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As we have said many times, on many pages of this site, the White man has created a "Fantasy History" for himself. This because the White man has no history of his own, as he was a very late comer to civilized lands and people, and but a primitive bit player in the history lived and created by highly advanced Black people. But the White man ultimately triumphed, by means and methods still unknown to us. Thus he gets to tell the story, and in his retelling of Black history, he has made himself the Black people he tells us about. Thus we as Black people, really have no clear way to differentiate, in the history as told by Whites, between the actions and activities of Black people, and those of Whites, because in the White mans lying history, they are ALL Whites!
In support of his false history, the White man has created fake images of Whites, and given them the names of important Blacks in history. In other cases, he has modified pictures of Black people, to make them appear to be White people - we call that Whitenizing.
As in the Black Britain section, here we are using "Off-the-shelf" White history. Our interest is not in it's accuracy, we know that as far as race is concerned it is a lie, thus were have no way of knowing what else is lies. But since our purpose is to point out who the Black people were, the accuracy of the actual history is of no great importance.
Legitimate Black researchers, (as opposed to those who do it to gain favor with the Albinos and thus make money), must out of necessity, try to reconstruct history by bits and pieces. The Albinos have after all, had over 200 years to create their false paintings, statues, and false translations of historical documents.
The task of parsing their lies from the truth is indeed daunting. But every now and then, we uncover an artifact so revealing, that it answers many of our questions, such as; What race were the Holy Roman Emperors? What race were the Inca? Who was the last Black Spanish King? When did the Spanish start depicting Jesus as an Albino instead of a Black man? All of these question have been answered by a painting of the Inca king list, painted circa 1800 in Peru.
All related pages have been updated with this new information: i.e. South America-2 and here, in the Charles V section.
Whites write all sorts of nonsense to confuse us on the race and nature of the original Central and Eastern Europeans. But the "Authentic" artifacts NEVER lie. From the skeletons and figurines, we know that they were Blacks. From the other artifacts, we know that they were advanced in pottery making and metallurgy.
In 2005 four multiple burials were discovered near Eulau, Germany. The 4,600-year-old graves contained groups of (Black) adults and children buried facing each other. Skeletal and artifactual evidence and the simultaneous interment of the individuals suggest the supposed families fell victim to a violent event.
Genetic analysis of four bodies found in a 4,600-year-old grave shows that they belonged to a mother, a father and their two sons, who were buried together in one another's arms. The neolithic remains, which belong to a man aged between 40 and 60, a woman aged between 35 and 50, and boys aged 4 to 5 and 8 to 9, provide the earliest firm evidence for the existence of nuclear family units.
They may also bear witness to an ancient massacre: they were interred along with nine others in four graves, and many of the bodies show signs of a violent end. One female had a stone projectile head embedded in a vertebra, another had a fractured skull, and others had cut-marks on their hands and forearms consistent with self-defense. Most of the dead were children or women, and only one of the bodies belonged to a man in his prime. It is likely that these people were murdered in a raid by a rival tribe, before the survivors returned to bury their dead. A second grave may also hold a less conventional family unit: it contains the bodies of an infant girl, two brothers aged 4 to 5 and 7 to 9, and a woman aged between 30 and 38.
DNA tests show that the other two boys were probably brothers, and although the woman could not have been their mother, she is thought to have been a paternal aunt or stepmother. The baby's body has been too badly preserved for a family relationship to be established.
Wolfgang Haak, of the University of Adelaide, who led the research, said that in each grave, the bodies were arranged in positions that appear to have been symbolic of their relationships. In the case of the nuclear family, the man and woman were placed face-to-face with arms and hands linked, and the two boys were also facing one another. This is unusual for graves from this period, known as the Corded Ware Culture after its typical pots decorated with twisted cords.
As would be expected, finding Black people with the R1a gene has thrown White genetics into a tailspin. (It was long thought that haplogroup "R" was a White clade, introduced into Europe with the Kugan (White people) migrations from Central Asia which started at about 1,500 B.C.). Therefore a NEW theory was needed!
The NEW theory: "Haplogroup R1a is common in many parts of Eurasia and is frequently discussed in human population genetics and genetic genealogy. One sub-clade (branch) of R1a, currently designated R1a1a, is much more common than the others in all major geographical regions. R1a1a, defined by the SNP mutation M17, is particularly common in a large region extending from South Asia and Southern Siberia to Central Europe and Scandinavia.
Currently, the R1a family is defined most broadly by the SNP mutation M420. The recent discovery of M420 resulted in a reorganization of the known family tree of R1a, in particular establishing a new paragroup (designated R1a*) for lineages which are not in the R1a1 branch leading to R1a1a.
R1a and R1a1a were once believed to have originated somewhere within Eurasia, thought to be in the area from Eastern Europe to South Asia. But the most recent studies indicate that South Asia (India) is a more likely region of origin than Europe." Actually, like all Human genes, "R" was originally an African gene, and is still found there.
The earliest known farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture found in the Derenburg Meerenstieg graveyard, Germany.
Male haplogroups found in the graveyard.
Y-DNA haplogroups - "F" - M89 and "G2a3" - M201, P287, S126 (L30)
Female haplogroups found in the graveyard.
MtDNA haplogroups - HV, H, N1a, N1a1a1, N1a1b, N1a, T, T2, K, W, J, V.
Many modern scholars describe the historical Celts as a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age in Central Europe (the Hallstatt period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (the La Tène period), Celts had expanded over a wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far north as Scotland.
So let us trace the origins of the Hallstatt culture.
It begins with the "Corded Ware" culture
The Corded Ware culture receives its name "Corded Ware" from the frequent use of decorative cord impressions on the pots, which differed from the earlier Pit-Comb Ware culture, Single Grave from its burial custom, and Battle Axe from its characteristic grave offering to males, a stone battle axe (which was by this time an inefficient weapon, but still a traditional status symbol).
The Corded Ware culture is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (Stone Age), flourishes through the Copper Age and finally culminates in the early Bronze Age, developing in various areas from about 3200 B.C. to 2300 B.C. It represents the introduction of metal into Northern Europe. Corded Ware culture is commonly associated with the Indo-European family of languages.
Corded Ware culture was the culmination of an interaction of opposing tendencies in the area of the North European Plain (between Denmark and Kiev) and between the expansionism in eastern Europe and the local sedentism of farmers in the west. The traditional view of this pottery representing a series of pan-European migrations from the steppe region of southern Russia has been abandoned. Also, Corded Ware Culture communities are now seen as sedentary agriculturalists.
Corded Ware ceramic forms in single graves develop earlier in Poland than in western and southern Central Europe. Contemporary development of non-ceramic Corded Ware burial rites in the western parts have been explained as a spread of Corded Ware cultural traits through a wide-spanning communication network rather than through migration, suggesting the existence of an "A-Horizon" in the 28th century B.C, to be understood as a number of connecting forms within different regional contexts.
It spread to the Lüneburger Heide and then further to the North European Plain, Rhineland, Switzerland, Scandinavia, the Baltic region and Russia to Moscow, where the culture met with the pastoralists (animal herders) considered indigenous to the steppes (white people). On most of the immense, continental expanse the culture is clearly intrusive.
The Bell-Beaker culture ca. 2800 – 1900 B.C, is the term for a widely scattered cultural phenomenon of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic running into the early Bronze Age. The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on their distinctive pottery drinking vessels.
Beaker culture is defined by the common use of a pottery style — a beaker with a distinctive inverted bell-shaped profile found across the western part of Europe during the late 3rd millennium B.C. The pottery is well-made, usually red or red-brown in colour, and ornamented with horizontal bands of incised, excised or impressed patterns. The early Bell Beakers have been described as "International" in style, as they are found in all areas of the Bell Beaker culture. These include cord-impressed types, such as the "All Over Corded" (or "All Over Ornamented"), and the "Maritime" type, decorated with bands filled with impressions made with a comb or cord. Later characteristic regional styles developed.
It has been suggested that the beakers were designed for the consumption of alcohol and that the introduction of the substance to Europe may have fueled the beakers' spread. Beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups. Some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. Beakers may have been a special form of pottery with a ritual character.
Many theories of the origins of the Bell Beakers have been put forward and subsequently challenged. The Iberian peninsula has been argued as the most likely place of Beaker origin. The oldest AOO shards have so far been found in northern Portugal. Bell Beaker is often suggested as a candidate for an early Indo-European culture or, more specifically, an ancestral proto-Celtic or proto-Italic (Italo-Celtic) culture. The Kurgan hypothesis initially proposed by Marija Gimbutas derived the Beakers from east central European cultures that became "kurganized" by incursions of Steppe Tribes (White people). Her general proposition is supported, though with modifications, by archaeologists J. P. Mallory, and David Anthony.
Note: The "Kurgan hypothesis" traces the migrations of White people from Central Asia into Europe.
The Unetice Culture, is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. The eponymous site is located at Únětice, northwest of Prague. It was named after finds in Aunjetitz, Bohemia and is now focused around the Czech Republic, southern and central Germany, and western Poland. It grew out of beaker roots. It is dated from 2300-1600 B.C. (Bronze A1 and A2 in the chronological schema of Paul Reinecke). The Sky Disc of Nebra is associated with the Unetice culture.
The 3,600-year-old Sky Disc of Nebra, was uncovered in 1999 and surfaced in 2002 when German grave robbers tried to sell it on the international market.
The enigma of a priceless Bronze Age disc seems to have been solved by a Hamburg scientist who has identified it as one of the world's first astronomical clocks. The 3,600-year-old Sky Disc of Nebra, which surfaced four years ago when German grave robbers tried to sell it on the international market, shows that Bronze Age man had a sophisticated sense of time.
"We have been dramatically underestimating the prehistoric peoples," said Harald Meller, chief archaeologist of Saxony-Anhalt, where the disc was found.
The bronze disc is about 30cm in diameter, has a blue-green patina and is inlaid with a gold sun, moon and 32 stars. Robbers using metal detectors found it in 1999 alongside a pile of bronze axes and swords in a prehistoric enclosure on top of a hill in deep forest 112 miles (180km) southwest of Berlin.
The Nebra settlement is close to Europe's oldest observatory in Goseck. The site appears to have had deep spiritual significance in the Bronze Age. From the hill it is possible to see the sun set at every equinox behind the Brocken, the highest mountain peak of the Harz range. And there are about 1,000 barrows, burial grounds for warriors and princes, in the nearby forests.
Since police tracked down the thieves in Switzerland in 2002, archaeologists and astronomers have been trying to puzzle out the disc's function. Ralph Hansen, an astronomer in Hamburg, found that the disc was an attempt to co-ordinate the solar and lunar calendars. It was almost certainly a highly accurate timekeeper that told Bronze Age Man when to plant seeds and when to make trades, giving him an almost modern sense of time.
Herr Hansen first tried to explain the thickness of the moon on the disc. "The crescent on the Sky Disc of Nebra seems to be equivalent to a four-day moon," he said.
He consulted the 7th and 6th century B.C. mul-apin collection of Babylonian documents in the British Museum. It appears that the users of the 3,600- year-old clock made similar calculations. The disc was used to determine when a 13th month should be added to the lunar year, which has shorter months than the solar year. Herr Maller said: "Probably only a very small group of people understood the clock."
But the knowledge was somehow lost, and scientists say that the clock would have been used for only about 300 years. Herr Maller said: "In the end, the disc became a cult object."
The 32-centimeter disc and weighs approximately 2 kilograms is decorated with gold leaf symbols that clearly represent a crescent moon, a circle that was probably the full moon and starts. A cluster of seven dots has been interpreted as the Pleiades constellation as it appeared 3,600 years ago, scattered other stars and three arcs, all picked out in gold leaf from a background rendered violet-blue -- apparently by applying rotten eggs. The formations on the disc are clearly based on previous astrological observations and that astronomical knowledge was tied to a mythological-cosmological worldview right from the beginning.
Although an earlier impression of the cosmos dating from 2400 B.C has been found in Egypt, The painting was found in the burial chamber in the pyramid of the Egyptian pharaoh Unas, which is decorated with stars.
The Tumulus culture dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600 B.C. to 1200 B.C.). It was the descendant of the Unetice culture. Its heartland the area previously occupied by the Unetice culture besides Bavaria and Württemberg. It was succeeded by the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture. As the name implies, the Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds (tumuli).
The Trundholm sun chariot is a late Bronze Age artifact discovered in Denmark. The sculpture was discovered in 1902 in the Trundholm moor in West Zealand County on the northwest coast of the island of Zealand in Denmark. The sculpture has been dated to the 18th to the 16th century B.C. It has been interpreted as a depiction of the sun being pulled by a mare.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC - 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields. The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture. As there are no written sources, the languages spoken by the bearers of the Urnfield culture are unknown. Some scholars consider them to be the ancestors of the Celts. Urnfield material is found in some of the areas where later people were to be called "Kelt" or "Galatoi" by classical authors (who had never been there). As we do not know how processes of ethnogenesis work or how long they last, and whether a common material culture is always associated with social and political unity, this is highly contested.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries B.C. (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century B.C. (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture. By the 6th century B.C, the Halstatt culture extended for some 1000 km, from the Champagne-Ardenne in the west, through the Upper Rhine and the upper Danube, as far as the Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland in the east, from the Main, Bohemia and the Little Carpathians in the north, to the Swiss plateau, the Salzkammergut and to Lower Styria. It is named for its type site, Hallstatt, a lakeside village in the Austrian Salzkammergut southeast of Salzburg. The culture is commonly linked to Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in its western zone and with pre-Illyrians in its eastern zone. (In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, corresponding to parts of the former Yugoslavia and Albania, it was inhabited by the Illyrians).
The Lichtenstein Cave is an archaeological site near Dorste, Lower Saxony, Germany. The cave is 115 meters long and was discovered in 1972. Finds include the skeletal remains of 21 females and 19 males from the Bronze Age, about 3000 years old. In addition, about 100 bronze objects (ear, arm and finger rings, bracelets) and ceramic parts from the Urnfield Culture were found.
Both mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA tests were conducted on the skeletons and published by the University of Göttingen.
Mitochondrial haplogroups found included 17 from H, 5 from T2, 9 from U5b and 5 from J*.
Y-chromosome DNA - Out of the 19 males represented in the cave, 15 yielded the full 12 tested STR values, with twelve showing haplotypes related to I2b2 (at least four lineages), two to R1a (probably one lineage), and one to R1b predicted haplogroups.
As we can see from the Lichtenstein Cave results, the Black populations of ancient Central and Eastern Europe were quite diverse.
The Celts were driven West and south, by incoming Albino Germanic tribes, who themselves were being chased out of Asia by the Huns of Mongolia. The Huns were a group of nomadic people who migrated into Europe c. AD 370, and built up an enormous empire in Europe. The Huns had a language of their own; but very little of it has survived, and its relationships have been the subject of debate for centuries.
It is thought by many, that the Huns may have stimulated the "Great Migration" a contributing factor in the collapse of the western Roman Empire. They formed a unified empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453; their empire broke up the next year. Their descendants, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighboring populations to the south, east, and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia roughly from the 4th century to the 6th century. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.
The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions (and in German: Völkerwanderung 'migration of peoples'), was a period of human migration that occurred during roughly 300–700 A.D. in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These movements were catalyzed by profound changes within both the Roman Empire and the so-called "barbarian frontier". Migrating peoples during this period included the Huns, and the Albino Germanic tribes: Goths, Vandals, Avars, Bulgars, Alans, Suebi, Frisians, among other Germanic and Slavic tribes.
HERODOTUS circa 440 B.C.
Book 4: [4.108] The Budini are a large and powerful nation: they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair. (At this time the Budini were still in their home territory east of the Tanais (Don) River, in what is now modern day Russia.
Tacitus (56-118 A.D.)
The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) Tacitus: Germany Book 1 . Describing the Germanics, who along with the Slav's and Turks are the current White people in the world. (The Germanics have by now migrated across northern Europe and settled in western Europe and Britain).
Here Tacitus is describing the western Germanics: (They) All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.
We know from those ancient descriptions "Exactly" what the ancient Germanics, Slav's, and Turks, looked like. And it just so happens that the Bhatti tribe in Pakistan still produces Albinos exactly like the original Germanics, Slav's, and Turks.
People of the Bhatti tribe in Pakistan
Next came the massive entry of Albinos from Central Asia (during this period Asia was almost completely emptied of Albinos): The Byzantine historian Zosimus (491-518), In his book "Historia Nova" gives this account as to why the White tribes (Germanics and Slavs) started westward into Europe.
Quote: While these affairs were so conducted, a barbarous nation, which till then had remained unknown, suddenly made its appearance, attacking the Scythians beyond the Ister. These were the Huns. It is doubtful whether they were Scythians, who lived under regal government, or the people whom Herodotus states to reside near the Ister, and describes as a weak people with flat noses, or whether they came into Europe from Asia. For I have met with, a tradition, which relates that the Cimmerian Bosphorus was rendered firm land by mud brought down the Tanais, by which they were originally afforded a land-passage from Asia into Europe. However this might be, they, with their wives, children, horses, and carriages, invaded the Scythians who resided on the Ister; and though they were not capable of fighting on foot, nor understood in what, manner even to walk, since they could not fix their feet firmly on the ground, but live perpetually, and even sleep, on horseback, yet by the rapidity with which they wheeled about their horses, by the suddenness of their excursions and retreat, shooting as they rode, they occasioned great slaughter among the Scythians. In this they were so incessant, that the surviving Scythians were compelled to leave their habitations to these Huns, and crossing the Ister, to supplicate the emperor to receive them, on their promise to adhere to him as faithful soldiers. The officers of the fortified towns near the Ister deferred complying with this petition, until they should learn the pleasure of the emperor, who permitted them to be received without their arms. The tribunes and other officers therefore went over to bring the Barbarians unarmed into the Roman territory; but occupied themselves solely in the gratification of their brutal appetites, or in procuring slaves, neglecting every thing that related to public affairs. A considerable number therefore crossed over with their arms, through this negligence. These, on arriving into the Roman dominion, forgot both their petition and their oaths. Thus all Thrace, Pannonia, and the whole country as far as Macedon and Thessaly were filled with Barbarians, who pillaged all in their way.
Jordanes, (circa 551 A.D)
The Roman historian Jordanes, in his book on the history of the Goths, called "Getica" (circa 551 A.D), gives a similar account as to why the White tribes (Germanics and Slavs - Turks came later) started westward into Europe.
Quote: But after a short space of time, as Orosius relates, the race of the Huns, fiercer than ferocity itself, flamed forth against the Goths. We learn from old traditions that their origin was as follows: Filimer, king of the Goths, son of Gadaric the Great, who was the fifth in succession to hold the rule of the Getae after their departure from the island of Scandza,--and who, as we have said, entered the land of Scythia with his tribe,--found among his people certain witches, whom he called in his native tongue Haliurunnae. Suspecting these women, he expelled them from the midst of his race and compelled them to wander in solitary exile afar from his army. (122) There the unclean spirits, who beheld them as they wandered through the wilderness, bestowed their embraces upon them and begat this savage race, which dwelt at first in the swamps,--a stunted, foul and puny tribe, scarcely human, and having no language save one which bore but slight resemblance to human speech. Such was the descent of the Huns who came to the country of the Goths.
(129) When the Getae beheld this active race that had invaded many nations, they took fright and consulted with their king how they might escape from such a foe. Now although Hermanaric, king of the Goths, was the conqueror of many tribes, as we have said above, yet while he was deliberating on this invasion of the Huns, the treacherous tribe of the Rosomoni, who at that time were among those who owed him their homage, took this chance to catch him unawares. For when the king had given orders that a certain woman of the tribe I have mentioned, Sunilda by name, should be bound to wild horses and torn apart by driving them at full speed in opposite directions (for he was roused to fury by her husband's treachery to him), her brothers Sarus and Ammius came to avenge their sister's death and plunged a sword into Hermanaric's side. Enfeebled by this blow, he dragged out a miserable existence in bodily weakness. (130) Balamber, king of the Huns, took advantage of his ill health to move an army into the country of the Ostrogoths, from whom the Visigoths had already separated because of some dispute. Meanwhile Hermanaric, who was unable to endure either the pain of his wound or the inroads of the Huns, died full of days at the great age of one hundred and ten years. The fact of his death enabled the Huns to prevail over those Goths who, as we have said, dwelt in the East and were called Ostrogoths.
The White (Albino) migrations from Central Asia
(131) The Visigoths, who were their other allies and inhabitants of the western country, were terrified as their kinsmen had been, and knew not how to plan for safety against the race of the Huns. After long deliberation by common consent they finally sent ambassadors into Romania to the Emperor Valens, brother of Valentinian, the elder Emperor, to say that if he would give them part of Thrace or Moesia to keep, they would submit themselves to his laws and commands. That he might have greater confidence in them, they promised to become Christians, if he would give them teachers who spoke their language. (132) When Valens learned this, he gladly and promptly granted what he had himself intended to ask. He received the Getae into the region of Moesia and placed them there as a wall of defense for his kingdom against other tribes. And since at that time the Emperor Valens, who was infected with the Arian perfidy, had closed all the churches of our party, he sent as preachers to them those who favored his sect. They came and straightway filled a rude and ignorant people with the poison of their heresy. Thus the Emperor Valens made the Visigoths Arians rather than Christians. (133) Moreover, from the love they bore them, they preached the gospel both to the Ostrogoths and to their kinsmen the Gepidae, teaching them to reverence this heresy, and they invited all people of their speech everywhere to attach themselves to this sect. They themselves as we have said, crossed the Danube and settled Dacia Ripensis, Moesia and Thrace by permission of the Emperor.
Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, the Rhodope mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east. The areas it comprises are southeastern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and the European part of Turkey (Eastern Thrace). The biggest part of Thrace is part of present-day Bulgaria.
In Thrace, the agreement made by Rome with the Albino Goths, resulted in the local Black Kings having to take Albino princesses as wives. Naturally the common Blacks were expected to do the same. This resulted in a partially mulatto society.
Thus the Huns forced "MOST" Whites out of their ancestral lands in Asia, and into Europe: causing death and displacement for the native Blacks in Europe. Hungary was a center of Hun activity so we will have a look at ancient Hungary. As an interesting note: the Albinos say the following "The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic On-Ogur (meaning "ten" Ogurs), which was the name of the Utigur Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars, and prior to the arrival of Magyars. Strange, wouldn't it seem more reasonable that Hungary is derived from "Hun" the powerful nation of Mongols who once ruled it? We can't help but wonder if the fact of the Blackness of the Huns might have something to do with that nonsense.
Hungary's original inhabitants were the Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century B.C. it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 B.C, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus Caesar, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak). The country was not however, definitely subdued until 9 B.C, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube.
In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus Julius Caesar (He received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 B.C, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania). After a hard-fought campaign which lasted for three years, the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube.
Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia Inferior (eastern part with the capital Aquincum). According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona (Győr) in the north to Servitium (Gradiška) in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east.
(The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the former Principality of Moldavia (modern eastern Romania). The archaeology of Moldavia in the period 106-318 shows the coexistence of two distinct material cultures, one sedentary, the other exhibiting the features of a nomadic steppe culture - the Albinos. The sedentary culture was on a material level not significantly higher than other barbarian regions on the fringes of the Roman empire. The ethnic affiliation of the Carpi remains disputed, as there is no direct evidence in the surviving ancient literary sources. A strong body of modern scholarly opinion considers that the Carpi were a tribe of the Dacian nation. Other scholars have linked the Carpi to a variety of ethnic groups, including Sarmatians, Thracians, Germans, and Celts).
For five hundred years the Carpathian Basin had been "the people's highway", with various White tribes such as the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths and the Lombards migrating across the area after sojourning for various lengths of time. Later, the Western Roman Empire collapsed under the stress of this migration of Germanic tribes, and Carpian pressure. After four centuries of existence, Roman civilization was swept away by the great migrations of Albino peoples.
Later, the Huns who had been chasing the Albinos out of Asia arrived: that was the military power that finally forced the withdrawal of the Roman legions. In the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II.
The Huns were a nomadic pastoral people from Mongolia eastern Asia who invaded Europe circa 370 A.D, and created an enormous empire centered in Germany. They were possibly the descendants of the Xiongnu, a northern people who were frequently at war with the Shang of China. Note, the Turkic, so-called "White Huns" (Hephthalites) had no direct connection with the Huns, these were White tribes who deliberately called themselves Huns, in order to frighten their enemies.
The historian Priscus (circa 450 A.D.) was a Greek-speaking Roman citizen who often meant with Attila, he described Attila’s personal features in his works, which are now mostly lost. Jordanes was a 6th century Roman bureaucrat who turned his hand to history later in life, he quotes Priscus thusly: When Attila's brother Bleda who ruled over a great part of the Huns had been slain by Attila's treachery, the latter united all the people under his own rule. Gathering also a host of the other tribes which he then held under his sway he sought to subdue the foremost nations of the world---the Romans and Visigoths. His army is said to have numbered 500,000 men. He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands, who in some way terrified all mankind by the dreadful rumors noised abroad concerning him. He was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes here and there, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. He was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants and lenient to those who were once received into his protection. He was short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head: his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with gray: and he had a flat nose and a swarthy complexion showing the evidences of his origin..
The images above are taken from this Chinese scroll
During Atila's reign he was one of the most feared enemies of both the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans. The Huns invaded the Sassanid Persian Empire. When defeated in Armenia by the Sassanians, the Huns abandoned their invasion and turned their attentions back to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty.
Crossing the Danube, they laid waste to the cities of Illyricum and forts on the river, including (according to Priscus) Viminacium, a city of Moesia. Their advance began at Margus, where they demanded that the Romans turn over a bishop who had retained property that Attila regarded as his. While the Romans discussed turning the Bishop over, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them.
While the Huns attacked city-states along the Danube, the Albino Vandals led by Geiseric captured the Western Roman province of Africa and its capital of Carthage. Carthage was the richest province of the Western Empire and a main source of food for Rome. The Romans stripped the Balkans area of forces to use them to defeat the Vandals in Africa, which left Attila a clear path through Illyricum into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army sacked Margus and Viminacium, and then took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium. During 442 Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large issue of new coins to finance operations against the Huns. Believing he could defeat the Huns, he refused Atila's demands.
Attila responded with a campaign in 443. Striking along the Danube, the Huns, equipped with new military weapons like the battering rams and rolling siege towers, overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš). Advancing along the Nisava River, the Huns next took Serdica, Philippopolis, and Arcadiopolis. They encountered and destroyed a Roman army outside Constantinople but were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern Roman capital (Constantinople - Byzantium). They defeated a second army near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli). Theodosius, stripped of his armed forces, admitted defeat, sending the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius to negotiate peace terms. The terms were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 2000 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 700 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi.
In 450, Attila proclaimed his intent to attack the Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse by making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its influential general Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided him against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans. However, Emperor Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent Atila a plea for help – and her engagement ring – in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill his sister Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.
Attila gathered his vassals—Gepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451, he arrived in Belgica with an army half a million strong. Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orléans ahead of Attila, thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Catalaunum (modern Châlons-en-Champagne).
The two armies clashed in the Battle of Châlons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a strategic victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. The Albino king Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visigothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious.
Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po. By this point disease and starvation may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion.
Emperor Valentinian III sent three envoys, the high civilian officers Gennadius Avienus and Trigetius, as well as the Bishop of Rome Leo I, who met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the Emperor. After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had stopped. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder).
Attila died in the early months of 453: The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests she was Albino) he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where dilated veins in the lower part of the esophagus rupture leading to death by hemorrhage.
Jordanes says: "The greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men." His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes: "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?" Then they celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret.
Justinian II (669 – 711) was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II generated enormous opposition to his reign, and it resulted in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, and he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav army. His second reign was even more despotic than the first, and it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him.
The University of Calgary: Applied History Research Group - The End of Europe's Middle Ages
Origins of the Ottoman Empire
Pressured out of their homes in the Asian steppes by the Mongols, the Turkish tribes converted to Islam during the eighth and ninth centuries. By the tenth century, one of the Turkish tribes, the seljuk , had become a significant power in the Islamic world and had adopted a settled life that included Islamic orthodoxy, a central administration, and taxation. However, many other Turkish groups remained nomadic and, pursuing the gazi tradition, sought to conquer land for Islam and to acquire war booty for themselves. This led them into conflict with the Seljuk Turks, and to pacify the nomadic tribes, the Seljuks directed them to the eastern domain of the Byzantine Empire, Anatolia. The tribe known as the Ottomans arose from one of the smaller emirates established in northwestern Anatolia after 1071. The dynasty was named for Osman (1259-1326), who began to expand his kingdom into the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor, moving his capital to Bursa in 1326.
With the coming of the White Turks, now Blacks in Anatolia, Arabia, the Middle East, and North Africa, would be killed and displaced - and many who survived would be "Absorbed": creating a new "Sub-Race" of "Brown-Skinned" Turks, who often call themselves Arabs: vis-à-vis their Islamic religion. They are now the ruling elite in North Africa, the middle East, and Arabia.
Conversely: the Black Asians would themselves be "Absorbed" by the remaining Central Asian Albinos and Mongol Albinos: Producing the modern Asian. In 1218, Genghis Khan - one of these now "Whitenized" Asians, sent a trade mission to the Turk Qutb ud-Dīn Muhammad I (who by 1205 had conquered the remaining parts of the Great Seljuq Empire, proclaiming himself Shah (king): he called himself "Khwarezm-Shah"), but at the town of Otrara (a Central Asian town that was located along the Silk Road near the current town of Karatau in Kazakhstan) the governor there, suspecting the Khan's ambassadors to be spies, confiscated their goods and executed them. Genghis Khan demanded reparations, which the Shah refused to pay. Genghis Khan then sent a second, purely diplomatic mission, they too were murdered. Genghis retaliated with a force of 200,000 men, launching a multi-pronged invasion, his guides were Muslim merchants from Transoxania. During the years 1220–21, Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat (all Central Asian cities), Tus (Susa), and Neyshabur (Persian cities) were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered. (This represented the first wholesale slaughter of Black Persians).
The advance into Europe continued with Mongol invasions of Poland, Hungary and Transylvania. When the western flank of the Mongols plundered Polish cities, a European alliance consisting of the Poles, the Moravians, the Christian military orders of the Hospitallers, Teutonic Knights and the Templars assembled sufficient forces to halt the Mongol advance at Legnica, but only briefly. The Hungarian army, their Croatian allies and the Templar Knights were beaten by Mongols at the banks of Sajo River on April 11, 1241. After their victories over European Knights at Legnica and Muhi, Mongol armies quickly advanced across Bohemia, Serbia, Babenberg Austria and into the Holy Roman Empire. But before Batu's forces could continue into Vienna and northern Albania, he received news of Ogedei's death in December 1241. As was customary in Mongol military tradition, all princes of Genghis's line had to attend the kurultai to elect a successor. Batu and his western Mongol army withdrew from Central Europe the next year.
The Chronicon Pictum (Képes Krónika)
The Chronicon Pictum (English: Illuminated Chronicle or Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Hungarian: Képes Krónika - is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the fourteenth century. It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of Louis I of Hungary. The illuminated decoration of the manuscript was performed in the Kingdom of Hungary before 1360 and it provides knowledge of Hungarian life, historical traditions, and legends. Its full name is: Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, that is Illustrated Chronicle, Mark of Kalt's Chronicle About the Deeds of the Hungarians.
The 147 pictures of the chronicle are great source of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history, costume, and court life in the 14th century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold. The artistic value of the miniatures are quite high, if we compare similar miniatures from Western Europe from the same time. The characters are drawn with detail and with knowledge of anatomy. Even the eyeballs are painted, which can only be checked through microscope.
All miniatures showing Attila the Hun are disrupted or even rubbed out (especially the last, showing Attila's death); this cannot be due to the time as all other miniatures and text are preserved well. The miniatures make use of symbolism, i.e. "primus ingressus" ('first incoming') is with a camel, while the "secundus ingressus" ('second incoming') is with a white horse, probably meaning that entering the Carpathian Basin the first time was not a successful or was a culturally diverted act (as the camel is a "diverted" horse and white horse is the "pure quality"). The text of Latin is without error and is representing a high quality.
For unknown reasons, the chronicle was stored in Vienna, Austria, where it was found in the 19th century; this is why it is also referred as "Vienna Illuminated Chronicle". The manuscript is presently kept in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest (Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, Budapest).
In the 560s the Avars (a highly organized nomadic confederacy of mixed origins: They were ruled by a khagan, who was surrounded by a tight-knit entourage of nomad warriors, an organization characteristic of Turko-Mongol groups: founded the Avar Khaganate, a state which maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries and had the military power to launch attacks against all its neighbours. The Avar Khagnate was weakened by constant wars and outside pressure, and the Black Franks under Charlemagne managed to defeat the Avars, ending their 250-year rule. In the middle of the 9th century, the Slavic Balaton Principality, also known as Lower Pannonia, was established by the Franks as a frontier outpost when they destroyed the Avar state in the western part of the Pannonian plain; however this vassal state was destroyed in 900 by Hungarian tribes.
After the fall of the great Hun and Avar nomadic empires, only the Western Slavic and Southern Slavic people, who had been settling in the area since the 6th and 7th centuries succeeded in establishing themselves in the Carpathian Basin. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some new Albinos crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. The tribe called Magyers was the leading tribe of an alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. The Magyers confederation of Turkic tribes was probably led by two high princes: the kende (their spiritual ruler) and the gyula (their military leader). The high princes were either elected by the leaders of the tribes or appointed by the Khagan of the Khazars (Modern Jews) who had been exerting influence over the Magyars. Around 862 the seven tribes separated from the Khazars.The force led by Árpád is estimated at about 400,000 people, consisting of seven Turkic tribes, one Kabar tribe, and other smaller tribes.
In the first half of the tenth century, during the decades that followed the Conquest, raiding expeditions of Magyar mounted warriors subjected all of Europe to a constant state of terror. In time, however, they began to feel the effects of Western counter-strategy. When the Magyars invaded Bavaria in 955, the armoured cavalry of Otto the Great, of the Black Holy Roman Emperor, checked their advance, and in the decisive battle at Lechfeld it annihilated the Magyar assailants. Although the Magyars launched further attacks on Byzantium following this devastating defeat, it became clear that they had arrived at a decisive historic cross-road. Two alternatives confronted them: either they settle down, form a state and adjust themselves to the people of Europe, or else the same fate would befall them as that of the other nomadic peoples who had been annihilated in previous centuries.
The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty, and the first Christian King was Stephen I, who was crowned on 25 December 1000 (or 1 January 1001) with the crown Pope Sylvester II had sent him with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor. The Roman Catholic Church received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe.
Charles I (1288 – ), the first King of Hungary and Croatia (1308–42) of the House of Anjou. He was also descended from the old Hungarian Árpád dynasty. His claim to the throne of Hungary was contested by several pretenders. Nevertheless, although he was only a child when his grandfather, King Charles II of Naples sent him to Hungary in 1300, Charles would strengthen his rule in the kingdom against his opponents and the powerful magnates following a long series of internal struggles. His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs (Holy Roman Empire). Charles was born in Naples, southern Italy, the only son of Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno and his wife Clementia, a daughter of King Rudolph I of Germany. His paternal grandmother, Mary, a daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary, declared her claim to Hungary following the death of her brother, King Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
The term Angevin Empire is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty.
The Angevins, also known as the House of Anjou, were a noble family founded in the early years of the Carolingian Empire. They first emerged as part of the minor feudal nobility, in what would soon be known as the Kingdom of France during the 10th century. After Geoffrey III, Count of Anjou inherited Anjou from his mother in 1060, the family began to grow in prominence, soon acquiring Maine. After going on crusade and becoming close to the Knights Templar, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was received through marriage by Fulk of Jerusalem in 1131. The senior line of the family branched off to become the House of Plantagenet, assuming the nickname of Geoffrey V of Anjou, its founder, eventually going on to rule the Kingdom of England, Lordship of Ireland, Principality of Wales and various other holdings in the vast Angevin Empire in 1154.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) is a historiographical term which has been used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty in the Early Middle Ages. This dynasty is seen as the founders of France and Germany, and its beginning date is based on the crowning of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, and ends with the death of Charles the Fat. Depending on one's perspective, this Empire can be seen as the later history of the Frankish Realm or the early history of France and of the Holy Roman Empire.
Albino history often implies that the Crusades were about freeing the “Holy Lands” from Arab Muslims. But historically Black Empires never fought over religion, everyone’s religion was simply respected. And this case was no different: The Arabs captured Jerusalem in 638, and from then until the late 11th century, Christians had free and unfettered access to the Holy places of Christendom.
In 1055, the last Arab Abbasid caliph, al-Qa'im (reigned 1031–75), was deposed by the Seljug Turk leader Toghril Beg. After protracted negotiations ensuring restoration of the caliph's dignity, Toghril Beg entered Baghdad in December 1055, the Arab caliph enthroned him as Sultan, then retired, marrying a Seljuq princess. The Turks then installed Al-Muqtadi as Abbasid caliph. Soon after, the Seljuk Turks took control of Jerusalem, and prevented Christian pilgrimages. They later moved against the Byzantine Roman Empire of Roman Emperor Alexus I.
Pope Urban II was responsible for assisting Emperor Alexus I (1081-1118) of Constantinople in launching the first crusade. He made one of the most influential speeches in the Middle Ages, calling on Christian princes in Europe to go on a crusade to rescue the Holy Land from the Turks. In the speech given at the Council of Clermont in France on November 27, 1095, he combined the ideas of making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with that of waging a holy war against infidels.
Dr. E.L. Knox gives a summary of the pope's speech, which has been recorded differently in various sources:
A branch of the Angevins, was a royal house founded by Geoffrey V of Anjou, father of Henry II of England. Plantagenet kings first ruled the Kingdom of England in the 12th century. Their paternal ancestors originated in the French province of Gâtinais and gained the County of Anjou through marriage during the 11th century. The dynasty accumulated several other holdings, building the Angevin Empire that at its peak stretched from the Pyrenees to Ireland and the border with Scotland.
Edward II king of England - House of Plantagenet
Edward's downfall came when his wife Isabella of France and her baronial lover Roger Mortimer set out to depose the king with the help of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, brother of the executed Earl Thomas. In defeat Edward agreed to abdicate the throne in favour of his and Isabella's son, Edward III of England.
Edward III king of England (the Black Prince) - House of Plantagenet
Edward III married Philippa of Hainaut, (1314 – 1369). Hainaut consisted of what is now the Belgian province of Hainaut and the southern part of the French département Nord. In Roman times, Hainaut was situated in the Roman provinces of Belgica and Germania Inferior and inhabited by Celtic tribes (Black people), until Germanic peoples (White people) replaced them and ended Roman Imperial rule.The eldest of her fourteen children was Edward, the Black Prince, who became a renowned military leader. Philppa died at the age of fifty-five from an illness closely related to dropsy. The Queen's College, Oxford was founded in her honour.
Charles I (1288 – 1342), also known as Charles Robert (Caroberto) (Hungarian: Károly Róbert), was the first King of Hungary and Croatia (1308–42) of the House of Anjou. He was also descended from the old Hungarian Árpád dynasty. His claim to the throne of Hungary was contested by several pretenders. Nevertheless, although he was only a child when his grandfather, King Charles II of Naples sent him to Hungary in 1300, Charles would strengthen his rule in the kingdom against his opponents and the powerful magnates following a long series of internal struggles. Charles also carried out numerous important political and economical reforms: he established the so-called honor system which made the powerful barons dependent on his favour, and he introduced new coins with a consistently high purity of gold. Charles's foreign policy largely stemmed from dynastic alliances. His most successful achievement was the mutual defense union with Poland and Bohemia against the Habsburgs. Charles also endeavoured to enforce his or his descendants' claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but he could achieve only sham results. Nevertheless, he was one of the most successful rulers of the Kingdom of Hungary whose efforts established his successor's achievements.
Louis I, the great of Hungary (Ludwik Wegierski) - son of Charles I
Louis was the head of the senior branch of the Angevin dynasty. He was one of the most active and accomplished monarchs of the Late Middle Ages, extending territorial control to the Adriatic and securing Dalmatia, with part of Bosnia and Bulgaria, within the Holy Crown of Hungary. During his reign Hungary reached the peak of its political influence. He spent much of his reign in wars with the Republic of Venice. He was in competition for the throne of Naples, with huge military success and the latter with little lasting political results. Louis is the first European monarch who came into collision with the Ottoman Turks.
In 1342, Louis married his first wife, Margaret (1335 – 1349), underaged daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who died while still a minor. He then married his second wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Stephen II of Bosnia, who became Louis's vassal, and Elisabeth of Kuyavia, in 1353. Louis had three known daughters, all born of his second wife: Catherine (1370 – 1378), Mary, his successor in Hungary, who married Sigismund, at that time Margrave of Brandenburg (1371 – 1395), who became King of Hungary (1387–1437) and Holy Roman Emperor (1433–1437). Hedwige his successor in Poland, who married Jogaila, then Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Later the King Matthias Corvinus was elected by the nobles of the Kingdom, being the first Hungarian monarch which descended from an aristocratic family, and not from a royal family that inherited the title by blood traces. The same happened decades later with the King John I of Hungary, who was elected in 1526 after the death of the King Louis II of Hungary in the battle of Mohács. After this, the House of Habsburg inherited the throne, and ruled Hungary from Austria for almost 500 years until 1918.
The House of Habsburg, also known as House of Austria, is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.
The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, but the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains, to include Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories into the inheritance. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Oñate treaty.
As a result of generations of Habsburg inbreeding, the House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century: The Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch went extinct in the male person in 1740 with the death of Charles VI and in the female person in 1780 with the death of his daughter Maria Theresa and was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg.