Two of those lies can immediately be dismissed logically: There is no way that the primitive kingdom of the Kongo could have so many Ambassadors: or Ambassadors in such better form than the Kongo King himself.
At the same time, logically: why would a European spend the money to import a African servant, when Europe is "TEEMING" with destitute Albinos desperate for a position in some "Well-to-do" Household? And THEN spend a small fortune to have a portrait of this Slave/Servant Painted? On it's face its ridiculous!
As for the "Slavery" lie: Note that in 374 years - Britain, France, and Holland, bought 456 African Slaves total!
Yet they all have abundant Black artifacts in their national records with the customary stupid tales created to explain them.
In the Americas, Albino media like Wikipedia (which is written by unvetted Albino volunteers), try to discredit this photo, authenticated by the Holton archives, and Getty images, of an Aztec couple. By declaring that they were actually "Pin-heads" (sufferers of microcephaly) from San Salvador: See text on photo.
Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe
An exhibition at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, MD
October 14, 2012–January 21, 2013. Open Wed.-Sun., 10a.m.-5p.m.
(fig. 17), executed as a European "likeness" by an Ecuadorian painter and sent to the Spanish king by Don Francisco de la Robe, headman of a community in Ecuador founded by escaped slaves. It represents Don Francisco and his sons in European-style dress, adorned with striking gold ornament, traditional, local markers of status.
Library of Congress (U.S.A.) Country Studies
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (USA), freely available for use by researchers. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world. The series examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors. The books represent the analysis of the authors and should not be construed as an expression of an official United States Government position, policy, or decision. The authors have sought to adhere to accepted standards of scholarly objectivity.
Dennis M. Hanratty, ed. Ecuador: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989.
Quote: The coastal lowlands north of Manta were conquered, not by the Spanish, but by blacks from the Guinean coast who, as slaves, were shipwrecked en route from Panama to Peru in 1570. The blacks killed or enslaved the native males and married the females, and within a generation they constituted a population of zambos (mixed black and Indian) that resisted Spanish authority until the end of the century and afterwards managed to retain a great deal of political and cultural independence.
Also please note: Spanish Mainland Americas =
Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, French Guyana, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay:
[Brazil is Portuguese America].
Note that from 1526 to 1850, a total of 324 years, a total of 526,932 African Slaves were landed. On average that's 1,626 Slaves per year over 18 countries: or 90 Slaves per year, per country.
Latin America (Exclusive of Brazil, which is Portuguese, not Spanish), is about 10,279,853 sq. miles: so that would be 1 Slave per 6,322 sq. miles, per year.
The land area of the State of Connecticut is 5,543 sq. miles. So that would be 1 Slave (for an area bigger than the entire State of Connecticut) per year:
(Hilarious - as in stupid funny).
Aside from the FACTUAL lie about a ship sinking (none sunk in that area): imagine the STUPIDITY of Albinos to tell such an implausible lie, a few Slaves, close to death from their ordeal, somehow managing to free themselves from their chains (how?), make it to shore, kill-off all the males of a HEALTHY, numerically superior tribe (using what for weapons?). Btw - what was the ships CREW doing while their Super-human Slaves were running amuck? Logically the ships crew must have been Super-humans too, as they were the people charged with holding the Slaves - and they had GUNS! (Silly Albino lies come apart so easily).
From Kessler Associates History Files U.K.
Miskito Kings (Mosquitia)
AD 900 - 1894
The Mosquito Coast today forms the eastern, Atlantic border of Nicaragua. The people here are a combination of indigenous natives (possibly related to the Maya), an Afro-Miskito mix (largely dominant towards the north of the territory), plus Afro-Native Americans and English. The Miskito royal family itself gradually interbred with African arrivals to produce a line of descent that, by the early nineteenth century, was almost entirely pure African in its ethnic origin. The original Miskito language is still extant, although it exists alongside Creole English and Spanish, the latter of which is now the language of officialdom. Their traditional territory stretches from Cape Camarón in the north (now on the coast of Honduras) to the River Rio Grande de Matgalpa in the south (approximately central on Nicaragua's coastline).
[Great Britain, which had claimed the Mosquito Coast as a protectorate since 1655, delegated the area to Honduras in 1859 before transferring it to Nicaragua in 1860. The Mosquito Coast remained an autonomous area until 1894. José Santos Zelaya, President of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909, negotiated the annexation of the Mosquito Coast to the rest of Nicaragua. In his honor, the region was named "Zelaya Department"].
Quote: The Garifuna, also known as “Black Caribs”, are the descendants of runaway and shipwrecked African slaves and native Americans of Carib and Arawak origin. Technically, the people are referred to as the Garinagu and their culture and language is called Garifuna, but Garifuna is commonly used today to describe both the people and their language.
Note that a total of only 719 Slaves were landed on the Mosquito Coast and Honduras: (650) in 1650 and (69) in 1775.
The Miskito Coast in Red
The earliest recorded name of a king of the Miskito natives along the coast dates from around AD 900, with tradition claiming him as the unifier of the local tribes. The first sustained contact with the dominant tribe or tribes on what became known as the Mosquito Coast came in the 1630s, when the Providence Island Company of the English Colonies of North America made contact. They established friendly relations with the king, and founded bases in two cays in the region. The company remained there for a decade, between 1631-1641, and also aided the son of the Miskito king in paying a royal visit to England during the reign of King Charles I. Afterwards, when this Miskito prince had returned home and succeeded his father, he placed his land under English protection.
Contact with the English not only Anglicised the Miskito kings, it also introduced a sizable degree of Anglicisation to eastern Nicaragua itself. English surnames and Christian names became common on the Atlantic coast, and at least one British cemetery still exists there. English names among Nicaraguans are still not uncommon today, albeit English names in the Spanish style, with two first names and two surnames. The modern name, 'Mosquito Coast' bears no relation to the insect of the same name - the native Miskito gave their name to the coastline while the insect bears a Spanish name that has a different origin. The Miskito name has also been rendered in various forms, including Moscos, Moustiques, Musquetos, Mosquito, Miskitia, and by the Spanish as La Mosquitia.
Josephenie Hendy Twaska Clarence Robertson is related to the Miskito royal family on her mother's side, her mother being Ketura Hendy Hebbert (the Miskito follow matrilineal descent when selecting their rulers). Created a reverend in the Moravian Church in 1999, in her work on documenting Miskito history claims a North African connection for Miskito King Oldman (circa1650-1687). Oldman's grandfather is stated as being O'man Muscat Khaldoun, a descendent of 'al-Wazir' of Egypt (a 'wazir' was an official title for a minister or advisor to the ruler). There was indeed an Ibn Khaldun, born in 1332, who spent much time in Egypt, and adventured as a scholar from Muscat in Oman to the kingdom of Ghana and across North Africa. He was part of the court of Granada which participated in a peace mission with the Christians in 1359. The ship which carried his wife and his son, Muhammed, disappeared and was lost off the coast of Gibraltar. The inference is that the royal house of the Miskito is descended from the lost Muhammed, whose ship must have been blown off course to make landfall on the Mosquito Coast. If any written proof existed it was lost when the Nicaraguans destroyed Miskito records following their armed takeover of the kingdom in 1894.
(Additional information by Karla Hammond, from Endangered Peoples of Latin America: Struggles to Survive and Thrive, Susan C Stonich (2001), from Sambu and Tawira Miskitu, Karl Offen (2002), from Yapti Tasbia - The Miskitu Motherland, Reverend Josephenie Hendy Twaska Clarence Robertson, from In the Shadow of Empire - The Emergence of Afro-Creole Societies in Belize and Nicaragua, Wolfgang Gabbert, and from External Links: Miskitu Nation, Royal Ark by Christopher Buyers, and BBC News.)
fl c.900 Boopam Kuum Kukras First known Miskito king to unite the region's tribes.
According to tradition - oral, as no writing exists until the Europeans arrive - Boopam is responsible for uniting the various native tribes along the Mosquito Coast (twelve in total, according to the author of Yapti Tasbia). These amount to around half a dozen ethnic groups split into as many as thirty tribes (the latter according to early Spanish explorers of the seventeenth century). Apparently, at this time the 'white city' is a place of learning, with art, homeopathy, and herbal remedies all being studied.
(Note that the Albino authors were clearly told that the Miskito/Mosquito Indians were NOT a single people/ethnicity, but at least six ethnic groups).
Websters: Definition of ethnic.
1) : of or relating to large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background.
Yet being lying Albinos, they couldn't resist the opportunity to tell a Racist lie).
THEY WERE IN FACT A GEOGRAPHIC GROUP NOT A RACIAL GROUP!
Little or no Spanish control has been established in the region, thanks largely to Mosquito warriors chasing off any attempt to make landfall here. As a result, the Mosquito Coast along the Atlantic makes a perfect haven for Dutch and English pirates who are searching for safe bases from which to launch attacks on gold-laden shipping coming out of New Spain.
1631 - 1641
Proceeding outwards from the English Colonies of North America, the earl of Warwick's Providence Island Company is formed on Providence Island in the Caribbean (now part of Colombia). The company makes contact with the Miskito and establishes friendly relations with the king and his people. Two English bases are founded in the region and, in 1638, the kingdom of Mosquitia is officially recognized by England.
? - c.1650
Providence Island is captured by Spain, leaving England without a base in the region. It is during this period, the mid-1600s (and perhaps in 1641 itself), that a slave ship is apparently wrecked along the coast and the surviving Africans make it safely to shore. They find a new home there, and their mixed race descendants become known as Mosquito Zambos (or Sambu), but whether they remain slaves or freely form part of Miskito society is unclear. A separate group of Africans from the wreck prospers to the south, becoming known as the Tawirs, or straight-haired Miskito. Less cross-bred with the natives, this group forms a strong rivalry with the Zambos which sometimes leads to open warfare.
Having established friendly relations with the Miskito, the earl of Warwick persuades the king to send his son, Oldman, to England. Oldman is received by King Charles I, but he returns to Miskito to find that his father has died during his absence. Oldman is now king in his place.
The records of Reverend Josephenie Hendy Twaska Clarence Robertson show Oldman's reign of almost four decades as two different kings, Oldman I and Oldman II, with the first reigning from around 1640-1677 and the second reigning until 1687. No other available source shows this, and with the sudden adoption of English Christian names from Jeremy I onwards, even the possibility that 'Oldman' is a title reserved for the ruler cannot be explored. In another version of the same records, one King O'Man Muscat Nani is given a reign between 1631-1686 and it is his father who is the one to visit England in 1634-1637, now named as King Kukra, the son of the unnamed king shown above. O'Man Muscat Nani also visits England, in 1666. This has all been pieced together following the destruction of Miskito records in 1894, so none of it can be guaranteed to be accurate.
c.1650 - 1686
Oldman / Oldham / O'Man Muscat Nani
Son. Paid a visit to England in the 1640s. Two kings in one?
English troops take Jamaica from New Spain, adding it to their New World Colonies and making it a hub for rum production and slave trading. It also allows renewed contact with the Mosquito Coast. The English governor of Jamaica now forms the direct link of authority between the Miskito king and the English crown. The holder of this office also provides official recognition of each new Miskito king, with Jeremy I being crowned in Jamaica.
1686 - 1718
Son. A Zambo. The first to use 'His Majesty' as a form of address.
The kingdom is described at this time as a loose collection of settlements strung out along the coast, peopled by a mixture of natives and Zambos living in a relatively egalitarian state. The king is only empowered as a war leader, but there seems to be scope for that as Zambo raids towards the Yucatan and Costa Rica reach their height, 1699 being the first of their attacks against New Spain to be recorded. Slaves are taken and sold to the English settlements along the Mosquito Coast for shipment to Jamaica.
Britain concludes a formal treaty of friendship and alliance with the Miskito king. A protectorate is established over the coast. However, during this century competition between the Creole Spanish groups in the north and the less racially mixed Miskito in the south sometimes heats up into open warfare. Perhaps for this reason, records of the Miskitos (or Moskitos) for this period are sketchy and little is known of the kings. The Spanish claim a Bernabé ruling at the same time as Jeremy II is known to reign, so either they are the same man with different names, or Bernabé is a rival king.
1718 - 1728
Jeremy II / Bernabé
1728 - 1755
Son. A minor at accession.
1729 - 1739
Brother of Jeremy II. King-regent during Edward's minority.
1740 - 1749
Seemingly a second formal treaty of friendship and alliance is concluded between Great Britain and the Miskito king on 8 April 1740. Effectively speaking, Britain takes command of the Mosquito Coast. The impetus at this date is to enlist Miskito support in the War of Jenkins' Ear, which pitches Britain against Spain between 1739-1748.
In 1749 a British 'Superintendent of the Shore' is placed in a residential post on the coast so that Britain can more directly advise the king in drawing up legislation and aid him in moving the kingdom towards closer relations with Britain. In effect, the Miskito are now part of a British protectorate, although it may also be argued that it is more of an agreement of cooperation.
1755 - 1775
Brother of Edward I. Died during a smallpox epidemic.
1776 - 1801
George II Frederic / George Frederic Aug I
Poisoned by his brother, Stephen, or by friends of a wife.
The Miskito have aided Britain greatly during the American Revolution, scoring notable victories over the Spanish who have been supporting the revolutionary forces. Now, however, Britain is forced to withdraw from much of the Atlantic Coast, including that of Central America and Mosquitia. Some native families and their slaves are relocated by their departing allies to British Honduras (modern Belize).
Subsequent renewed Spanish attempts to establish colonies in the area still come to nothing, and Britain maintains more distant relations with the Miskito despite being forced to withdraw physically from the region. A number of British advisors are soon reintroduced into the state from the colony at British Honduras, which serves to keep the Spanish colonial government at bay, along with the USA which soon develops an interest in the region.
1801 - 1824
George (III) Frederic Augustus II
Son. A minor at accession. Strangled by his wife.
1801 - 1815
Brother of George II. King-regent during Augustus' minority.
1821 - 1823
New Spain achieves independence from Spain, bringing three hundred years of governance of the colonies to an end. On 3 October 1821, the captaincy general of Guatemala (modern Chiapas, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) is annexed to the Mexican empire. However, just two years later the southern Central American states form their own federal republic.
Map of Central America in the 1830s
The Federal Republic of Central America was formed of Chiapas, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. This lasted from 1823-1841, by which time Mexico had grabbed much of Chiapas and the republic itself dissolved into the separate nation states known today - although Nicaragua did not control the independent Mosquito Coast until the end of the century, and British troops occupied eastern Belize (click on map to view full sized)
1824 - 1841
Robert (I) Charles Frederic
Son of George Frederic Augustus I. Half-brother of GFA II.
Having already forbidden the practise of enslaving people on 1 November 1832, Robert Charles Frederic now proclaims the total abolition of slavery, on 27 August. It is one of his last acts as king before his death on 8 October 1841 due to alcoholism.
1841 - 1849
George (IV) William
Son. A minor at accession.
1842 - 1845
1842 - 1845
General Thomas Lowry Robinson
Regent and grandfather by his daughter, Queen Juliana.
1842 - 1843
1848 - 1860
The Miskito natives seize the colony of Greytown (now renamed as San Juan del Norte), with British support. The event is noticed by the USA, but a minor action of reprisal in 1854 achieves nothing. The 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty ensures that neither power will fortify the coast or attempt to colonise it.
With interest in the region waning, in 1859 Britain delegates its protectorate to Honduras. The Miskito revolt against this decision the following year, so suzerainty of the entire coast is passed to Nicaragua, with the Miskito confined to a limited 'Mosquito Reserve' and their kings now recognised only as chiefs, a dictate which has little effect as no outside power is able to exercise its authority along the coast. The British Union Flag is lowered on the Coast for the last time.
1849 - 1865
George (V) Augustus Frederic II
Nephew of George IV. 'Hereditary Chief' from 1860.
1866 - 1879
William (I) Henry Clarence
Brother. First full 'Hereditary Chief' of Miskito. Poisoned.
Although King George Augustus had managed to negotiate a Nicaraguan acceptance of his kingship, the Nicaraguans refuse to recognise his successor or pay the agreed subsidy. Even so, he reigns, and initially does so under a regency council owing to his young age. His life is prematurely ended after he is poisoned by a Nicaraguan Spaniard.
1879 - 1888
George (VI) William Albert Hendy
Cousin. Grandson of George F Augustus I. Accidental death.
1888 - 1889
Andrew Hendy Clarence
Cousin. Proclaimed by Nicaragua. Abdicated. Returned in 1894.
1889 - 1890
Jonathan Charles Frederick
Cousin. Grandson of Robert Charles Frederic. Fell from horse.
1890 - 1894
Robert (II) Henry Clarence
Cousin. Last 'hereditary chief'. Deposed and retained title in exile.
The Atlantic Coast is forcibly incorporated into Nicaragua by President Jose Santos Zelaya. Robert Henry Clarence, son of Chief William Henry Clarence of the Twaska-Miskito group, is deposed by the Nicaraguans and rescued by a British warship, along with a core group of two hundred supporters. He retains his title, and remains head of the royal house until his death. In Miskito itself, hundreds of deaths are alleged during the Nicaraguan takeover, along with the burning of libraries and records. The kingdom is renamed as the department of Zelaya.
1894 - 1908
Robert (II) Henry Clarence
Former hereditary chief. Died 1908.
While Robert Henry Clarence remains the accepted chief of the Miskito, the Nicaraguans attempt to remove even his title by appointing their own claimant. They chose Andrew Hendy, their established puppet of 1888 who had already been forced to abdicate by his own people after about a year in office. Now, on 20 November 1894, he is formally re-installed in office at the government palace at Bluefields. He and his successors are shown in green text below as rival for office against the accepted claimant (in black). Miskito rebellions against his presence in 1896 and 1899-1900 do nothing to change the situation.
1894 - 1914
Andrew Hendy Clarence
Restored by Nicaragua as a puppet rival. Died.
Great Britain acknowledges the full sovereignty of Nicaragua over the Miskito lands by means of a treaty which is concluded on 19 April 1905. Britain's own interests are now firmly fixed on the empire in South Asia.
1908 - 1928?
Cousin. Born c.1855. Hereditary chief apparent. Died after 1928.
Robert Frederick succeeds as head of the royal house and heir apparent to the Miskito throne. He is the son of Princess Mathilda and the grandson of King Robert Charles Frederic (1824-1841). His accession apparently dates from 6 January 1908, but very little is known of him or his successors. He dies some time after 1928, at Aubrayeri, Wanks River, Honduras.
1914 - 1960
Valazco Hendy Clarence Oracio
Son of Andrew Hendy Clarence. Rival claimant. Died 2008.
1928 - 1960s?
Herbert Henry Clarence
Relationship unknown. Claimed to be next in line after Robert.
1928 - 1960s
The otherwise unknown Herbert Henry Clarence is claimed as being next in line to the hereditary title following the death of Robert Frederick. Nothing more seems to be known of him, although he leaves behind a daughter born in 1949 who passes on the title to one of her two sons, a Sean Henry Clarence. Again, nothing is known of this claimant.
Mairin Celina Hendy Diaz Clarence is the daughter of rival claimant, Valazco Hendy Clarence Oracio, and granddaughter of Andrew Hendy (died 1914 - this rival line of claimants is shown in green, while further rival claimants are shown in red). While not a claimant herself, it is her son, Jose Miguel, who is the current heir to the Miskito throne. He is next-in-line to his cousin, Reverend Josephenie Hendy Twaska Clarence Robertson, who in 1960 is selected as the chief claimant by the royal family and elders of the Miskito, with the backing of a large exile community.
Reverend Josephenie Hendy Twaska Clarence Robertson is the daughter of Princess Keturah Magdalane Fermina Hendy Jeremiah Clarence Hebbert, who is herself the daughter of Princess Fermina Cetruah Mairianas Margarettee Peener Hendy, the niece of Robert I Peochee-Petchenega-Mongrol Jeremy Clarence. Which exact Robert I this may be in the list above is entirely unclear.
fl 1970s - 1980s?
Unnamed daughter. Born 1949. Claimant?
Sean Henry Clarence?
Son. Born 1970s?
Norton Cuthbert Clarence
Unverified rival claimant additional to the existing claims.
One Norton Cuthbert Clarence claims to be regarded as the recognised heir to the Miskito throne. Living in Pearl Key at the time, his claim seems not to be backed up by any external verification. He may be a grandson of one of the last chiefs or kings of Miskito. Either way, the hereditary kingship of the Miskito seems to fade into utter obscurity and ambiguity.
Modern Mosquitia natives
The standard of living in modern Mosquitia is low, with few opportunities available for the young to improve their lives and complaints that the central government of Nicaragua has sidelined this 'occupied' kingdom
1960 - Present
Josephenie Hendy Clarence Robertson
Current claimant, replacing Valazco Hendy Clarence Oracio.
On 19 April a group of Miskito elders declare the independence of their people from Nicaragua. Their territory is still isolated - a ninety minute flight from Managua, the Nicaraguan capital, or a twenty-hour road trip. Now they announce they will not pay any heed to the government in Managua, and will not pay any taxes to it. Instead their loyalty is to the 'Community Nation of Moskitia'. A flag is unveiled and a national anthem composed, but international recognition is entirely lacking.
The leader of this movement is Hector Williams (the 'White Tara' or 'Great Judge'), although the impetus behind the attempt seems largely to be driven by increasing unemployment in the region and a sense that Managua is somehow cheating the locals of their true worth. Hector Williams is not a claimant to leadership of the Miskito himself, nor to the Miskito throne, but he does appear to be allied with those claimants who are shown in green here.
'HRH Prince Jose Miguel Coleman Hendy Clarence' is stated by Reverend Josephenie Hendy Boopam Twaska Clarence Robertson as being the present heir to the royal throne (in 2014). He is the son of HRH Princess Mairin Celina Hendy Diaz and her spouse, Maximo Coleman McLean. Princess Mairin is the granddaughter of the Nicaraguan puppet ruler, Andrew Hendy Clarence, who died 1914.
Jose Miguel Coleman Hendy Clarence
Son of Mairin Celina. Cousin and heir to Josephenie.
The Portuguese slave ship had left Mozambique Island four weeks earlier and headed along the East African coast with its cargo of 500 captives, bound for the rice and cotton plantations of northern Brazil.
two days after Christmas in 1794, the São José Paquete de Africa had been blown into treacherous waters near the Dutch settlement of Cape Town in southern Africa, and was impaled on rocks - only 100 yards from shore. It was 2 a.m. And as the ship, weighed down with cast-iron ballast bars and human beings, was torn apart in the swells, the captain, crew and many slaves reached shore with a rescue line. But 212 slaves drowned in the frigid water, their bodies probably washing up on shore later. Eleven more died in the next few days.
Click here for "Big Blow-up" of Voyages - the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database; showing Slaves landed by the Spanish
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