There is no question that the Albino people of Europe, by way of Central Asia, (the least populous humans): have killed more of the Earths creatures - some to extinction, human and nonhuman - than any other Homo-sapien. Their partial tally - the Tasmanian people are now Extinct: 90 million Black and Mongol - mostly Black - original Americans were killed during the conquest of the Americas. Untold millions of Africans were killed in Africa, fighting to be free, and as a result of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade. And untold millions of Blacks were killed in the "Race Wars" falsely reported as "Catholic/Protestant Religious Wars", for sovereignty over Europe.
Background: In the beginning, as Humans started to leave Africa, included with the second (OOA) group were the Albinos of Caucasian phenotype Africans (Horn Africans, Dravidians (Indians) who were probably motivated by a quest for relief from the heat and burning Sunshine of southern Africa - and relief from the torment heaped upon them by normal Africans. Even today, superstitious Blacks of southern Africa; maim and mutilate Albinos in the ignorant belief that their body parts process magical properties, which they use in rituals. After they crossed the Arabian Peninsula and entered what is now India, the decided to head north and eventually ended up in Central Asia.
There they found a low sunlight intensity environment to their liking, and there they stayed, and flourished!
Then, at about 1,500 B.C. the Central Asian Albinos decided to start leaving their low sunlight intensity environment, and return to India as invading Aryans. Soon after, they headed WEST toward Europe. It can only be guessed at, but perhaps after Millennia in Central Asia, the Albinos forgot that they were Albinos, and what devastating effect strong Sunlight could have on them.
For after their conquest of Europe in the late medieval "Race Wars": Historically camouflaged as Civil Wars in Britain, and the supposedly Religious "Thirty Years Wars" on the continent. Note there really was a religious component to the "Thirty Years Wars": That being the original Black Europeans (Catholics) verses insurgent original Central Asian Albinos (Germanics & Slav's) under the banner of their newly created "PROTEST" or "Protestant" Religions. i.e. Anglican, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, Baptist, Amish, Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism, Quakers, Seventh-Day Adventism, et al. After the conquest, the Catholic Church was also usurped, but the Slav's in the East (like the Rus (Russians), chose not to completely overhaul the Eastern Orthodox branch that they took from the Byzantines. As a result, their Holy icons still have "Dark" Skin. The later arriving Turks took over the Black Arabs newly created religion of Islam. After their conquest of Europe, the Albinos went on to conquer the entire WORLD, and each place they settled brought them the SAME problems: SUNBURN and SKIN CANCER. Because they don't belong in those places, their one and ONLY home is Central Asia!
Following his death, William Lanne's body was dismembered and used for scientific purposes. An argument broke out between the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Royal Society of Tasmania over who should possess his remains. It was reported that someone, allegedly a member of the English College of Surgeons named William Crowther, managed to break into the morgue where Lanne's body was kept and decapitated the corpse, removed the skin and inserted a skull from a white body into the black skin. The Tasmanian Royal Society soon discovered Crowther's work, and decided to thwart any further attempts to collect "samples" by amputating his hands and feet and discarding them separately. Lanne was then buried in this state.
|After the slaughter, so many Buffalo skulls were left laying around, that the only way to get rid of them, was to grind them down for fertilizer.|
A lot of time is spent on this site hammering home the fact that Europeans are Albinos. Some Blacks immediately and intuitively understand that this is important and support it. However, some Blacks are very uncomfortable with it, they innately feel that they need to disavow such talk, so as not to seem threatening. They think that highlighting racial differences is divisive.
And it IS divisive, it can't help but be. But not as an end onto itself, and certainly not to create hatreds and division, but rather as an incidental consequence of investigating and analyzing the simple truth - Blacks and Whites are NOT the same! They are both Humans yes, they are creatures of equal value - yes! But they are not the same! And until this simple truth is understood and accepted, there can be no real understanding and love between races.
Europeans by way of Central Asia, are Albinos/derived from Albinos. And this impediment has ruled their thinking and actions - likely since the beginning of the species of Albino. Some claim that Blacks and Whites think differently because Whites lack Neuromelanin (Brain Melanin) in their brain tissue. That remains unproven, but Whites clearly have a propensity for killing: they tend toward xenophobia - fearing all others not like them, and wanting to kill all that they fear. Lets look at some of the factors that have shaped the European Albinos thinking and actions.
By Stephanie Pappas, Senior Writer | February 25, 2014 07:01pm ET
(Please keep in mind that Stephanie Pappas is herself an Albino, so in keeping with Albino propensity to lie, certain corrections will be made to her article).
Albinism is an inherited disorder that prevents people from making melanin, a black or brown pigment. Albino people in sub-Saharan Africa almost universally die of skin cancer — and at young ages, according to a new paper published today (Feb. 25) in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society. These modern tragedies point to a potential reason early humans evolved dark skin, said Mel Greaves, a cell biologist at the Institute of Cancer Research in the United Kingdom.
"Cancer has been dismissed by effectively all scientists in the past" as the reason for the evolution of black skin, Greaves told Live Science. "They did so believing that skin cancer cannot be a selective force acting on survival and reproductive success, because in present-day white-skinned people, it is usually benign or impacts too late in life."
Color and cancer
There's no doubt that dark skin protects people from the sun. Individuals with white skin are far more susceptible to skin cancer than are people with dark skin. Exact skin tone makes a difference, but in general, African America skin has a sun protection factor of 13.4, compared with 3.4 in white skin, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation.
When the first hominins (human ancestors) began hunting and gathering on the open savannah, they lost their body hair, likely to keep cool amid the strenuous exercise of their lifestyle. These early humans probably had pale skin, much like humans' closest living relative, the chimpanzee, which is white under its fur.
Around 1.2 million to 1.8 million years ago, early Homo sapiens evolved dark skin. But evolutionary biologists haven't been convinced that skin cancer itself drove the evolutionary change. (Light skin evolved again after humans moved out of Africa to higher latitudes - no it didn't, those are merely Albinos.) That's because skin cancer in the modern world tends to strike later in life, after the reproductive years. From an evolutionary perspective, this time not very important. What really matters is survival during the reproductive years in order to pass on genes to offspring.
Evolution of dark skin
So researchers have come up with alternative reasons that dark skin might promote survival. Possibilities include avoiding painful sunburns, which would prevent effective hunting and gathering; improving vision, because a lack of pigment comes with vision problems; protecting the sweat glands from sun damage; and protecting the body's supply of folic acid, which is crucial for neural development and which can be damaged by excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.
In addition, melanin may even protect against fungal infections in humid climates, according to a 2007 article in the journal Dermatologic Clinics.
While pigmentation offers clear benefits, Greaves believes that cancer alone could have done the trick in driving early humans' dark skin. In modern sub-Saharan Africa, albinism is common, with about one case per every 5,000 people. In comparison, there is only one case per every 20,000 people in Europe and the United States.
Greaves reviewed published cases on albinism in Africa and found that almost all albino individuals developed skin cancer in their 20s. In the South African state of Soweto, the risk of developing skin cancer is 1,000 times greater for people with albinism than for people with dark pigmentation.
The prevalence of outdoor labor mean that lesions develop earlier among African people with albinism than among white-skinned Americans, Greaves found. In one study of people with albinism in Nigeria, 50 percent had skin cancer by age 26. In another study in Tanzania, 80 percent of the albino people studied developed skin cancer by age 30. Fewer than 10 percent of people with albinism in sub-Saharan Africa make it beyond age 40, Greaves wrote.
Similarly, outside of Africa, the Kuna people of Panama have an albinism rate of one in 150 people. Again, virtually all albino Kuna individuals have skin cancer by age 30.
These early cancers would have been a fact of life for pale humans living in sub-Saharan Africa without the benefit of medical knowledge or sunscreen, Greaves concluded. These cancers would have turned fatal, as they do today, after metastasizing to other areas or after ulcerating and becoming infected. As a result, paler people would have died more frequently at younger ages, leaving mostly darker-skinned individuals to pass on their genes. The idea is speculative, Greaves said. But, he added, his analysis of albinism in Africa is "the first time that a plausible case has been made that cancer has influenced human evolution."
The European Albinos have always been aware of their geographic limitations as regards the sun, so when they conquered "good fertile lands" with moderate Sunshine strength, they did their best to eradicate the native Black and Brown populations right away. Thus native Americans in Canada and the United States were killed-off in a relatively short time, allowing full Albino occupation in short order. The U.S. Statesman Benjamin Franklin stated the case of the Albinos:
The cancer study above, means that the Central Asian Albino/European by phenotype: was LIMITED to living in only a small part of the world. The reason for that was simple: in order to feed himself the Albino had to farm. In order to farm he had to spend long hours in the Sun. If he spent long hours in the Sun, over time, he would get CANCER and die. We can tell the limits of the European Albinos range by simply looking at a map of the Slave Holding States of the United States just before the Civil War.
From the map, we can tell that Missouri and Kentucky were as far south as the Albinos could go, and still be able to "provide" for themselves - support themselves by farming. The northern borders of Missouri and Kentucky are at approximately 37 degrees north, south of this line, the Albino people would need to enslave other humans to do their work for them. The map below shows Nashville Tennessee in the northern hemisphere, and Buenos Ares Argentina in the southern hemisphere, as the approximate northern and southern safety demarcation points for full Albino participation in agriculture. Countries between those points have majority Black and Brown populations. While countries outside of those points have majority Albino populations.
After Slavery was outlawed the albinos could no longer enslave other humans to do their work for them. But by then, they had already monopolized the worlds production, distribution, and wealth systems. The worlds people had no choice but to hire themselves out to Albinos at subsistence wages.
After emancipation in the Americas, the Albinos in the North/South "Safe Work Zones" found themselves in a predicament, the populations of indigenous Blacks and Mongols, plus the African Slaves, was much greater than that of their own Albino populations.
So they came upon a desperate plan, they would convince their African Slaves that being Albino was better, and that if those Africans bred with Albinos, their offspring would thus be better. Their feeling obviously was that surviving as "Slight" Mulattoes was better than not surviving at all. If you look at the map of South America: 37 degrees south (the twin opposite of 37 degrees north) is where the Black/Mulatto nations end and the So-called "White" Albino nations begin.
BUT FIRST: The populations of non-Albinos was simply too great. Before race mixing could have a reasonable chance for success, many of the indigenous Blacks, Mongols, and former African Slaves, would have to die in order to bring their populations down to a manageable size. Modern Albino historians typically say that the Black and Mongol native populations were eradicated by disease and the like. This is of course nothing but typical Albino lie-history. Blacks are genetically stronger than their Albinos, and contrary to the following article, their birth rates are much higher than Albinos, thus there is no "Natural" way to deplete them while leaving Albino populations intact. Only purposeful disease infection and murder would accomplish the results referenced in the following article. As before, the following article is not offered for its accuracy, it was likely written by an Albino, rather it is offered as an example of how Albinos manipulated ignorant populations to achieve supremacy.
European immigration in the 19th century (mainly Italian, Spanish ,French , Welsh, Jewish, and to a lesser extent, Russian) focused on colonization and was sponsored by the government (on lands conquered from the native inhabitants). This immigration wave made Argentina the country with the second-largest number of White immigrants, with 6.6 million, second only to the United States. Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers and of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe, and 86.4% of Argentina’s population self-identify as (White) European descent. An estimated 8% of the population is mestizo, and a further 4% of Argentines were of Arab or East Asian heritage. In the last national census, based on self-identification, 600,000 Argentines (1.6%) declared to be Amerindians.
Dr. E. Edwards UNCC, Koffi Charles-Hector, March 21 2012.
In 2001, Maria Lamadrid an Afro-Argentine advocate of black rights in Argentina was detained for six hours at the Buenos Aires Ezeiza International Airport for presenting a “fake Passport”. The authorities of her country airport claimed that she could not be Argentine because she is black. For these custom officers like many other Argentines, today there are no more black Argentines. They are believed to have been wiped out by some combinations of wars and epidemic diseases. Actually, something quite different happened that makes Argentina to be considered today the whitest country in Latin America.
During the 19 th. Century, scientific racism appeared. It was a philosophy based on an interpretation of Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. It shaped the sociopolitical vision of the whole Latin America. Interestingly, not only the whites, but also the blacks to some extent, espoused the idea of whitening the society. Gradually, the outcome would be a merging of black Argentines into the society by cultural and also biological whitening. Though, this process occurred throughout the entire Latin America in the 19 th. Century yet, nowhere else but in Argentina it was so successful, to the point that today, even Argentines for the most part, barely know that they have a black history and more even Afro-Argentine minority that still exists.
At the dawn of the 19 th. Century, Latin America was experiencing a period of economic prosperity called the “export boom”. “The Second Industrial Revolution” (Andrews P. 117) in the North Hemisphere countries was in huge need of raw material from Latin America. The export boom years progressively created a social system in which those who had prestige and power where those having access to Europe and the US. Power then shifted from the caudillo sand country landlords to cities like Buenos Aires. And with such shifting, also shifted the way Argentines viewed themselves comparatively to the northern societies. Argentines elites started aping Europe and the US in the hope of bringing development and raising their country to the northern standards. It was “the years of scientific racism and social Darwinism” (Andrews P.118). It essentially states that because the white nations have succeeded subjugating the world through military conquests, economic and industrial prowess, therefore the white race is superior to all others.
After centuries of colonization, slavery and interracial mingling, it meant for Latin America to radically turn the page on its past: “in order to be civilized, Latin America had to become white” (Andrews P. 118). Basically, Social Darwinism was a scientific and rational way to justify racism. It was used by the Latin American elites at that time to put forth the whitening of their societies because as pointed by R. Blanco a Venezuelan intellectual, “there was no salvation unless they solved how to become a Caucasian country” (Andrews P. 118). And F. Ortiz a Cuban intellectual to pursue: “The black race has proven itself to be more delinquent than the white situated in the identical social position” therefore, “not only the society had to be whitened racially and demographically but, it has to whiten culturally and esthetically as well” (Andrews P. 119). It was the time where the developing industry of Argentina needed a huge labor force. And, “the Argentines, swore allegiance to the same racial concepts held by the Europeans, holding white skin and European ancestry to be the most valuable asset a person could have” (Andrews, Georges Reid P. 79). So instead of naturally using the black local labor force, they turned to European immigration.
It was thought to be the best to do, to get an educated and conscientious labor force that would raise the national level of education and culture up to western standards. Also, it was believed that “the white Europeans were industrious reliable and responsible while the blacks, lazy recalcitrant and irresponsible.” (Andrews P. 143). The effectiveness of the whitening policy in Argentina has greatly to do with how Afro-Argentines themselves responded to scientific racism and whitening. They were in a logic of survival so, a great majority simply chose no longer to be black. It is essential to contextualize to understand. In Latin America far back in the colonial system, “the royal government established a procedure whereby nonwhites could legally purchase the racial labels and prerogatives of white people. Gracias al sacar, as this system was known, was Spain's attempt to generate revenue from a practice that had proceeded quietly and informally for centuries in the new World” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 82). Acculturation and miscegenation were the options most often pursued” (L. Marvin, Cry for Afro-Argentines P. 133), and when light enough added to the fact of being wealthy; it was natural to pass for white. Which explains why “a number of important individuals in nineteenth-century Argentina seem to have been men of mixed Afro-Indo-European descent who were accepted by the society of the time as white” (Andrews, Georges Reid P. 83).
Whitening took place among the black middle class, simply because they could afford to live and act like whites. They attended theaters and private literary salons like it was done in Paris or had afternoon tea like in England. They dressed like Europeans, purchased the most up to date European fashion outfits, and enjoyed European music and ballet. They according to an approving white elite “danced in modern clothes in the manner of Louis XV instead of the grotesque candombe or samba,” (Andrews P. 127). It was possible because in Latin America, “there were other social and personal factors, such as wealth and education,which determined a man's worth and social position. It was then not proper to call persons of respect Negro” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 84). Accordingly, the Latin American society made up new terms to designate such people of African heritage, not of white phenotype but nevertheless belonging to the white category because of their wealth. “Trigueño was such term. It literally means wheat color and helped as a social device for black people to avoid the stigma of their African ancestry ” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 85). However it is worth noticing that, “Although trigueño could be applied to whites, especially the Mediterranean type, it was more closely associated with African descent than was generally admitted ” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 85). On the other hand, the detachment the black middle class had from its Afro-roots could not be afforded by the black working class.
The later reminded the former that contrarily to what they might think; both were on the same boat. Because, like wrote a poet: “For a mulatto of stained caste - For a vile nigger of a different makeup - Give me a chain and a noose!” (L.Marvin, The Romantic Mode in Afro-Argentines Letters P. 47). Also, considering the socio and historical heritage of their country, the working class questioned the middle one: “How does one not tremble before the insult and the wicked humiliation - that the white race casts on our soil upon the colored race?” (L. Marvin, The Romantic Mode in Afro-Argentines Letters P. 41). They were appealing to the authorities and also the well off Afro-Argentines because the massive white immigration virtually put the black working class out of work. As some pointed, “the greater was the number of immigrants, the more devastating were the impacts on local black populations” (Andrews P. 142). Consequently with virtually no means of subsistence in Buenos Aires, the majority of the black working class ended up living in crowded city slums. Ultimately, “Black fertility though slightly higher than white, was not enough to overcome the differential between the two races' infant mortality” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 73). And because “the rural areas of the province formed a more healthy environment for black people than the capital, it resulted in a shift of Afro-Argentine population from the city to the hinterland” (Andrews, G. Reid P. 75).
Indubitably, such dichotomy of conceiving things among the black community deeply weakened them as a whole. “They were unable to forge a collective identity as a people and advocate for the common good” instead they cultivated “a strife within organizations, rivalry among competing newspapers, and frustration of individual leaders” (L. Marvin, Cry for Afro-Argentines P. 127 & 133). Conclusively, if today Argentina seems to be the whitest country in Latin it has more to do with the social and not biological understanding of race in Latin America. Because of the stigma associated of having African background, “both the blacks and the whites politely decided to ignore the extent of African ancestry in the population” (Andrews, Georges Reid P. 85). This is why it is highly probable that “the most important determinant behind the absolute decline of the population in the 1838-87 period was not low birth rates or high death rates (though these unquestionably contributed to the decline), but rather the statistical transference of a large segment of the Afro-Argentine population from the black racial category to the white” (Andrews, Georges Reid P. 89) also coupled with the massive European immigration of the 19 th. Century. Finally, when looking closer to the situation, “As the races became more intermingled, racial barriers became increasingly ill-defined” (Andrews, Georges Reid P. 88). To some extent, the whitening process has not fully been a success because still up today, a major fringe of the Argentine population refers itself as being “moracho” which is basically everything but white and the black culture survived in the culture and music like the Tango, which is world widely known as an Argentine trademark.
Chile is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. Studies on the ethnic structure of Chile "vary" significantly from one another. An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found out Chile to be 44.34% (± 3.9%) native American, 51.85% (± 5.44%) European and 3.81% (± 0.45%) African. A 2015 study analyzing hundreds of thousands of SNPs yielded similar results — around 55% European, 43% Native, and 2% African.
A public health book from the University of Chile states that 30% of the population is of Caucasian origin; Mestizos with an average 60% Caucasian ancestry and 40% Native American ancestry are estimated to amount a total of 65%, while Native Americans (Amerindians) comprise the remaining 5%. A genetic study by the same university showed that the average Chilean's genes are 64% Caucasian and 35% Amerindian.
UNAM professor of Latin American studies, Francisco Lizcano, in his social research estimates that a predominant 52.7% of the Chilean population can be classified as culturally European, with an estimated 44% as Mestizo. Other social studies put the total amount of Whites at over 60 percent. Some publications, such as the CIA World Factbook, state that the entire population consist of a combined 95.4% of "Whites and White-Amerindians", and 4.6% of Amerindians. These figures are based on a national census held in 2002, which classified the population as indigenous and non-indigenous, rather than as White or Mestizo.
Despite the genetic considerations, many Chileans, if asked, would self-identify as white. The 2011 Latinobarómetro survey asked respondents in Chile what race they considered themselves to belong to. Most answered "white" (59%), while 25% said "mestizo" and 8% self-classified as "indigenous". A 2002 national poll revealed that a majority of Chileans believed they possessed some (43.4%) or much (8.3%) "indigenous blood", while 40.3% responded that they had none.
Chile's 2002 census reported a population of 15,116,435 people. Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since 1990, due to a "declining birth rate."
Spain conquered and colonised Chile in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche that inhabited south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, by conquering the Mapuche in the 1880s, and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime headed by Augusto Pinochet ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a centre-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
Like Canada, because it was able to "early-on" successfully "subdue/eradicate" it's native populations, Chile is today one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.
CHARLESTON, S.C. (Reuters) - A white South Carolina police officer has been charged with murder over the shooting death of a black man who appeared to be fleeing from him, local authorities said on Tuesday, with the FBI and the U.S. Justice Department announcing a separate probe into the case.
A video of the Saturday incident, showing North Charleston police officer Michael Slager shooting 50-year-old Walter Scott, was viewed by state investigators, and a decision was made to charge Slager with murder, North Charleston Mayor Keith Summey said at a news conference. "When you're wrong, you're wrong," Summey told reporters. "If you make a bad decision, I don't care if you're behind the shield or just a citizen on the street, you have to live by that decision."The incident began after Scott was pulled over for a broken taillight, local media reported. A video of the encounter published by the New York Times shows a brief scuffle between Slager and Scott before the latter begins running away. The video, which appears to be recorded by a bystander, then shows the officer firing several shots at Scott, who falls to the ground. Scott does not appear to be armed while fleeing from Slager. The incident comes at a time of tension over the deadly use of force by U.S. police, particularly by white police officers against black men, including Michael Brown, 18, who was shot and killed by a white police officer last year in Ferguson, Missouri, sparking nationwide protests. The federal probe will be handled by the U.S. Justice Department's Civil Rights Division and the South Carolina U.S. Attorney's Office together with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Justice Department said.
Click here for the video of the shooting
By Jason Silverstein
George Zimmerman followed Trayvon Martin because he perceived him as dangerous. The defense argues he was, the prosecution argues he wasn’t. No one, of course, argues that Zimmerman approached Martin with kindness, or stopped to consider the boy as anything other than suspicious, an outsider. Ultimately Zimmerman shot and killed Martin. A lack of empathy can produce national tragedies. But it also drives quieter, more routine forms of discrimination.
Let’s do a quick experiment. You watch a needle pierce someone’s skin. Do you feel this person’s pain? Does it matter if the person’s skin is white or black?
For many people, race does matter, even if they don’t know it. They feel more empathy when they see white skin pierced than black. This is known as the racial empathy gap. To study it, researchers at the University of Milano-Bicocca showed participants (all of whom were white) video clips of a needle or an eraser touching someone’s skin. They measured participants’ reactions through skin conductance tests—basically whether their hands got sweaty—which reflect activity in the pain matrix of the brain. If we see someone in pain, it triggers the same network in our brains that’s activated when we are hurt. But people do not respond to the pain of others equally. In this experiment, when viewers saw white people receiving a painful stimulus, they responded more dramatically than they did for black people.
The racial empathy gap helps explain disparities in everything from pain management to the criminal justice system. But the problem isn’t just that people disregard the pain of black people. It’s somehow even worse. The problem is that the pain isn’t even felt. A recent study shows that people, including medical personnel, assume black people feel less pain than white people. The researchers asked participants to rate how much pain they would feel in 18 common scenarios. The participants rated experiences such as stubbing a toe or getting shampoo in their eyes on a four-point scale (where 1 is “not painful” and 4 is “extremely painful”). Then they rated how another person (a randomly assigned photo of an experimental “target”) would feel in the same situations. Sometimes the target was white, sometimes black. In each experiment, the researchers found that white participants, black participants, and nurses and nursing students assumed that blacks felt less pain than whites.
But the researchers did not believe racial prejudice was entirely to blame. After all, black participants also displayed an empathy gap toward other blacks. What could possibly be the explanation for why black people’s pain is underestimated?
It turns out assumptions about what it means to be black—in terms of social status and hardship—may be behind the bias. In additional experiments, the researchers studied participants’ assumptions about adversity and privilege. The more privilege assumed of the target, the more pain the participants perceived. Conversely, the more hardship assumed, the less pain perceived. The researchers concluded that “the present work finds that people assume that, relative to whites, blacks feel less pain because they have faced more hardship.”
This gives us some insight into how racial disparities are created—and how they are sustained. First, there is an underlying belief that there is a single black experience of the world. Because this belief assumes blacks are already hardened by racism, people believe black people are less sensitive to pain. Because they are believed to be less sensitive to pain, black people are forced to endure more pain.
Click here for link to the article
Washington Post - 12 Feb. 2015
Sureshbhai Patel had recently come to the United States from his farm in India to help care for his grandson, who was born prematurely and was suffering from health complications. At about 9 a.m. on Friday in Madison, Ala., just days into his visit, Patel was strolling through his family’s neighborhood when he was approached by police. A neighbor had called authorities and told them a man who looked “suspicious” was peering into garages, according to the Huntsville Times. That man, police determined, was Patel. Within minutes, the 57-year-old grandfather was face down on the ground with a severe neck injury that left him partially paralyzed.
The Police department released portions of audio and video pertaining to the incident. In a non-emergency call to police, a neighbor described Patel as a “skinny black guy” and said that he’d “never seen him before” in the neighborhood. Patel, he said, was “just wandering around” and “walking close to the garage.” The caller added that he was following Patel at a distance. When asked to estimate his age, the caller guessed Patel was in his 30′s. The neighbor also told the police dispatcher he was “nervous” leaving his wife because of Patel’s presence in the neighborhood.
Two videos of the incident later released by Madison police include both audio of the officers involved, and visuals of the exchange. In one video, a pair of officers approach Patel and ask him where he’s headed, what his address is, and request to see his ID. One officer says, “he’s saying ‘no English.’ ” The second officer continues to ask Patel questions, including “are you looking at houses and stuff?” Sureshbhai Patel said he tried to tell the officers that he doesn’t speak English by saying “No English. Indian. Walking,” according to the lawsuit. He says he repeated his son’s house number and pointed toward the residence.
In the police video, an officer then tells Patel, “Do not jerk away from me again. If you do, I’m gonna put you on the ground.” The officer asks, “Do you understand?” and tells Patel to “relax.” That’s when an officer twisted his arm behind his back, Patel said, and forced him to the ground, face-first. His face was bloodied, but worse, he also injured his neck and was left paralyzed in his arms and legs, the lawsuit alleges.
One of the two police videos shows the officer holding Patel forcefully, pushing him to the ground. Patel, on the ground, is then told to “chill out” by one of the officers. The officer tells a third, approaching officer that Patel doesn’t “speak a lick of English,” and that they were trying to pat him down. “I don’t know what his problem is, but he won’t listen,” one of the officers adds. Patel remains on the ground as the officers call for medical assistance. “Stand up, let’s go,” one officer says. “You’re all right.” For several minutes, the officers repeatedly attempt to get Patel off the ground and into a patrol car. One officer asks, “He OK?”
Sherrod, the family’s attorney, said things went wrong as soon as a neighbor who didn’t recognize Patel called police and reported suspicious activity. “This is broad daylight, walking down the street,” Sherrod told the Huntsville Times. “There is nothing suspicious about Mr. Patel other than he has brown skin.” Sherrod said officers left Patel on the ground, injured and bloodied and in desperate need of a paramedic. “This is just one of those things that doesn’t need to happen,” the attorney said. “That officer doesn’t need to be on the streets.” Speaking to The Post after the Thursday press conference, Sherrod said that he “appreciates [the police] doing the right thing on Thursday,” but criticized the department for not acting sooner. “On Monday they were trying to blame Mr. Patel,” he added. Patel underwent cervical fusion surgery to relieve pressure on his spinal cord and has regained some feeling in his arms and one leg. He remains partially paralyzed. His left leg is entirely or mostly paralyzed and he lacks grip strength in his arms, the lawsuit said. A fund was established to help cover the cost of Patel’s medical care and a recovery that could take months. He does not have health insurance.
Michel Martin March 31, 2015 4:58 AM ET
It's an open secret among African-American men and boys that people are often afraid of them. This week, we've brought that conversation to the airways and social media. We spoke with Paul Butler, a Georgetown University law professor, and Doyin Richard, a blogger at a parenting blog, Daddydoinwork.com, to talk about how these experiences have affected them.
Prof. Paul Butler: [I was] walking home in my beautiful upper-middle-class neighborhood in D.C., when the cops start following me —kind of like this cat and mouse thing. They are in their car, and you know, every time I move they move. And we get up to my house and I just stop on the street and say 'what are you doing? And then they say 'what are you doing?' I say 'I live here.' They say 'prove it.' They made me go to my porch, and then when I got there I said, 'you know what, I don't have to proof nothing.' I knew this because I am a law professor. They said, 'we are not leaving until you go in the house, because we think you're a burglar.' I say 'you're doing this because I am black.' They said, 'no, we are not, were black too,' and that was true. These were African-American officers. Even they were racial profiling me, another black man.
Blogger Doyin Richards: When I was out with my oldest daughter, who's [four-years-old], we were in a shopping mall, in a garage in Los Angeles...and there was a lady, who was with her husband. And I could tell they were just really nervous around me. And then we went to an ATM — I had to get some money — and there's another couple and I heard the woman say 'Hurry up, let's go, let's go.' Like I was going to rob them, and my daughter was all like 'What happened dad? What was that all about?' And I have to go into this conversation, 'Well honey, sometimes people look at the color of my skin and they think I am a threat to them.'
On how to appear non-threatening
Blogger Doyin Richards: Sometimes if I am walking down a street or something, I am whistling Frozen songs just to prove that ... 'Hey I have kids, I am not a threat to you. I just want to go home to my family.' So often people just view this as, 'Oh gosh, you're just whining,' or 'they are just making excuses or pulling out some mythical race card that doesn't exist.' This is a real thing.
Prof. Paul Butler: When you're in an elevator or walking behind somebody and you feel like you have to perform to make them feel safe, it's like apologizing for your existence. So I am in an elevator with a white woman and I have to look down to make her feel comfortable. It's like 'excuse poor black me.' And you get angry and you get tired. But as a prosecutor, you also kind of understand where some these attitudes come from. Because while most black men don't commit any crime, of men who commit crime, a disproportionately number are African-American. And so yeah, sometimes there's a tendency to say, 'Well, gee if you other brothers weren't doing this, I wouldn't have to be in this position."
On being proud of being a black man.
Prof. Paul Butler: one problem with conversations like this, is it doesn't get across that I love being a black man. I feel connected, like when I see President Obama's swag, I get that as a black man. When I hear Jay Z's cool ... I kind absorb and relate as well. Sometime we don't talk about the joy of this identity, and how proud I am to be African-American and a man.
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Why are Jews nonwhite?
Eugenics (from Greek "well-born") is the belief and practice which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population through the promotion of higher reproduction of people with desired traits (positive eugenics), and reduced reproduction and or sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits (negative eugenics). The modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in Britain and spread to many countries, including the US and most European countries. In this period eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies meant to improve the genetic stock of their countries. Such programs often included both "positive" measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and "negative" measures such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction.
People deemed unfit to reproduce often included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges of different IQ tests, criminals and deviants, and members of disfavored minority groups. The eugenics movement reached a climax in Nazi Germany where a state policy of racial hygiene based on eugenic principles led to the Holocaust and the murder by the German state of at least 10 million people. In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries gradually abandoned eugenics policies, although some Western countries, among them Sweden and the US, continued to carry out forced sterilizations for several decades.
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