair and brown skin.”--Richmond Palmer (1929)
“Mahra is the Arab name for the Bedouin tribes who are different in appearance to other Arabs, having almost beardless faces, fuzzy hair and dark pigmentation – such as the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis… Also on “…the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis with parts of other tribes. The language is derived from the language of the Sabaeans, Minaeans and Himyarites. The Mahra with other Southern Arabian peoples seem aligned to the Hamitic race of north-east Africa… The Mahra are believed to be descended from the Habasha, who colonized Ethiopia in the first millennium BC”-- David Phillips, Peoples on the Move (2001)
“European observers have made much of their physical resemblance to Somalis and Ethiopians, but there is no historical evidence of any connections.”-- E. Peterson, 'Oman’s Diverse Society: Southern Oman'“Mr. Baldwin draws a marked distinction between the modern Mahomedan Semitic population of Arabia and their great Cushite, Hamite, or Ethiopian predecessors. The former, he says, ‘are comparatively modern in Arabia,’ they have ‘appropriated the reputation of the old race,’ and have unduly occupied the chief attention of modern scholars.”-- Charles Hardwick (1872)
“Among ‘these Negroid features which may be counted normal in Arabs are the full,rather everted lips, shortness and width of nose, certain blanks in the bearded areas of the face between the lower lip and chin and on the cheeks; large, luscious,gazelle-like eyes, a dark brown complexion, and a tendency for the hair to grow in ringlets. Often the features of the more Negroid Arabs are derivatives of Dravidian India rather than inheritances of Hamitic Africa. Although the Arab of today is sharply differentiated from the Negro of Africa, yet there must have been a time when both were represented by a single ancestral stock; in no other way can the prevalence of certain Negroid features be accounted for in the natives of Arabia.”-- Henry Field, Anthropology Memoirs Volume 4 (1902)
“In Arabia the first inhabitants were probably a dark-skinned, shortish population intermediate, between the African Hamites and the Dravidians of India and forming a single African Asiatic belt with these.”-- Handbook of the Territories which form the Theater of Operations of the Iraq Petroleum Company Limited and its Associated Companies
In scouring for these comments, one can't help but wonder: Who in the hell could possibly believe that Pale people could be native to a Hot land with burning Sunshine and a UV index guaranteed to fry all but the darkest people. It's delusional, just delusional!
Though by the White Mans edict, not a part of Africa. The people of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa have freely interchanged since man first walked the Earth. All of the people of the Desert regions from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf share a similar physical type, Black skin color (pale skinned people would not survive long in the Desert - Turkish Wives stayed in the tents), lifestyle and culture.
By the date that this panel was carved, the Arab tribes of northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Sinai were becoming increasingly important. They relied for long-distance travel and rapid movement on the one-humped camel or dromedary, which had been domesticated in Arabia. The Arabs first appear in Assyrian records in the ninth century B.C. Texts tell of tribes, often led by queens, living in the southern borders of the Assyrian Empire. Sometimes they guarded the borders, escorted armies in desert country, and controlled the caravan trade, especially the lucrative incense trade from Yemen.
Some tribes were also ready to take advantage of any sign of weakness in the central government. They then raided settled communities, supported rebellions, robbed caravans, and disrupted communications. The Assyrian kings launched several attacks against them without much success, since the Arabs conducted guerilla-style warfare, and were usually able to escape into the desert. Both the Assyrians and their successors, the Babylonian and Persian kings, tried to maintain peaceful relations with Arabia by threats and diplomacy. one Babylonian king, Nabonidus (555-539 B.C.) resided for several years at Teima, a centre of the incense trade in Saudi Arabia.
The Turks first started usurping the Arabs when the Seljuq Turk chief Toghril Beg proclaimed himself sultan at Neyshabur in 1038. Toghril entered Baghdad in December 1055, and the Arab caliph al-Qa'im (reigned 1031–75) enthroned him, and married a Seljuq princess.
The Turks took direct control of Arabia when Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39), ordered his viceroy/governor of Egypt, the Turkic Albanian Muhammad Ali, to send an expedition to Arabia: which between 1811 and 1813 expelled the Arab Wahhabis from the Hejaz. In a further campaign (1816-18), Ibrahim Pasha, the viceroy's eldest son, defeated the Wahhabis in their homeland of Najd, and brought central Arabia under Albanian control.
In 1820-21 Muhammad Ali sent an expedition up the Nile and conquered much of what is now the northern Sudan. By so doing, he made himself master of one of the principal channels of the slave trade, and began an African Empire that was to be expanded under his successors. The conquest of the Sudan was intended to provide recruits. But the slaves, encamped at Aswan, died wholesale, and Muhammad Ali had to look elsewhere for his troops. In 1823 he took to conscripting Egyptian peasants for the rank and file of his new army. On the other hand, the officers were mostly Turkish Ottomans, while the director of the whole enterprise, Sulayman Pasha (Colonel Sève), was a former French officer. The conscription was brutally administered. In 1882 the British once again invaded and occupied Egypt. This occupation was to last until the end of WWI. After which, Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.
As with the Berbers, Egyptians, etc. After the breakup of the Ottoman Empire after WWI, and the granting of independence to those countries after WWII, The Arabs saw their identity stolen by Whites (mainly Turks and their mulattoes) and other mixed race people. Thus Egypt is "The Arab Republic of Egypt" Syria is "The Syrian Arab Republic" Libya is "The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" Jordan is "The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic transliteration of Hāšimī) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim Arabs, or "clan of Hashim", a clan within the larger Arab Quraish tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Arabia, along the Red Sea. (One can only wonder how sparsely populated Arabia could have possibly produced all of those people - what nonsense)!
Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula
(This is a study of FEMALE Mt-dna)
Click here for a link to the study
The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source.
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup J-P209[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Its history since the Iron Age has been tied to the great events and migrations in this area and in particular to the Semitic people.
J-P209 is divided into two main subclades (branches) J-M267 and J-M172.
In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267[Phylogenetics 1] is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209,[Phylogenetics 2] along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172. Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in order near the Middle East. For example it is among the most frequent haplogroups in Arabian Peninsula, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and the Horn of Africa. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa Jewish groups especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, in Europe and as far east as the Central Asia.
(White people are Dravidian Albinos who migrated from India into Central Asia in search of cooler climates and less intense Sunshine). Jews (Khazars) are a Turkish tribe, quite distinct from Hebrews.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago (Sengupta 2006).
In modern Saudi Arabia, the original Arabs (the Black ones) have been relegated to the deserts and the tribal areas in the south at the Yemeni boarder. The preponderance of haplogroup "J" in the Saudi Arabian DNA, suggests that these areas were purposefully avoided or severely under-represented when doing the DNA survey. For it is extremely unlikely that these Qahtan and Wayla tribesmen from the Najran area, close to the border with Yemen, would be of haplogroup "J".
Sabaʾ, biblical Sheba, kingdom in pre-Islamic southwestern Arabia, frequently mentioned in the Bible (notably in the story of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) and variously cited by ancient Assyrian, Greek, and Roman writers from about the 8th century bc to about the 5th century ad. Its capital, at least in the middle period, was Maʾrib, which lies 75 miles (120 km) east of present-day Sanaa, in Yemen. A second major city was Ṣirwāḥ.
The Sabaeans were a Semitic people who, at an unknown date, entered southern Arabia from the north, imposing their Semitic culture on an aboriginal population. Excavations in central Yemen suggest that the Sabaean civilization began as early as the 10th–12th century bc. By the 7th–5th century bc, besides “kings of Sabaʾ ” there were individuals styling themselves “mukarribs of Sabaʾ,” who apparently either were high priest–princes or exercised some function parallel to the kingly function. This middle period was characterized above all by a tremendous outburst of building activity, principally at Maʾrib and Ṣirwāḥ, and most of the great temples and monuments, including the great Maʾrib Dam, on which Sabaean agricultural prosperity depended, date back to this period. Further, there was an ever-shifting pattern of alliances and wars between Sabaʾ and other peoples of southwestern Arabia—not only the important kingdoms of Qatabān and Ḥaḍramawt but also a number of lesser but still independent kingdoms and city-states.
Sabaʾ was rich in spices and agricultural products and carried on a wealth of trade by overland caravan and by sea. For centuries it controlled Bāb el-Mandeb, the straits leading into the Red Sea, and it established many colonies on the African shores. That Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was peopled from South Arabia is proved linguistically; but the difference between the Sabaean and Ethiopian languages is such as to imply that the settlement was very early and that there were many centuries of separation, during which the Abyssinians were exposed to foreign influences. New colonies, however, seem occasionally to have followed, and some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the 1st century bc.
Toward the end of the 3rd century ad, a powerful king named Shamir Yuharʿish (who seems incidentally to be the first really historical personage whose fame has survived in the Islamic traditions) assumed the title “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and of Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” By this time, therefore, the political independence of Ḥaḍramawt had succumbed to Sabaʾ, which had thus become the controlling power in all southwestern Arabia. In the mid-4th century ad, it underwent a temporary eclipse, for the title of “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān” was then claimed by the king of Aksum on the east African coast. At the end of the 4th century, southern Arabia was again independent under a “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” But within two centuries the Sabaeans would disappear as they were successively overrun by Persian adventurers and by the Muslim Arabs.
|The Arabs and Moors were very fond of Turkish women, they kept their Harems well stocked with them.
Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor, November 30, 2011
Newfound stone artifacts suggest humankind left Africa traveling through the Arabian Peninsula instead of hugging its coasts, as long thought, researchers say. Modern humans first arose about 200,000 years ago in Africa. When and how our lineage then dispersed has long proven controversial, but geneticists have suggested this exodus started between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The currently accepted theory is that the exodus from Africa traced Arabia's shores, rather than passing through its now-arid interior.
However, stone artifacts at least 100,000 years old from the Arabian Desert, revealed in January 2011, hinted that modern humans might have begun our march across the globe earlier than once suspected. Now, more-than-100 newly discovered sites in the Sultanate of Oman apparently confirm that modern humans left Africa through Arabia long before genetic evidence suggests. Oddly, these sites are located far inland, away from the coasts."After a decade of searching in southern Arabia for some clue that might help us understand early human expansion, at long last we've found the smoking gun of their exit from Africa," said lead researcher Jeffrey Rose, a paleolithic archaeologist at the University of Birmingham in England. "What makes this so exciting is that the answer is a scenario almost never considered."
The international team of archaeologists and geologists made their discovery in the Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, nestled in the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. "The coastal expansion hypothesis looks reasonable on paper, but there is simply no archaeological evidence to back it up," said researcher Anthony Marks of Southern Methodist University, referring to the fact that an exodus by the coast, where one has access to resources such as seafood, might make more sense than tramping across the desert.
On the last day of the research team's 2010 field season, the scientists went to the final place on their list, a site on a hot, windy, dry plateau near a river channel that was strewn with stone artifacts. Such artifacts are common in Arabia, but until now the ones seen were usually relatively young in age. Upon closer examination, Rose recalled asking, "Oh my God, these are Nubians — what the heck are these doing here?" The 100-to-200 artifacts they found there were of a style dubbed Nubian Middle Stone Age, well-known throughout the Nile Valley, where they date back about 74,000-to-128,000 years. Scientists think ancient craftsmen would have shaped the artifacts by striking flakes off flint, leading to distinctive triangular pieces. This is the first time such artifacts have been found outside of Africa. Subsequent field work turned up dozens of sites with similar artifacts. Using a technique known as optically stimulated luminescence dating, which measures the minute amount of light long-buried objects can emit, to see how long they have been interred, the researchers estimate the artifacts are about 106,000 years old, exactly what one might expect from Nubian Middle Stone Age artifacts and far earlier than conventional dates for the exodus from Africa.
Finding so much evidence of life in what is now a relatively barren desert supports the importance of field work, according to the researchers. "Here we have an example of the disconnect between theoretical models versus real evidence on the ground," Marks said. However, when these artifacts were made, instead of being desolate, Arabia was very wet, with copious rain falling across the peninsula, transforming its barren deserts to fertile, sprawling grasslands with lots of animals to hunt, the researchers explained. "For a while, South Arabia became a verdant paradise rich in resources — large game, plentiful fresh water, and high-quality flint with which to make stone tools," Rose said.
Instead of hugging the coast, early modern humans might therefore have spread from Africa into Arabia along river networks that would've acted like today's highways, researchers suggested. There would have been plenty of large game present, such as gazelles, antelopes and ibexes, which would have been appealing to early modern humans used to hunting on the savannas of Africa.