"Real Africans and the like"
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER
Note: Turki is a common "nickname" or even a Proper name in Saudi Arabia.
1: one of the Turkic peoples
2: any Central Asian Turkic languages particularly of the eastern group.
The reason why Turks have Arab names, is because as they converted to Islam, they took on Arab names. Thus the Turk Alp-Arslan assumed the name of "Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri" when he embraced Islam. The Turks of Saudi Arabia will often take the name or nickname "Turki" in deference to their origins. Indigenous Black Arabs do not follow this Turkish tradition.
Note: Just as modern Christian culture is far removed from ancient Hebrew culture - it is now European culture. So too is modern Arab culture far removed from original Arab culture - it is now Turkish culture. During the time of the Turkish Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1922), Islam was not known as the Arab religion, it was known as the Turkish religion.
The Thawb (Arab Robes) Emblematic of Arab culture, is not Arab at all. The original Arabs, like the Egyptians, Berbers, Mesopotamian's, Elamites/Persians: had Black skin, they did not need the Head to Toe protection from the Sun that the Thawb affords. It is not known who invented the Thawb, but it is known that even though the Turks once ruled from Baghdad, they hated to go there because of the hot climate and burning Sunshine. Being that the original Turks were a very pale skinned Albino people who needed protection from the Sun, it is likely that they invented the Thawb.
Modern man of Turkic ethnicity in a Thawb
Even with all of the above proofs and logic, we know that there are those delusional "Many" who will still insist that those Turks and Turk Mulattoes are really Arabs. In answer to those delusional people, we offer these comments:
François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
"OUTLINES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY"
TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY MARY BRODRICK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK, 1892
"How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."
“The inhabitants of this part of Arabia nearly all belong to the race of Himyar. Their complexion is almost as black as the Abyssinians,”-- Baron von Maltzan, 'Geography of Southern Arabia' (1872)
“ [the Hamida are] small chocolate colored beings, stunted and thin… with mops of bushy hair… straggling beards , vicious eyes, frowning brows … armed with scabbards slung over the shoulder and Janbiyyah daggers…” a people “of the great Hejazi tribe that has kept his blood pure for the last 13 centuries…”-- Sir Richard Burton (1879)
“The people of Dhufar are of the Qahtan tribe, the sons of Joktan mentioned in Genesis: they are of Hamitic or African rather than Arab types…”--Arnold Wilson, The Geographical Journal (1927)
“the most prosperous tribe of all the Hamitic group, possessing innumerable camels, herds of cattle and the richest frankincense country. They resemble the Bisharin tribe of the Nubian desert. Men of big bone , they have long faces long narrow jaws, noses of a refined shape long curly hair and brown skin.”--Richmond Palmer (1929)
“Mahra is the Arab name for the Bedouin tribes who are different in appearance to other Arabs, having almost beardless faces, fuzzy hair and dark pigmentation – such as the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis… Also on “…the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis with parts of other tribes. The language is derived from the language of the Sabaeans, Minaeans and Himyarites. The Mahra with other Southern Arabian peoples seem aligned to the Hamitic race of north-east Africa… The Mahra are believed to be descended from the Habasha, who colonized Ethiopia in the first millennium BC”-- David Phillips, Peoples on the Move (2001)
“European observers have made much of their physical resemblance to Somalis and Ethiopians, but there is no historical evidence of any connections.”-- E. Peterson, 'Oman’s Diverse Society: Southern Oman'“Mr. Baldwin draws a marked distinction between the modern Mahomedan Semitic population of Arabia and their great Cushite, Hamite, or Ethiopian predecessors. The former, he says, ‘are comparatively modern in Arabia,’ they have ‘appropriated the reputation of the old race,’ and have unduly occupied the chief attention of modern scholars.”-- Charles Hardwick (1872)
“Among ‘these Negroid features which may be counted normal in Arabs are the full,rather everted lips, shortness and width of nose, certain blanks in the bearded areas of the face between the lower lip and chin and on the cheeks; large, luscious,gazelle-like eyes, a dark brown complexion, and a tendency for the hair to grow in ringlets. Often the features of the more Negroid Arabs are derivatives of Dravidian India rather than inheritances of Hamitic Africa. Although the Arab of today is sharply differentiated from the Negro of Africa, yet there must have been a time when both were represented by a single ancestral stock; in no other way can the prevalence of certain Negroid features be accounted for in the natives of Arabia.”-- Henry Field, Anthropology Memoirs Volume 4 (1902)
“In Arabia the first inhabitants were probably a dark-skinned, shortish population intermediate, between the African Hamites and the Dravidians of India and forming a single African Asiatic belt with these.”-- Handbook of the Territories which form the Theater of Operations of the Iraq Petroleum Company Limited and its Associated Companies
In scouring for these comments, one can't help but wonder: Who in the hell could possibly believe that Pale people could be native to a Hot land with burning Sunshine and a UV index guaranteed to fry all but the darkest people. It's delusional, just delusional!
Though by the Albino Mans edict, not a part of Africa. The people of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa have freely interchanged since man first walked the Earth. All of the people of the Desert regions from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf share a similar physical type, Black skin color, lifestyle and culture: pale skinned people would not survive long in the Desert.
By the date that this panel was carved, the Arab tribes of northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Sinai were becoming increasingly important. They relied for long-distance travel and rapid movement on the one-humped camel or dromedary, which had been domesticated in Arabia. The Arabs first appear in Assyrian records in the ninth century B.C. Texts tell of tribes, often led by queens, living in the southern borders of the Assyrian Empire. Sometimes they guarded the borders, escorted armies in desert country, and controlled the caravan trade, especially the lucrative incense trade from Yemen.
Some tribes were also ready to take advantage of any sign of weakness in the central government. They then raided settled communities, supported rebellions, robbed caravans, and disrupted communications. The Assyrian kings launched several attacks against them without much success, since the Arabs conducted guerilla-style warfare, and were usually able to escape into the desert. Both the Assyrians and their successors, the Babylonian and Persian kings, tried to maintain peaceful relations with Arabia by threats and diplomacy. one Babylonian king, Nabonidus (555-539 B.C.) resided for several years at Teima, a centre of the incense trade in Saudi Arabia.
The Turks first started usurping the Arabs when the Seljuq Turk chief Toghril Beg proclaimed himself sultan at Neyshabur in 1038. Toghril entered Baghdad in December 1055, and the Arab caliph al-Qa'im (reigned 1031–75) enthroned him, and married a Seljuq princess.
The Turks took direct control of Arabia when Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39), ordered his viceroy/governor of Egypt, the Turkic Albanian Muhammad Ali, to send an expedition to Arabia: which between 1811 and 1813 expelled the Arab Wahhabis from the Hejaz. In a further campaign (1816-18), Ibrahim Pasha, the viceroy's eldest son, defeated the Wahhabis in their homeland of Najd, and brought central Arabia under Albanian control.
In 1820-21 Muhammad Ali sent an expedition up the Nile and conquered much of what is now the northern Sudan. By so doing, he made himself master of one of the principal channels of the slave trade, and began an African Empire that was to be expanded under his successors. The conquest of the Sudan was intended to provide recruits. But the slaves, encamped at Aswan, died wholesale, and Muhammad Ali had to look elsewhere for his troops. In 1823 he took to conscripting Egyptian peasants for the rank and file of his new army. On the other hand, the officers were mostly Turkish Ottomans, while the director of the whole enterprise, Sulayman Pasha (Colonel Sève), was a former French officer. The conscription was brutally administered. In 1882 the British once again invaded and occupied Egypt. This occupation was to last until the end of WWI. After which, Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.
As with the Berbers, Egyptians, etc. After the breakup of the Ottoman Empire after WWI, and the granting of independence to those countries after WWII, The Arabs saw their identity stolen by Whites (mainly Turks and their mulattoes) and other mixed race people.
Thus Egypt is "The Arab Republic of Egypt" Syria is "The Syrian Arab Republic" Libya is "The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" Jordan is "The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic transliteration of Hāšimī) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim Arabs, or "clan of Hashim", a clan within the larger Arab Quraish tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Arabia, along the Red Sea. (One can only wonder how sparsely populated Arabia could have possibly produced all of those people - what nonsense)!
Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula
(This is a study of FEMALE Mt-dna)
Click here for a link to the study
The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. (That's just a mealy mouthed way of saying that 60% of the people in Arabia calling themselves Arabs, are actually from somewhere else, (They are Central Asia Albinos).
Genetic data and such things are fine, however it would be a dereliction not to make note that the major confusion of who are actual Arabs, is as usual, not an accident, but rather, another way the Albino people falsify and obfuscate history for the purpose of writing Blacks out of history. Take the work of Bertram Thomas - his book "Arabia Felix - Across The Empty Quarter of Arabia" was published in 1932. What is incredible about Thomas's book is that he supposedly transversed a large swath of Arabia taking pictures, and somehow managed to photograph NOT ONE SINGLE BLACK ARAB! Only Mulatto Arabs were photographed. Examples follow:
In October 1959 Wilfred Thesiger did the same thing: He wrote the book "Thesiger's Journeys in Arabia - First Empty Quarter Crossing 1946-7" and like Bertram Thomas, Wilfred Thesiger somehow managed to photograph NOT ONE SINGLE BLACK ARAB! Only Mulatto Arabs were photographed. Examples follow:
The Rashaida, (Rashaayda or Bani Rashid "Refugees") are a tribe populating Eritrea and northeast Sudan. In 1846, many Rashaida migrated from the Hejaz in present day Saudi Arabia into what is now Eritrea and northeast Sudan, after tribal warfare had broken out in their homeland. The Rashaida of Sudan and Eritrea live in close proximity with the Beja people. Large numbers of Bani Rasheed are also found on the Arabian Peninsula. The Bani Rashid are related to the Banu Abs tribe.
The Rashaida keep their traditional dress, culture, customs, camel breeds and practice of Sunni Islam. The racing camel breeds of the Rashaida tribe are prized all over Sudan and the Arabian Peninsula and fetch very high prices. The Rashaida speak Hejazi Arabic.
Bani Rasheed people (Rashaida) - Camel herders at the Riyadh Camel market.
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup J-P209[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Its history since the Iron Age has been tied to the great events and migrations in this area and in particular to the Semitic people.
J-P209 is divided into two main subclades (branches) J-M267 and J-M172.
In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267[Phylogenetics 1] is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209,[Phylogenetics 2] along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172. Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in order near the Middle East. For example it is among the most frequent haplogroups in Arabian Peninsula, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and the Horn of Africa. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa Jewish groups especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, in Europe and as far east as the Central Asia.
(White people are Dravidian Albinos who migrated from India into Central Asia in search of cooler climates and less intense Sunshine). Jews (Khazars) are a Turkish tribe, quite distinct from Hebrews.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago (Sengupta 2006).
In modern Saudi Arabia, the original Arabs (the Black ones) have been relegated to the deserts and the tribal areas in the south at the Yemeni boarder. The preponderance of haplogroup "J" in the Saudi Arabian DNA, suggests that these areas were purposefully avoided or severely under-represented when doing the DNA survey. For it is extremely unlikely that these Qahtan and Wayla tribesmen from the Najran area, close to the border with Yemen, would be of haplogroup "J".
Sabaʾ, biblical Sheba, kingdom in pre-Islamic southwestern Arabia, frequently mentioned in the Bible (notably in the story of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) and variously cited by ancient Assyrian, Greek, and Roman writers from about the 8th century bc to about the 5th century ad. Its capital, at least in the middle period, was Maʾrib, which lies 75 miles (120 km) east of present-day Sanaa, in Yemen. A second major city was Ṣirwāḥ.
The Sabaeans were a Semitic people who, at an unknown date, entered southern Arabia from the north, imposing their Semitic culture on an aboriginal population. Excavations in central Yemen suggest that the Sabaean civilization began as early as the 10th–12th century bc. By the 7th–5th century bc, besides “kings of Sabaʾ ” there were individuals styling themselves “mukarribs of Sabaʾ,” who apparently either were high priest–princes or exercised some function parallel to the kingly function. This middle period was characterized above all by a tremendous outburst of building activity, principally at Maʾrib and Ṣirwāḥ, and most of the great temples and monuments, including the great Maʾrib Dam, on which Sabaean agricultural prosperity depended, date back to this period. Further, there was an ever-shifting pattern of alliances and wars between Sabaʾ and other peoples of southwestern Arabia—not only the important kingdoms of Qatabān and Ḥaḍramawt but also a number of lesser but still independent kingdoms and city-states.
Sabaʾ was rich in spices and agricultural products and carried on a wealth of trade by overland caravan and by sea. For centuries it controlled Bāb el-Mandeb, the straits leading into the Red Sea, and it established many colonies on the African shores. That Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was peopled from South Arabia is proved linguistically; but the difference between the Sabaean and Ethiopian languages is such as to imply that the settlement was very early and that there were many centuries of separation, during which the Abyssinians were exposed to foreign influences. New colonies, however, seem occasionally to have followed, and some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the 1st century bc.
Toward the end of the 3rd century ad, a powerful king named Shamir Yuharʿish (who seems incidentally to be the first really historical personage whose fame has survived in the Islamic traditions) assumed the title “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and of Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” By this time, therefore, the political independence of Ḥaḍramawt had succumbed to Sabaʾ, which had thus become the controlling power in all southwestern Arabia. In the mid-4th century ad, it underwent a temporary eclipse, for the title of “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān” was then claimed by the king of Aksum on the east African coast. At the end of the 4th century, southern Arabia was again independent under a “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” But within two centuries the Sabaeans would disappear as they were successively overrun by Persian adventurers and by the Muslim Arabs.
|The Arabs and Moors were very fond of Turkish women, they kept their Harems well stocked with them.
(The Qajar dynasty is a Persianized Iranian royal family of Turkic origin, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794 after deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty rulers - who were also foreigners).
Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor, November 30, 2011
Newfound stone artifacts suggest humankind left Africa traveling through the Arabian Peninsula instead of hugging its coasts, as long thought, researchers say. Modern humans first arose about 200,000 years ago in Africa. When and how our lineage then dispersed has long proven controversial, but geneticists have suggested this exodus started between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The currently accepted theory is that the exodus from Africa traced Arabia's shores, rather than passing through its now-arid interior.
However, stone artifacts at least 100,000 years old from the Arabian Desert, revealed in January 2011, hinted that modern humans might have begun our march across the globe earlier than once suspected. Now, more-than-100 newly discovered sites in the Sultanate of Oman apparently confirm that modern humans left Africa through Arabia long before genetic evidence suggests. Oddly, these sites are located far inland, away from the coasts."After a decade of searching in southern Arabia for some clue that might help us understand early human expansion, at long last we've found the smoking gun of their exit from Africa," said lead researcher Jeffrey Rose, a paleolithic archaeologist at the University of Birmingham in England. "What makes this so exciting is that the answer is a scenario almost never considered."
The international team of archaeologists and geologists made their discovery in the Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, nestled in the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. "The coastal expansion hypothesis looks reasonable on paper, but there is simply no archaeological evidence to back it up," said researcher Anthony Marks of Southern Methodist University, referring to the fact that an exodus by the coast, where one has access to resources such as seafood, might make more sense than tramping across the desert.
On the last day of the research team's 2010 field season, the scientists went to the final place on their list, a site on a hot, windy, dry plateau near a river channel that was strewn with stone artifacts. Such artifacts are common in Arabia, but until now the ones seen were usually relatively young in age. Upon closer examination, Rose recalled asking, "Oh my God, these are Nubians — what the heck are these doing here?" The 100-to-200 artifacts they found there were of a style dubbed Nubian Middle Stone Age, well-known throughout the Nile Valley, where they date back about 74,000-to-128,000 years. Scientists think ancient craftsmen would have shaped the artifacts by striking flakes off flint, leading to distinctive triangular pieces. This is the first time such artifacts have been found outside of Africa. Subsequent field work turned up dozens of sites with similar artifacts. Using a technique known as optically stimulated luminescence dating, which measures the minute amount of light long-buried objects can emit, to see how long they have been interred, the researchers estimate the artifacts are about 106,000 years old, exactly what one might expect from Nubian Middle Stone Age artifacts and far earlier than conventional dates for the exodus from Africa.
Finding so much evidence of life in what is now a relatively barren desert supports the importance of field work, according to the researchers. "Here we have an example of the disconnect between theoretical models versus real evidence on the ground," Marks said. However, when these artifacts were made, instead of being desolate, Arabia was very wet, with copious rain falling across the peninsula, transforming its barren deserts to fertile, sprawling grasslands with lots of animals to hunt, the researchers explained. "For a while, South Arabia became a verdant paradise rich in resources — large game, plentiful fresh water, and high-quality flint with which to make stone tools," Rose said.
Instead of hugging the coast, early modern humans might therefore have spread from Africa into Arabia along river networks that would've acted like today's highways, researchers suggested. There would have been plenty of large game present, such as gazelles, antelopes and ibexes, which would have been appealing to early modern humans used to hunting on the savannas of Africa.
Yemen, officially known as the Republic of Yemen, it is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying South Arabia, the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east and northeast. Although Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been under rebel control since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra.
Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans (biblical Sheba), a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and probably also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.
Yemen is a developing country, and the poorest country in the Middle East. Under the rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemen was described as a kleptocracy. According to the 2009 international corruption Perception Index by Transparency International, Yemen ranked 164 out of 182 countries surveyed.
Kleptocracy, alternatively cleptocracy or kleptarchy: ("rule by thieves") is a term applied to a government seen as having a particularly severe and systemic problem with officials or a ruling class (collectively, kleptocrats) taking advantage of corruption to extend their personal wealth and political power. Typically this system involves the embezzlement of state funds at the expense of the wider population, sometimes without even the pretense of honest service.
Yemen's population is 24 million by 2014 estimates. Yemeni ethnic groups are predominantly Arab, followed by Afro-Arabs, South Asians and Europeans. When the former states of North and South Yemen were established, most resident minority groups departed. Yemen is a largely tribal society. In the northern, mountainous parts of the country, there are 400 Zaidi tribes. There are also hereditary caste groups in urban areas such as Al-Akhdam. There are also Yemenis of Persian origin. Note; the Zaidi Houthis, now at war for control of Yemen, are said to have occupied Northern Yemen since about 869 A.D.
The degeneracy of Albinos and their mulattoes is apparent in the above demographic. A true Arab looks exactly like an African, how could they tell the difference? Because Albino media prefers to not show indigenous Blacks in what they want known as "Arab lands" (really invader lands), we will show them.
Religion in Yemen consists primarily of two principal Islamic religious groups: 60%–65% of the Muslim population is Sunni and 35%–40% is Shia, according to the International Religious Freedom Report. Sunnis are primarily Shafi'i but also include significant groups of Malikis and Hanbalis. Shias are primarily Zaidi and also have significant minorities of Twelver and Ismaili Shias. The Sunnis are predominantly in the south and southeast. The Zaidis are predominantly in the north and northwest whilst the Ismailis are in the main centers such as Sana'a and Ma'rib.
Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the nation is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the south and southwest, and shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan. From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire, vying with Portugal and Britain for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran and Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar (today part of Tanzania, also former capital). As its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom. Historically, Muscat was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was also among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean.
Oman is an absolute monarchy. The Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said has been the hereditary leader of the country since 1970. Sultan Qaboos is the longest-serving current ruler in the Middle East, and seventh-longest current-reigning monarch in the world. Oman has modest oil reserves, ranking 25th globally. Nevertheless, in 2010 the UNDP ranked Oman as the most improved nation in the world in terms of development during the preceding 40 years. A significant portion of its economy is tourism and trade of fish, dates, and certain agricultural produce. This sets it apart from its neighbors' solely oil-dependent economy. Oman is categorized as a high-income economy and ranks as the 74th most peaceful country in the world according to the Global Peace Index.
Oman's official religion is Islam. Omani people are predominantly Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), and African ethnic groups. Omani society is largely tribal and encompasses three major identities: that of the tribe, the Ibadi faith, and maritime trade. The first two identities are closely tied to tradition and are especially prevalent in the interior of the country, owing to lengthy periods of isolation. The third identity pertains mostly to Muscat and the coastal areas of Oman, and is reflected by business, trade, and the diverse origins of many Omanis, who trace their roots to Baloch, Al-Lawatia, Persia, and historical Omani Zanzibar. Consequently, the third identity is generally seen to be more open and tolerant towards others, and is often in tension with the more traditional and insular identities of the interior.
The Ibādī movement, Ibadism or Ibādiyya, also known as the Ibadis: is a school of Islam dominant in Oman. It is also found in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and East Africa. The movement is said to have been founded 20 years after the death of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, thus predating both the Sunni and Shia denominations. It would seem that "Real" Arabs follow an older type of Islam than the converted others.
Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, Southeast Africa, the Horn of Africa and certain parts of Europe. The trade was conducted through slave markets in the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, with the slaves captured mostly from Africa's interior. The trade of slaves across the Sahara and across the Indian Ocean also has a long history, beginning with the control of sea routes by Arab and Swahili traders on the Swahili Coast during the ninth century (see Sultanate of Zanzibar).
The captives were sold throughout the Middle East. This trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labor on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year. The Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. To meet the demand for menial labor, Bantu slaves bought by Arab slave traders from southeastern Africa were sold in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries to customers in Egypt, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, European colonies in the Far East, the Indian Ocean islands, Ethiopia and Somalia. Slave labor in East Africa was drawn from the Zanj, Bantu peoples that lived along the East African coast
In answer to this stupidity: Egypt, Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, etc: Teem with Black people who for thousands of years worked their own fields, and in the case of Egypt, was the Breadbasket of the ancient world, why would they need Slaves to do what they had been doing for thousands of years?
A flair for history is a prerequisite to understanding the Muslim world and its people. Their yesterdays are closely bound up with the here and now. A good grasp of geography will be helpful as well. Slavery in Early Islamic History: It was intriguing to note in Bernard Lewis' book, The Arabs in History, that paper was made first in China in the year 105 B.C. In A.D. 751, the Arabs defeated a Chinese contingent east of the 'Jaxartes'. (Jaxartes is a river that lies on the border between China and present-day Afghanistan. Persian King Cyrus was killed fighting near this river, about 500 B.C.) The Arabs found some Chinese paper makers among their prisoners. Many such skills were brought into the Islamic world in this way. The use of paper spread rapidly across the Islamic world, reaching Egypt by A.D. 800 and Spain by the year 900. From the tenth century onwards, evidence is clear of paper-making occurring in countries of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as in the European country of Spain.
The Arabs profited from the craft of the paper makers they had captured as slaves. From archaeologists and records kept in ancient times, we learn that slave trade existed for a long time in the Arab world. Back in the days of the caliphs [early Muslim leaders], having a slave for a mother was not a stigma for a Muslim man. Due to polygamy, this was quite common. At first the caliphs maintained a kind of aristocracy among themselves, making it imperative that the mother of a caliph was from one of the Arab tribes. However, as more and more slaves adopted the religion of Islam, noble birth and tribal prestige lost their value. By the year 817, the Abbasid Caliphs and succeeding Muslim rulers often were the sons of slave women, many of whom were foreign. Such parentage ceased to be either an obstacle or a stigma.
Growth of the Slave Trade
Quite possibly, the maintenance of slavery and the social acceptance of slaves were important drawing cards for Islam as it penetrated Africa. Without a knowledge of history many Africans may be unaware of the fact that Islamic traders carried on a steady slave trade from East African ports for many centuries. Records are available which contain the lists of goods involved in trade with the rest of the world. Muslim merchants traveled to India, Ceylon, the East Indies, and China, over sea and land, bringing back silks, spices, aromatics, woods, tin, and many other items. Records mention 'slave girls' from the Byzantine Empire along with gold and silver, marble workers, and eunuchs. Surprisingly, Muslim traders went as far away as Scandinavia, and especially Sweden, where scores of Muslim coins have been found with inscriptions from the seventh and eleventh centuries. On the long lists of goods which Muslim traders imported from Scandinavia, are found 'Slavonic slaves, sheep, and cattle' (cited by Lewis in The Arabs in History). An early ninth century geographer, Ibn Kurradadhbeh, describes Jewish merchants from the south of France 'who speak Arabic, Persian, Greek, Frankish, Spanish, and Slavonic. They travel from west to east and east to west, by land and sea. From the west they bring eunuchs, slave girls and boys, brocade, beaver skins, sable and other furs, and swords'.
Though some slaves attained an honored class, doing either domestic work or military service, they were exceptions. 'Generally, slaves were employed for manual labor on a number of large scale enterprises, in mines, in the fleets, in the drainage of marshes, etc.. They were herded together in settlements, often thousands belonging to a single landowner. Slaves of this kind were mainly black, obtained more especially from East Africa by capture, purchase, or in the form of tribute from vassal states. Such were the slaves in the salt flats east of Basra, where unprecedented numbers were employed by the wealthy men of that city in draining the salt marshes in order to prepare the ground for agriculture and to extract the salt for sale. They worked in gangs from five hundred to five thousand. Their conditions were extremely bad. Their labor was hard and exacting, and they received only a bare and inadequate keep consisting, according to the Arabic sources, of flour, semolina and dates. Many knew little or no Arabic. Eventually a leader arose among them and led a great uprising which aimed, not at ending slavery, but at securing better living conditions.
A Recent Study
Another book by Bernard Lewis entitled Race and Slavery in the Middle East a Historical Enquiry, published in 1990 by Oxford University Press, features color plate illustrations dating back to 1237 and the 1500's with 80 pages of notes to back up its contents. These intriguing paintings were discovered in famous libraries in London, Paris, and Istanbul. They depict the variety of slaves and their livelihoods.
In his book, Lewis describes how the Muslim world reacted when cries for abolition of slavery resounded around the world in the 19th century 'The revulsion against slavery, which gave rise to a strong abolitionist movement in England, and later in other Western countries, began to affect the Islamic lands. What was involved was not, initially, the abolition of the institution of slavery but its alleviation, and in particular, the restriction and ultimately the elimination of the slave trade. Islamic law, in contrast to the ancient and colonial systems, accords the slave a certain legal status and assigns obligations as well as rights to the slave owner. The manumission of slaves, though recommended as a meritorious act, is not required, and the institution of slavery not only is recognized but is elaborately regulated by Sharia law. Perhaps for this very reason the position of the domestic slave in Muslim society was in most respects better than in either classical antiquity or the nineteenth-century Americas. While, however, the life of the slave in Muslim society was no worse, and in some ways was better, than that of the free poor, the processes of acquisition and transportation often imposed appalling hardships. It was these which drew the main attention of European opponents of slavery, and it was to the elimination of this traffic, particularly in Africa, that their main efforts were directed. The abolition of slavery itself would hardly have been possible. From a Muslim point of view, to forbid what God permits is almost as great an offense as to permit what God forbids - and slavery was authorized and regulated by the holy law. More specifically, it formed part of the law of personal status, the central core of social usage, which remained intact and effective even when other sections of the holy law, dealing with civil, criminal, and similar matters, were tactically or even openly modified and replaced by modern codes. It was from conservative religious quarters and notably from the holy cities of Mecca and Medina that the strongest resistance to the proposed reform came. The emergence of the holy men and the holy places as the last ditch defenders of slavery against reform is only an apparent paradox. They were upholding an institution sanctified by scripture, law, and tradition and one which in their eyes was necessary to the maintenance of the social structure of Muslim life'.
Further on, Lewis mentions how the overwhelming majority of white slaves came from the Caucasian lands. This was in the days of the Ottoman empire and it was not until 1854 that orders against the traffic in white slaves from Georgia and Circassia were issued and put into effect. Arabia was another major center for the slave trade. The flow of slaves from Africa into Arabia and through the Gulf into Iran continued for a long time. The extension of British, French, and Italian control around the Horn of Africa (the area of Somalia and Kenya today) deprived the slave traders of their main ports of embarkation. As far as Islam was concerned, the horrors of the abduction and transportation of slaves were the worst part. But once the slaves were settled in Islamic culture they had genuine opportunities to realize their potential. Many of them became merchants in Mecca, Jedda, and elsewhere.
A puzzling question comes to mind, however. If this is so, why does the Arab world have no corresponding Black population as is found in the New World? Lewis provides an answer, 'One reason is obviously the high population of eunuchs among Black males entering the Islamic lands. Another is the high death rate and low birth rate among Black slaves in North Africa and the Middle East. In about 1810, Louis Frank observed in Tunisia that most Black children died in infancy and that infinitesimally few reached the age of manhood. A British observer in Egypt, some thirty years later, found conditions even worse. He said, 'I have heard it estimated that five or six years are sufficient to carry off a generation of slaves, at the end of which time the whole has to be replenished'.
The Abolition of Slavery
The institution of slavery regrettably existed both in the old, classical Christian and Islamic civilizations. Yet it is to the credit of Christianity that the abolition movement took root in Great Britain, Western Europe, and the United States and brought an end to this buying and selling of human beings. The way in which slavery was practiced in Islamic countries had both bright and dark sides. What is regrettable now is that this practice among Muslims is seldom openly discussed - as if slavery was exclusively a Western phenomenon. This deliberate silence enables Islamic propagandists in America to represent Muslims as liberators of the people of African origin, contrary to historical fact. Shirley Madany has assisted her husband for many years with the Arabic Broadcast of The Back to the Bible Hour.
Shirley Madany was no doubt a sincere woman, but her ignorance of true history, lack of first hand knowledge, and failure to understand the duplicity of the degenerates who Albinos pass-off as historians, left her attempt at telling history, a waste of her time.
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The Mamluks was the knightly military caste in Egypt in the Middle Ages that rose from the ranks of slave soldiers who were mainly Turkic peoples, Circassians, Abkhazians, Georgians, and Copts. Many Mamluks could also be of Balkan origin (Albanians, Greeks, and South Slavs). The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior class, was of great political importance and was extraordinarily long-lived, lasting from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries.
Over time, mamluks became a powerful military knightly caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Mesopotamia, and India, mamluks held political and military power. In some cases, they attained the rank of sultan, while in others they held regional power as emirs or beys. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate for themselves centered on Egypt and Syria as the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). The Mamluk Sultanate famously defeated the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut; they had earlier fought the Crusaders in 1154-1169 and 1213-1221, effectively driving them out of Egypt and the Levant. In 1302 they formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades.
While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords" and "true warriors" with social status above the general population in Egypt and the Levant.
The Janissaries were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and bodyguards. Sultan Murad I created the force in 1383. They began as an elite corps of slaves made up of conscripted young Christian boys, and became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. By 1620, they were hereditary, corrupt, and an impediment to reform. The corps was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident in which 6,000 or more were executed.
It is believed that one-tenth of the Middle East is made up of Bedouins. Bedouins led a nomadic lifestyle, travelling from one place to the next as the weather dictates. They tend to camels, sheep, goats, and cattle. Today, Bedouins face tremendous challenges. Their traditional tribal culture is often mixed with modern practices. While the men adjust well to these changes, women tend to remain within the bounds of tradition. This has become a great impediment to advancement. According to Joshua Project, “Unemployment… is very high, and few obtain a high school degree (4%), and even fewer graduate from college (0.6%).” Compounding to their economic struggles is the fact that the Bedouins remain an unreached people group. The Prophet Mohammed was born and raised in a Bedouin tribe; and the first converts to Islam came from the Bedouins. It is safe to say that Islam forms the very fabric of Bedouin culture.
February, 15th 2013 in Updates - Copyright © 2017 • Pray4Saudi
From the outside looking in, Saudi Arabia appears to be a modern nation, abounding in technological progress and amassed wealth. However, the culture as a whole continues to embrace a pre-modern mindset of tribalism with deep allegiances to keeping blood lines pure to reinforce power and wealth within the family or clan. This is most pronounced among the more powerful clans, namely the Royal Family. King Abdullah is from the clan of Al Sa’ud, who are descendants of the Anizah (or Anazah) Tribe — one of the largest and most ancient tribes in the northern region. Even today there are many marriage alliances among the Anazah to preserve political ties and economic wealth within the House of Sa’ud.
Anazzah (Anizah, `Aniza) is an Arab tribe in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.
Anazzah's existence as an autonomous tribal group, like many prominent modern tribes, predates the rise of Islam in the 7th century CE. The classical Arab genealogists placed `Anizzah within the large Rabi`ah branch of Adnanite (North Arabian) tribes, alongside the tribes of Abdul Qays, Bakr ibn Wa'il, Bani Hanifa, and Taghlib. In the genealogical scheme, `Anazzah's eponymous ancestor is a great uncle of all of these.
Two main branches of `Anazzah are recorded by the early Muslim scholars. One branch was nomadic, living in the northern Arabian steppes bordering Syria and Mesopotamia. The other, known as Bani Hizzan, was sedentary, living within the wadis of the district of Al-Yamama in eastern Nejd, just south of their purported cousins, the Bani Hanifa of the Bakr ibn Wa'il, who inhabited modern-day Riyadh. Families tracing their origin to `Annizah through Hizzan still exist in that area today. The other tribes of Rabi'ah were far more prominent in the events of late pre-Islamic Arabia and the early Islamic era (see Banu Hanifa, Taghlib, and Bakr). According to historians such as Al-Tabari (10th century CE), `Anazzah joined with Bakr ibn Wa'il under an alliance they called "al-Lahazim". Many of these tribes were followers of the christian faith prior to Islam. Others such as bani Taghlib remained largely Christian even after the Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia and the Levant
The modern tribe of `Annazah became prominent in the Ottoman era, as masters of the oasis towns of northwestern Arabia, particularly Khaybar and Al-Ula. Although not farmers themselves, the `Annizah levied crops from the inhabitants, and only spent the winter months in the area, while migrating northwards into southern Syria in the summer months, where they collected tribute from the inhabitants of the Hawran region. The tribute was known as khuwwa ("brotherhood"), and in exchange, the tribesmen pledged to protect the farmers from other tribes. Other clans of the tribe spread across the northern Arabian steppes as far north and east as the Euphrates. According to Encyclopedia of Islam, "it is not known whence they came", while many such as the Western travelers Philby and Anne Blunt simply assumed they had recently migrated from Nejd, having been pushed northwards into Syria by other tribes. However, the tribe does not appear in the historical or genealogical records of Nejd, and members of the tribe posit a migration from Syria and Iraq southwards to Nejd, which comports with the original lands of the Bakr ibn Wa'il. In particular, it is believed they originated from the area of Ayn Tamr in the Iraqi desert near Karbala. In the 19th century, the Swiss traveler Burckhardt and the British traveler Doughty visited the tribe in their stronghold of Khaybar and gathered from them many details of Bedouin life.
One branch of the `Annizah in that area, centered around Al-Jouf and the valley of Wadi Sarhan and extending into Jordan and Syria, became so large and powerful that it practically developed into an independent tribe, known as the Ruwallah. The Ruwallah engaged in battle with other branches of `Annizah, and also became the arch-enemy of the large tribe of Shammar, who inhabited roughly the same area and dominated Nejd in the late 19th century after temporarily deposing the Al Saud. A 19th century oral poetic epic telling the tale of a rivalry between two heroes from Shammar and `Annizah was published in 1992. The Ruwallah were among the tribes that took part in the "Arab Revolt" against the Ottomans in 1916.
Another northern branch of `Annizah, the `Amarat, was centered in the deserts of Iraq.
According to the tribe's genealogists, the modern tribe in north Arabia is divided into the following branches:
Dhana Bishr ("children of Bishr") - which includes the `Amarat of Iraq.
Dhana Maslam - which includes the Ruwallah of north Arabia.
Tribal ties run deep and at times seemingly undetected in the culture. These ties are generally viewed as a strong element of belonging and family identity. There is a growing unrest among the younger generation to fight against what they call “racism” and “arrogance” within the tribal mind-set, particularly in the areas of marriage and employment. There is a whole undertow of younger people who want to break away from control of the tribalism. They are loyal to the tribe, but want change. Even the Royal Family is incredibly divided based on the maternal line. Pray for the salvation of the Anazah Tribe and for the Sa’ud Royal family specifically — that one day they would place more importance in a spiritual kingdom lineage above their earthly royal ties.
Another of the larger tribes is the Dawasir — people claiming ties to them are believed to number over 500,000 with most living near the capital city of Riyadh and eastern provinces. This tribe is known for its fierce loyalty and solidarity within its members. Many of the wives of King Abdul Aziz (first king) came from the rich and influential Sudairi family of this tribe, and there continue to be strong bonds between this tribe and the Royal Family.
Al Dawasir is an Arabian bedouin tribal confederation primarily composed of Azdite, Adnanite, and Hamdanite clans originating from central Arabia. The tribe gave its name to the famous valley in Najd or specifically the town of Wadi al-Dawasir (The Valley of Al-Dawasir) which had a population of 68,201 in 2010 and is divided into two main neighborhoods: Alnowaima and Alkhamaseen, and spread in various parts of the Middle East.
The Dawasir migrated to Bahrain in 1845 from Zakhnuniya Island, south of Uqair and mainly settled in and around Zallaq and Budaiya. American author Yitzhak Nakash, a prominent expert on the history of Shiism, described the tribe in his book Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World as being the "second largest and most powerful tribe after the Utub [in Bahrain]. So powerful were the Dawasir that their members recognized Sheikh 'Isa Al Khalifa as ruler in name only and considered themselves immune from taxation." Members of the tribe worked in the pearl industry and opposed the overthrow of Sheikh Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa. Virtually all members of the tribe left Bahrain for Dammam after suspecting that the new ruler, Sheikh Hamad ibn Isa would attempt to tighten his control over them with British support and force them into submitting to his rule in 1923. The Dawasir were officially allowed to return in April 1927 by Sheikh Hamad after being requested by Ibn Saud to do so.
Years after the deportation of the Dawasir, a number of Huwala families arrived in Bahrain from southern Iran (mainly from the village of Jah Kotah), claiming to be members of the Dumkooh clan. Their origin is disputed by some Dawasir scholars such as Sahood Aldosseri who deny claims put forward by apologists which assert that some Dumkooh clansmen are of Iranian origin because there are no records proving that an immigration of such a powerful clan would occur without any records remaining. Today, the remnants of the original Dawasir who inhabited Zallaq and the Hawar Islands are still living there and the Iranian Dumookh live in Budaiya.
Pray for the Dawasir &mdash to be able to place the same fierce allegiance and solidarity for the family of God in advancing the gospel of Jesus Christ to other Saudi Arabian tribes.
The Al-Murrah Tribe inhabits most of the desert regions of the country and are sometimes known as “People of the Camel” or “Bedouin of the Bedouin”.
The Al Murrah is a noble or a sharif Arab tribe descended from the well-known Banu Yam tribe. The members of the Al Murrah end their names with "Al Murry" also spelled "Al Marri" and "Al Masarri" to correspond to the Arabic pronunciation. They reside in countries such as Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain and Wadi Amad of Yemen. Historically, Al Murrah was a tribe of camel-herding nomads, who controlled and travelled through a vast area of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Al Murrah is a noble or a sharif Arab tribe descended from the well-known Banu Yam tribe. The members of the Al Murrah end their names with "Al Murry" also spelled "Al Marri" and "Al Masarri" to correspond to the Arabic pronunciation. They reside in countries such as Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain and Wadi Amad of Yemen. Historically, Al Murrah was a tribe of camel-herding nomads, who controlled and travelled through a vast area of the Arabian Peninsula.
There's a saying in Saudi Arabia, Fi al Sama barqiyah, Fi al ard Marriyah, which means, "In the sky the telegraph; on the ground Al Murrah." The saying, in couplet form, pays a subtle tribute to the tribe of nomads which more than any other has given birth—and considerable substance—to the colorful image of the desert Bedouins: Al Murrah, one of the largest and most important tribes of the country. Seven clans make up the Al Murrah, according to Donald Cole, an anthropologist that has studied the Al Murrah. Travelling as much as 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) each year, the tribe comprises approximately 15,000 individuals. One of the most noted names among Al Murrah is the leader (shaikh) Sulaiman Bin Ghanim, who lived somewhere between 950-1100 AD.
Historically, the Al Murrah tribe made up a large proportion of Qatar's ethnic population. Estimates dating back to 2005 put the figure between 5,000 and 10,000, suggesting that they accounted for anywhere between 2.5% to 5% of the Qatari population at that time.
In 1885, a number of Al Murrah tribespeople, along with several members from the Bani Hajer tribe, renounced their allegiance to Qatar and departed from the country. The two families were joined by the Ajman tribe, whom were known to harbor hostilities toward Qatar and regularly engage in skirmishes with its inhabitants. While the group was encamped in an area between Qatar and Oman, a regiment of 1,200 partisans composed of branches of Al Murrah and Bani Hajer loyal to the sheikh of Qatar engaged the group. Although the three tribes boasted a combined force of 2,000 men and outnumbered the opposition, they were inflicted with heavy losses.
A majority of tribe members were strong supporters of Sheikh Khalifa Al Thani, the former Emir of Qatar who was deposed in 1995 in a coup by his son. Eight months after the coup, 119 Al Murrah members attempted to overthrow the new Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad Al Thani, but failed. In February 2000, 19 of the alleged perpetrators had been sentenced to death, 33 were sentenced to life in prison, and the rest were acquitted. However, none of those sentenced to death were executed.
Pray for the people of this tribe, as they wander the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula &mdash that they would seek and find the Well of Living Water in Jesus Christ and find oasis in His truth and grace.
Finally, the Utaibah Tribe are known for their bravery and a distinct presence and leadership in the National Guard.
Otaibah - (also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah and Otaibi for singular) is one of the largest predominantly after Qahtan tripe Sunni Arab tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. Today, they are mostly found in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Palestine and Syria. Otaibah are originally from Hejaz and Najd. They have ruled Najd For a long time the tribe maintained a cooperative attitude towards the Ikhwan movement championed by the Al Saud clan of Nejd in the 18th and 19th centuries, and tended to side more with the Sharifs of Mecca. In 1912, however, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, began an ambitious plan to settle the nomadic tribes within his domains (which at the time included Nejd and Arabia's eastern coastal areas). That Was coupled with indoctrination of the tribesmen into the religious ideals espoused by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, as the religious observance of the bedouin was hitherto considered to be somewhat loose. The new settlements were to be known as hijras and the accompanying religious movement was called Ikhwan ("the brothers").
As a result, a large number of 'Utaybi hijras sprung up across the land, especially in western Nejd. The most famous 'Utaybi hijras were 'Afif near Dwadmi, and Sajir near Shaqraa. A large contingent of 'Utaybah, led by Sultan ibn Bjad Bin Humaid aka Sultanaldeen, and also Eqab bin Mohaya Alotaibi was one of the most influential leaders. Moreover, Eqab bin Mohaya belonged to [[lkhwan]] movement, and he was the head of his tribe(Talhah). Sultan bin Bajad joined the Ikhwan and became the leader of Ikhwan, who were then deployed by Ibn Saud against his rivals as he sought to unite as much of Arabia under his rule as possible. The Ikhwan were instrumental in gaining control of the Hejaz for Ibn Saud, but they then grew resentful and restless. The 'Utaybi leader of Ikhwan joined with main Ikhwan leaders from other tribes in revolt, but they were defeated by Ibn Saud's forces at the Battle of Sabilla near Al Zulfi in northeastern Nejd in 1930. The 'Utaybi hijras remained, however, and the hijra of 'Afif became particularly prosperous and is now considered a city in its own right, lying approximately halfway between Riyadh and Mecca.
Many 'Utaybis have entered the Saudi armed forces in the last few decades, and their presence with other tribes is particularly heavy in the National Guard. Prominent members of the tribe include Khalaf ibn Hathal, a poet who rose to prominence during the First Gulf War, Juhayman Al-'Utaybi, the militant who led the 1979 seizure of the Sacred Mosque in Mecca (see Grand Mosque Seizure), and Dhaifallah Al-Rogy Al-'Utaybi, mayor of Dammam and a former executive in the Saudi national oil company, Aramco, and Mutlaq Hamid Al-Otaibi a prominent Saudi Arabian poet AND MUTLAQ MUHMAS ALSHAIBANI ALOTAIBI, MAYOR Of riyadh.
These are just four of more than 150 major tribes in Saudi Arabia today. Within each of those tribes are hundreds of sub-clans; like the Shahran Tribe that has 26 sub-clans. These issues provoke thought and give way to many hard questions for Saudis with tribal and non-tribal allegiances alike.