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History of Christianity and the Catholic Church

 

The history of the Catholic (universal) Church begins with the teachings of Jesus Christ

who lived in the 1st century A.D. in the kingdom of Judea in the Roman Empire.

The contemporary Catholic Church says that it is the continuation

of the early Christian community established by Jesus.

 

 

Language of the Levant Christians and others:

Aramaic is the language or group of languages of most of the ancient region of the Levant. It belongs to the Northwest Semitic group of the Afroasiatic language family, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew, Amorite, Edomite, Moabite and Phoenician, as well as Ugaritic. The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires, as a language of divine worship and religious study, and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East.

 

 

Historically and originally Aramaic was the language of the Arameans, a Semitic-speaking people of the region between the northern Levant and the northern Tigris valley. By around 1,000 B.C, the Arameans had a string of kingdoms in what is now part of Syria, Jordan, and the fringes of southern Mesopotamia and Anatolia. Aramaic rose to prominence under the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC), under whose influence Aramaic became a prestige language after being adopted as a lingua franca of the empire, and its use spread throughout Mesopotamia, the Levant and parts of Asia Minor. At its height, variants of Aramaic, having gradually replaced earlier Semitic languages, and were spoken all over what is today Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Eastern Arabia, Bahrain, Sinai and parts of southeast and south central Turkey, and parts of northwest Iran. Aramaic was the language of Jesus, who spoke the Galilean dialect during his public ministry, as well as the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and also one of the languages of the Talmud.

Europe

The Black Language of the Black Northern Christians in Rome was Latin, as it was in the "Holy Roman Empire" (centered in Germany), and the "Eastern Roman Empire" (Byzantium) where it was a mix of Latin and Greek (also an original Black language). In the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806), it was changed to German during the reign of Francis II (1768–1835), which leads us to believe that he was the first “Pure” Albino to become Emperor. After the Black Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Francis II became President of the German Confederation.

Today, the languages of modern Europe are mostly derived from the Indo-European language group. These languages first and foremost derive from the Sanskrit languages of India: remembering that Caucasian Albinos are the Albinos of India’s original people, the Black Dravidians. And also that lying European Albinos write the often bogus connections between these languages.

Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language. As one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Luwian, Old Avestan and many other living and extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. It traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan, Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European languages.

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula on the Baltic Sea. English is most closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, while its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Old Norse (a North Germanic language), as well as Latin and French.

General Background:

Note that because Blacks have been completely disenfranchised from historical documents and materials, almost all of it our very own. We are therefore left with no choice but to depend upon our Albino usurpers, rulers, oppressors and sometimes enslavers - as primary sources. Luckily for us, the Albinos have no history of their own to speak of; they don’t even know when they gathered together in Central Asia, mated together, and created their White/Albino Race. Thus they simply dig down into Black history and claim that what they find is the work of White people like themselves. We know this because that is exactly what they have done after their raise to power after their victories in the British Civil Wars and The Thirty Years War on the Continent, they have certainly busied themselves writing histories where they (Albinos) are the historical characters, and there are NO Blacks, except in Africa. That is why throughout Realhistoryww you will find the authentic Portraits and Statues of those unfortunate Blacks of the past. It took us many years to curate these artifacts, and it is our pleasure to present them to you.

 

But to maximize your enjoyment of this presentation,

we suggest/urge you, to open another browser "Tab"

with a Google search at the ready.

Then as you see a picture of a Black person,

Google the name, to see the many ridiculous

FAKE images of this Black person the Albinos have created.

 

Throughout the pages of Realhistoryww we rail against the abject degeneracy of Americas southern Albinos. Please note the Catholic newspaper of North Carolina below; (they show us pictures of WHITE men, and claim that they are the THREE African Popes that they are always telling us about. (Not that they are any worst than the ones in the Vatican) They hide the truth from us, instead of just trying to bullshit us. As you shall see, it is likely that most or all Popes were Black up until the fall of the "Holy Roman Empire."

 

 

 

 

Below on this page; it so happens that we used a least 5-6 portraits of Black Popes to tell our story (None of them from this silly list). Please feel free to ask the people at "Catholic News Herald" about them. P.S. Don't bother trying to ask the people in Vatican City - they won't answer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to the Albinos: Imagine being so un-self-aware that the delusion of your fantasy marks you stupid. European Albinos continue to claim that the ancient Egyptians looked like them (Albinos), and naturally there are multitudes of newly created Paintings and Statues of them as Egyptians to support their claims: see the works of Winifred Brunton. It is therefore for us, of lucid minds, to laugh as we imagine a shirtless Albino tending to his fields under the Egyptian Sun; as the ancient Egyptians showed themselves doing in their paintings. Certainly it would take the Egyptian Sun a very short time to turn that Pink Flesh Crimson, before it kills the foolish Albino.

 

 

 

 

Same thing with their delusion of being Persians (Persia/Iran is even closer to the Equator). The Turks, their mulattoes, and other Albinos and their mulattoes throughout North Africa, the Middle East and Arabia: plus the Blacks who wished to please those in power over the thousand years since the Turks took control over Islam have done: they cover themselves from head to toe to protect themselves from the Sun: or in the case of appeasing Blacks, to protect themselves from retribution.

 

 

These need the head to toe clothing..
 
These Don't.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

And therein lies the rub: Blacks and Albinos are so intertwined in the U.S. That in order to keep Blacks ignorant, you must also keep Albinos ignorant (the average White person does not realize that they are Albinos). Therefore not only does Blacks NOT know WHY they were enslaved, neither do most Albinos know why Blacks were enslaved. It is Mississippi's declaration on the eve of their succession from the Union that we get the true reason.


Mississippi: Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery—the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an “imperious” (meaning power or authority without justification; one arrogant and domineering), law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the Tropical Sun: (today they claim to be the most pious Americans, “The Good, God Fearing People”. Yet they call the supposed works of God “imperious”??) . These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin. The Albinos of the South were so fearful of STARVATION that they sacrificed almost one third of their prime men to hold on to their slaves.

 

 


Civil War

From 1861 to 1865, it is estimated that 620,000 to 750,000 soldiers died, along with an undetermined number of civilians. By one estimate, the war claimed the lives of 10 percent of all Northern men 20–45 years old, and 30 percent of all Southern white men aged 18–40. But as bad-luck would have it, the newly freed slaves had no land, and nowhere to go. Over time, barely surviving Albinos and destitute Blacks settled on a system of “Share Cropping” to keep themselves going. Meanwhile, efforts were afoot to bring manufacturing to the South so that Albino men could have inside, out of the Sun jobs.

 

After the Civil war, many former slaves left the south, over time, they were replaced by Black Share Croppers then Black/Brown immigrant workers from other countries. But in the mean time, former slave owners had to write letters like this, because even though the South was awash with "Dirt-Poor" Albinos willing to kill for a paying job, few were stupid enough to hazard the Sun.

THE LETTER

In August of 1865, a Colonel P.H. Anderson of Big Spring, Tennessee, wrote to his former slave, Jourdon Anderson, and requested that he come back to work on his farm. Jourdon — who, since being emancipated, had moved to Ohio, found paid work, and was now supporting his family — responded spectacularly by way of the letter seen below (a letter which, according to newspapers at the time, he dictated).

In July 1865, a few months after the end of the Civil War, Colonel P. H. Anderson wrote a letter to his former and now freed slave Jordan Anderson asking him to come back and work on the Tennessee plantation, which had been left in disarray from the war. Harvest season was approaching with nobody to bring in the crops; the colonel was making a last-ditch effort to save the farm. Jourdon — who, since being emancipated, had moved to Ohio, found paid work, and was now supporting his family — responded spectacularly by way of the letter seen below (a letter which, according to newspapers at the time, he dictated through his abolitionist employer, Valentine Winters).

Dayton, Ohio, August 7, 1865
To My Old Master, Colonel P.H. Anderson, Big Spring, Tennessee.
Sir: I got your letter, and was glad to find that you had not forgotten Jourdon, and that you wanted me to come back and live with you again, promising to do better for me than anybody else can. I have often felt uneasy about you. I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this, for harboring Rebs they found at your house. I suppose they never heard about your going to Colonel Martin's to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable. Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living. It would do me good to go back to the dear old home again, and see Miss Mary and Miss Martha and Allen, Esther, Green, and Lee. Give my love to them all, and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world, if not in this. I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital, but one of the neighbors told me that Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance.

I want to know particularly what the good chance is you propose to give me. I am doing tolerably well here. I get twenty-five dollars a month, with victuals and clothing; have a comfortable home for Mandy,—the folks call her Mrs. Anderson,—and the children—Milly, Jane, and Grundy—go to school and are learning well. The teacher says Grundy has a head for a preacher. They go to Sunday school, and Mandy and me attend church regularly. We are kindly treated. Sometimes we overhear others saying, "Them colored people were slaves" down in Tennessee. The children feel hurt when they hear such remarks; but I tell them it was no disgrace in Tennessee to belong to Colonel Anderson. Many darkeys would have been proud, as I used to be, to call you master. Now if you will write and say what wages you will give me, I will be better able to decide whether it would be to my advantage to move back again.

As to my freedom, which you say I can have, there is nothing to be gained on that score, as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost-Marshal-General of the Department of Nashville. Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you were disposed to treat us justly and kindly; and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you. This will make us forget and forgive old scores, and rely on your justice and friendship in the future. I served you faithfully for thirty-two years, and Mandy twenty years.

At twenty-five dollars a month for me, and two dollars a week for Mandy, our earnings would amount to eleven thousand six hundred and eighty dollars. Add to this the interest for the time our wages have been kept back, and deduct what you paid for our clothing, and three doctor's visits to me, and pulling a tooth for Mandy, and the balance will show what we are in justice entitled to. Please send the money by Adams's Express, in care of V. Winters, Esq., Dayton, Ohio. If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past, we can have little faith in your promises in the future. We trust the good Maker has opened your eyes to the wrongs which you and your fathers have done to me and my fathers, in making us toil for you for generations without recompense. Here I draw my wages every Saturday night; but in Tennessee there was never any pay-day for the negroes any more than for the horses and cows. Surely there will be a day of reckoning for those who defraud the laborer of his hire.

In answering this letter, please state if there would be any safety for my Milly and Jane, who are now grown up, and both good-looking girls. You know how it was with poor Matilda and Catherine. I would rather stay here and starve—and die, if it come to that—than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters. You will also please state if there has been any schools opened for the colored children in your neighborhood. The great desire of my life now is to give my children an education, and have them form virtuous habits. Say howdy to George Carter, and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me. From your old servant, Jourdon Anderson.

Colonel Anderson, having failed to attract his former slaves back, sold the land for a pittance to try to get out of debt. Two years later he was dead at the age of 44. Prior to 2006, historian Raymond Winbush tracked down the living relatives of the Colonel in Big Spring, reporting that they "are still angry at Jordan for not coming back", knowing that the plantation was in serious disrepair after the war. (As we always say - Albinos are indeed delusional).

 

Sad but true

By the turn of the 20th century, former slaves and their descendants had amassed 14 million acres of land, of the total of 915 million. Black agriculture was a powerhouse; per capita there were more black farmers than white farmers. But by the turn of the 21st century, 90 percent of that land was lost. Some of that can be chalked up to the Great Migration, when southern blacks fled to northern cities to escape the racist violence and systemic oppression of the South. Less known is the story of those who stayed in rural areas and their efforts to hold on to their land within a legal system that seemed designed to shift it — and the generational wealth it represented — to white ownership.

Today, Slavery and share-cropping is no more: and whatever crops that cannot be harvested by a shaded, air-conditioned machine, is done by Black and Brown Skinned Migrant Farm Workers from Mexico, the lower Americas, and the Caribbean. Staying constant: of course U.S. Media NEVER shows the Black ones when they cover the subject, only the Mulattoes, such as the Mexican Mestizos.

 

These are not mulattoes - Jamaican migrants

 

 

Here is why Albino media tries to make-believe that there are no Blacks outside of Africa. There are about 850,000,000 White people in the world, (which is about) 11.5% of the total world population (world population of 7.5 - 7.7 billion). The total East-Asian Mongol population: China, Japan, North and South Korea, is about 1,637,452,415 people: which is about 21% of the Human population. THE “OTHER” 67.5% or 5.19 BILLION IS BLACK!!! (or Mulatto). Assuming about 540,000,000 (0.54 billion) Mulattoes world-wide, that means the "Pure-Black" population of the world is about 4.65 Billion. Imagine you are an Albino, and you have to face that reality on a daily basis.


Albinos are so ridiculous as to bring their delusional racism to modern life. The typical Hispanic is a Black or Mulatto, yet on Spanish language television in the Americas, until recently, rarely was a Black face seen – (Hispanic Blacks have been so beaten down, that they often declare themselves to be White). In the U.S. the same thing used to happen: how odd it seemed that in a country teeming with Blacks, even with shows taking place in New York, Los Angles, or Chicago, not a Black face was seen. Even today, though Europe has millions of Black people, in T.V. News reports and Travelogues it is rare to glimpse a Black figure. Clearly Albinos figure that if they don’t show Black people, then Black people will just fade away.

To support their Whites only histories, Albinos have made millions of Fake White Portraits, Statues, and the like. But Black researchers find it all quite useful, because aside from the RACE factors, Albinos researchers do try their best to piece together history as accurately as possible. So for the Black researcher there are just a few hidden truths to know, after that it is relatively easy to piece together the history of (Black) Man and His Civilizations, from what materials the Albinos make public.


For those wondering: well what about Black institutions of higher learning? Well our experience is that because of their dependence on White Money for their funding, they seem to be more a part of the problem than a solution. Even to the point of hiring White professors to teach Black students the “Official” Albino line on the color of ancient Egyptians. “They weren’t Black, they weren’t White, they were just “RIGHT”: seriously, that was taught at Howard University. No wonder there has never been a breakthrough from a Black College. See an example of what Howard University teaches here: Click >>

 

Background: History from a Biblical prospective.

Anatolia (since 1923 called Turkey) shows signs of several civilizations capable of building large structures since at least 10,000 B.C. At around 2,000 B.C. people called Amorites who were nomads from the desert regions to the east, and southern Anatolia migrated south into Sumer to the East and Canaan to the West, looking for better prospects.

 

Anatolia 11,000 B.C.

 

Anatolia 7,500 B.C.

 

In Canaan they inhabited the hilly areas around the cities. From these hills, they launched raids and harassment attacks against the cities. Eventually they succeeded in getting the native Canaanite's to congregate in their northern cities, where they became known as Phoenicians. Like all the other ancient societies, the Canaanite's had many gods, but their main gods were "EL" and his son "Baal" with EL being the supreme god.

Here are some modern names of ancient origin which evoke the name of El: Michael - he who is like God, Daniel - God is my judge, Gabriel - strong man of God, Gamaliel - benefit of God, Hazael - one that sees God, Emmanuel - God is with us, Ishmael - God will hear, Israel - God contented.

 

 

Had events followed their normal course, the Canaanite's, who still controlled the coast and the Plain of Esdraelon, might have regrouped and expelled the scattered and unorganized Amorite clans. But before this could happen, there occurred the great invasion of the "Sea Peoples" in Egypt in the early decades of the 12th century B.C. The forced exodus of some of the original Black inhabitants of Italy, Greece, and the Mediterranean Islands was ostensibly caused by the first invasion of Albinos from Central Asia into Europe, circa 1,200 B.C. (Research “Sea People”). The Wars, and resettlement of these people in the south, caused upheaval in the area for centuries.


 

The Philistines are believed to have been Cretans who were a part of the "Sea Peoples" invasion of Egypt circa 1100 B.C. After Rameses III defeated the Philistines, he allowed them to settle in Canaan. They settled in the southern coastal plain of Canaan, but within 150 years after their settlement, they would conquer much of the region. Before that; Cretans - along with Egyptians - had built the first modern city in Greece, called Mycenae, which evolved into the Mycenaean civilization. The connection between Mycenaean culture and Philistine culture was made clearer by finds at the excavation of Ashdod, Ekron, Ashkelon, and more recently Gath, four of the five Philistine cities in Canaan: the fifth city is Gaza. Especially notable is the early Philistine pottery, a locally made version of the Aegean Mycenaean Late Helladic IIIC pottery, which is decorated in shades of brown and black. This later developed into the distinctive Philistine pottery of the Iron Age I, with black and red decorations on white slip known as Philistine Bichrome ware. The Philistine cities had lost their independence to Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria by 732 B.C, revolts in following years were all crushed. They were subsequently absorbed into the Babylonian and Persian empires, and disappear as a distinct group by the late 5th century B.C.

 

 

 

In Sumer the Amorites were able to establish a dynasty under their king Hammurabi (1792 B.C.) The last of them, Samsuditana (1625-1595 B.C.) was overthrown when the Hatti from Anatolia, under their king "Mursilis I" sacked the Amorite city of Babylon. It would be at about this time, (after the fall of the Amorite dynasty of Hammurabi), that (Terah or Thare) - Abraham’s father - and his family, would leave (the Sumerian city “Ur” of the Chaldees), and journey back to Harran in their old homeland of southern Anatolia. According to Genisis 12: Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee. When they leave Harran, it sets in motion the reverse migration that will take them to Canaan, Egypt, and then back to Canaan, culminating in the eventual creation of the Hebrew state by Amorites at around 1020 B.C.

 

 

 

Genesis 11:28) And Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees (Sumer). 31) And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Harran (Anatolia), and they dwelt there. 32) Terah lived 205 years, and he died in Harran. Genesis 12:1 The Lord had said to Abram, “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you. 12:4) So Abram went, as the Lord had told him; and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he set out from Harran. 12:5) He took his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, all the possessions they had accumulated and the people they had acquired in Harran, and they set out for the land of Canaan, and they arrived there.

 

Note this inscription

 

Meanwhile, the Amorites from Sumer migrate into Egypt, mainly as construction workers, during a building boom during the 12th dynasty. In Egypt these Amorites become known as Habiru or Hapiru (one who sells his services) to us the name is Hebrews. Because these foreigners had maintained their identity as "Asiatic's" and had not become Egyptians, they felt empowered to establish their own communities and live by their own laws. Eventually, as their numbers increased, they challenged the power of the Egyptian monarchy itself, and Egypt fell into disarray. We do not known exactly how the "Hyksos" took northern Egypt, but took it they did. The middle and last part of the Second Intermediate Period (15th-17th dynasty's) saw northern Egypt ruled by these foreign kings for hundreds of years. Later the Egyptians called these Amorites from Mesopotamia "Hyksos". We are told that Hyksos translates to 'Rulers of Foreign Lands', which makes no sense: "Rulers FROM Foreign Lands" perhaps. The other translation is "Shepherd Kings" which is in line with Sumerian literature which calls their kings "The Good Shepherd".

 

 

 

The Hyksos Expulsion

This second intermediate period, lasted for hundreds of years, until king "Tao" of Thebes took to battle in order to re-unify Egypt. After he fell in battle, his son Kamose carried on. As the battles raged, the Hyksos were eventually forced to barricade themselves in their city of Avaris. Here they were besieged, but managed to hold out. Kamose, the Egyptian king, not wishing to maintain a protracted siege, offered a compromise. Whereby if the Hyksos would leave peacefully, they could take all of their possessions and receive safe conduct out of Egypt. This the Hyksos accepted, and they gathered up all of their possessions, (and all of the Egyptians possessions that they could), and left Egypt. Finally the Hyksos were expelled, (and they went into Canaan - Biblical Exodus?). The Hebrews returned a second time, and were again expelled from Egypt. Concerning the second expulsion, the hebrew turncoat Josephus Flavius in his book "Against Apion" says this: It was also reported that the priest, who ordained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name Osarsiph, from Osyris, who was the god of Heliopolis; but that when he was gone over to these people, his name was changed, and he was called Moses.

 

 

 

 

Meanwhile in Canaan, Hebrew numbers had already been greatly increased by the second wave of semi-nomadic Hebrew tribes. And also by many settled Canaanite's, (i.e., the Gibeonites), who joined the invaders against their city dwelling neighbors. Now with the addition of these new Hyksos, who by virtue of their experiences in Sumer and Egypt, were educated and highly skilled, the Hebrews could now begin to build a country. Wars raged and cities were destroyed. The Hebrews began building amid the ruins of the cities that they had destroyed, and new settlements sprang up rapidly all through the hill country. The first Hebrew king was selected by the prophet Samuel, a prophet of great influence and authority. Samuel is depicted in various biblical accounts, as either favoring or not favoring the reign of a human king over Israel. In any case, he anointed Saul, a courageous military leader of the tribe of Benjamin, as the first king - in about 1020 B.C. It is not clear if Samuel consulted with others, such as an assembly, before making this appointment.

 

 

 

 

 

Persian and Roman Rule


When Cyrus II (Cyrus the great), ascended the Persian throne in 559 B.C. He would be like all others – sooner or later – his eyes would turn westward – toward Egypt. And so it was that Cyrus, by the time of his death in 529 B.C, together with his son Cambyses II, had already completed their plans for a successful assault on Egypt. So after Cyrus had died and Cambyses had become king, Cambyses launched his invasion of Egypt, and it was indeed successful. The Persian kings constitute the 27th dynasty of Egypt. And so things remained in Egypt, the Persians are lords of the land. That is until Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.), better known to history as 'Alexander the Great'. Alexander is now at war with Persia, and after conquering Persia's naval bases all along the coastline of Asia Minor (Anatolia), and Phoenicia/Canaan, Alexander marched south into Egypt. Egyptians tired of Persian rule welcomed him. So now, Egypt is ruled by Greek kings, Alexander the Great has taken Egypt from the Persians, and made it a part of the Greek Empire. The arrival of the Greeks brought an unprecedented amount of change in Egypt, as they overlaid the existing society with that of their own. The Ptolemaic dynasty of the Greeks, would successfully rule Egypt by mingling Hellenic traditions with the legacy of the Pharaohs for almost 300 years.

 

 

 

 

The Hebrew Religion and Christianity

 

Some of the ancient Anatolian religions may have been Animistic, but we know for sure that their burial Practice consisted of de-fleshing the body, and then placing the bones in a container for burial: this is unique and practiced by only two later cultures. Principal among them are the Persians of the Zoroastrian religion. Their practice was to place the body where it may be eaten by scavenging birds and animals or weathered to its bare bones, and then placed in a container for burial.

In Bombay India, the Parsis (as the Indian descendants of the Persian refugees from the Arab/Turk invasion are called) maintain “towers of silence” which are high circular towers. The dead are carried to the top, and funeral servants place them on stone beds surrounding a central pit. After the hovering vultures have stripped the flesh from the bones, the bones are gathered and placed into the central pit.

 

 

The Hebrews - Around two thousand years ago, during the time that Jesus Christ lived, Hebrew burial tradition shifted to include a secondary burial in Ossuaries. This burial practice involved collecting the deceased’s bones after the flesh had been left to decompose and desiccate, and then placing them inside an Ossuary. The Ossuary was then placed into a loculus – a type of satchel. (Israelites wrapped their dead in linen cloths, with spices and oils. Nicodemus used a hundred pounds of spices to prepare Jesus’ body for burial (John 19:39). Sepulchers (tombs) were carved out of rock on a hillside or placed in caves. Whether or not the bones were always collected, we do not know.

 

 

 

In this late 16th century painting, they seem to suggest that Jesus was buried in a coffin.

 

The apostle Matthew wrote:

And when evening was come, there came a rich man from Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple: this man went to Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded it to be given up. And Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb, and departed.

 

 

The Bibles

 

Ptolemy II (Philadelphus)
282-246 B.C.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus, which means 'Brother/Sister-loving', was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was married to his full sister Arsinoe II. His greatest contribution to the world is that it was he, who desiring to augment his library in Alexandria, Commissioned a translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. Ptolemy wrote to the chief priest "Eleazar" in Jerusalem, and arranged for six translators from each of the twelve tribes of Israel to come to Alexandria. These translators were known as "The seventy-two" (altered in a few later versions to seventy or seventy-five). The reason for so many translators, was so that the many translations could be compared to each other for accuracy.

The universal Hebrew Bible

The translators are said to have arrived in Egypt to Ptolemy's gracious hospitality, and translated the Pentateuch: [The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures], believed by some to have been written by Moses. The work was completed in seventy-two days? Although opinions differ, most agree on 282 B.C, as the time of completion. Thus the SEPTUAGINT, {the original Bible}, derived from the Latin word for "seventy", was written. Of course, all of this is Very Controversial, and opinions do vary. None of these books or documents exist today (no Pentateuch and no Septuagint). The only Hebrew books that survive are the “Dead Sea Scrolls”: which neither the Khazars in Israel or the Pope in Rome will allow the world to see. Therefore, there is no telling what actually happened and what is made-up myth.

The Catholic Bible

Today, the Catholic Church uses the “Vulgate Bible”, a Latin Bible, primarily translated by St. Jerome in 382 A.D. Pope Damasus commissioned Jerome, the leading biblical scholar of his day, to produce an acceptable Latin version of the Bible from the various translations then being used. His revised Latin translation of the Gospels appeared about 383 A.D. Various editors and correctors produced revised texts of the Vulgate over the years. The University of Paris produced an important edition in the 13th century. Its primary purpose was to provide an agreed standard for theological teaching and debate. In 1546 the Council of Trent decreed that the Vulgate was the exclusive Latin authority for the Bible, and declared the canonicity of nearly the entire Vulgate, excluding only the Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees, the Prayer of Manasseh, Psalm 151, and the First and Second Books of Esdras. The Orthodox Eastern Church, meanwhile, had accepted some of the Old Testament apocrypha—Tobit, Judith, the Wisdom of Solomon, and Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach)—but rejected the rest. The so-called Clementine Vulgate, issued by Pope Clement VIII in 1592, became the authoritative biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church. From it the Confraternity Version was translated in 1941. Various critical editions have been produced in modern times; in 1965 a commission was established by the second Vatican Council to revise the Vulgate.

The Hebrew Bible

Hebrew adherents use the “Masoretic Text” (MT), assembling this monumental work was begun around 600 A.D. and completed in 1000 A.D. by scholars at academies in Babylonia and Palestine, in an effort to reproduce, as far as possible, the original text of the Hebrew Old Testament. Their intention was not to interpret the meaning of the Scriptures but to transmit to future generations the authentic Word of God. To this end, they gathered manuscripts and whatever oral traditions were available to them at the time. During the middle years of the Masoretic’s creation, the powerful and influential Khazars, converted to the Hebrew religion. It is not known what input or effect, the Khazars had on the final version of the Masoretic text, or how closely the modern Jewish Bible reflects the Masoretic text. The Jewish Bible, which is also called the Tanakh or sometimes the Miqra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic instead (in the books of Daniel and Ezra, the verse Jeremiah 10:11, and some single words). The Jewish Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.

The Jewish Bibles

The Sacred Texts of modern Khazar Jews are the Talmud, The Torah, The Tanakh, and The Mishna. No independant evaluations are available that compare them with the other Abrahamic Bibles.

The Protestant Bible - Origins of Protestantism

Lutheranism as a religious movement originated in the early 16th century Holy Roman Empire as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church. The movement originated with the call for a public debate regarding several issues within the Catholic Church by Martin Luther, then a professor of Bible at the young University of Wittenberg. The name Protestant first appeared at the Diet of Speyer in 1529, when the Roman Catholic emperor of Germany, Charles V, rescinded the provision of the Diet of Speyer in 1526 that had allowed each ruler to choose whether to administer the Edict of Worms.

 

 

 


The Edict of Worms was a decree issued on 25 May 1521 by Emperor Charles V, declaring: We forbid anyone from this time forward to dare, either by words or by deeds, to receive, defend, sustain, or favor the said Martin Luther. On the contrary, we want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic, as he deserves, to be brought personally before us, or to be securely guarded until those who have captured him inform us, whereupon we will order the appropriate manner of proceeding against the said Luther. Those who will help in his capture will be rewarded generously for their good work.

 

 

 


On April 19, 1529, a protest against this decision was read on behalf of 14 free cities of Germany and six Lutheran princes who declared that the majority decision did not bind them because they were not a party to it and that if forced to choose between obedience to God and obedience to Caesar they must choose obedience to God. They appealed either to a general council of all Christendom or to a synod of the whole German nation. Those who made this protest became known to their opponents as Protestants, and gradually the label was applied to all who adhered to the tenets of the Reformation, especially to those living outside Germany. In Germany the adherents of the Reformation preferred the name evangelicals and in France Huguenots.

The name was attached not only to the disciples of Martin Luther (c. 1483–1546) but also to the Swiss disciples of Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) and later of John Calvin (1509–64). The Swiss reformers and their followers in Holland, England, and Scotland, especially after the 17th century, preferred the name Reformed. Eventually it became a fight for supremacy (the Thirty Years War on the continent, and the British Civil wars), between relatively powerless, but numerically superior Albinos, and their Black Rulers. The wars ended in the mid-17th century with most Blacks being shipped off to the Americas as Slaves and Indentures. In Germany, the language was changed from Latin to German during the reign of Albino Emperor Joseph II (1741–1790), The Black “Holy Roman Empire” was officially dissolved in 1806.

The first Protestant Bible was the “Luther Bible” a German language Bible translation (the language of the Central Asian Albinos, NOT the Latin language of the “Holy Roman Empire”) by Martin Luther. The New Testament was first published in 1522 and the complete Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha, in 1534. Why did Albinos win these Wars? Well for one thing, Blacks were greatly outnumbered: by the 1600s Mongols had completely emptied Asia of ALL Albinos except the few Uyghur People, currently of Xinjiang China: which is in extreme western China/Central Asia.

Today Western Albino media is ganging up on China for its crackdown in Xinjiand provence. Only thing is that what was once a fight with the White Uyghur People, has been conflated into a fight with ALL Muslims in Xinjiand, including Black Chinese, ordinary Black Muslims, AND the White Uyghur People. We at Realhistoryww have no clue as to who is right, so we only report what little we know.

 

Black Chinese

 

 

Albino Uyghur

 

 

Ordinary Black Muslim (probably Mongolian)

 

 

From Attila to the Great Khan, Mongols all chased Albinos,

(The Germanics, Slavs, and Turks), out of Asia and into Europe:

 

 

 

 

So later in Europe (the early 1600s) when the Central Asian Albinos

Desired to take over and rule themselves, it became a fight of

many, many, millions against just a few native millions.

 

 

Another reason is that like now; they were able to “Dupe” naive Blacks – even the nobility. It is understood that the Black Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire viewed the corrupt Catholic church as merely the tool and medium for their rule. Thus an attack against the Catholic church, was in fact, an attack against Black rule; since the Church was the legitimizing agent for that rule. Thus when the powerful and influential Albert of Prussia sided with Martin Luther and the White rabble that he championed, he was in fact, declaring war on himself, and all of his own kind (Blacks).

 

 

Albert, (born 1490, Ansbach, died 1568, Tapiau, East Prussia), last grand master of the Teutonic Knights from 1510 to 1525, first duke of Prussia (from 1525). Albert was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, margrave of Ansbach-Bayreuth. In 1510 Albert was named grand master of the Teutonic Order and thus lord of East Prussia, which the order held under Polish suzerainty. A quarrel with the Poles, however, resulted in a war with Poland (1519–21) that caused considerable damage to East Prussia. During the truce that followed, the dispute remained unsettled.

In 1523 the religious reformer Martin Luther advised Albert to dissolve the Teutonic Order and transform his Prussian holdings into a hereditary dukedom under the Polish crown, a solution accepted by King Sigismund I of Poland in 1525. The Holy Roman emperor Charles V in the 1530s placed Albert, now a Protestant, under the ban of the empire and demanded the return of East Prussia to the Teutonic Knights, but the faithful remnant of the latter, with scattered bases in Germany, could do nothing against Albert.

In imperial politics Albert was fairly active. Joining the League of Torgau in 1526, he acted in unison with the Protestants, and he was among the princes who banded and plotted together to overthrow Charles V after the issue of the Augsburg Interim in May 1548. For various reasons, however, poverty and personal inclination among others, he did not take a prominent part in the military operations of this period.

Albert joined anti-imperial coalitions and cultivated Protestant Denmark and Sweden. At home, the East Prussian administration was secularized, but considerable privileges had to be conceded to the nobility before they would confirm his rule and grant him funds to govern. In his later years, Albert fell under the influence of theological and political adventurers, and his reign became marred by violent disputes. The University of Königsberg, founded on his initiative in 1544, was long troubled by such difficulties. Quiet had once again been restored, orthodox Lutheranism declared binding, the succession finally settled, and the adventurers either expelled or executed, when Albert died.

 

 

 

 

History of the Catholic Church

Christianity began as a movement within Judaism at a period when the Hebrews had long been under foreign influence and rule, and had found in their religion the linchpin of their community, (rather than in their politics or cultural achievements). From the prophet Amos (800 B.C.) onward, the religion of Israel was marked by tension between the concept of monotheism, with its universal ideal of salvation (for all nations), and the exclusivity of the notion of God's special choice of Israel, coupled with those who accepted neither concept.
In the age after Alexander the Greats conquest, (the Hellenistic (Greek) period, 300 B.C. to 300 A.D.), the dispersion of the Hebrews throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms and later, the Roman Empire, gave some impetus to the universalistic tendency. But the attempts of foreign rulers, especially the Greek King of Syria - Antiochus Epiphanes (168–165 B.C.), to impose Greek culture and religious syncretism in Palestine, provoked zealous resistance on the part of many Hebrews. In Judea, the predominant call was for separation and exclusiveness. Hebrew missionaries to other areas were strictly expected to impose the Hebrew customs of circumcision, kasher (fit) food, Sabbaths and other festivals.

There are indications that Christianity was intended initially, as exclusively a religion for Hebrews – Jesus himself was against the empirical power of the European conquers. It appears that it was Paul – a self appointed apostle "AFTER" Jesus death – who forced acceptance of gentile converts (Europeans). How or why the gentile converts were granted acceptance in the Jerusalem church under Jesus’ brother James is not known.

Saint Paul the Apostle; born 10 A.D, in the city of Tarsus in Cilicia Anatolia - died 67 A.D. in Rome. Original name Saul of Tarsus, 1st-century Hebrew who, after first being a bitter enemy of Christianity, later became an important figure in its history. Converted only a few years AFTER the death of Jesus, he became the leading Apostle (missionary) of the new movement and played a decisive part in extending it beyond the limits of Judaism to become a worldwide religion. His surviving letters are the earliest extant Christian writings. Paul himself claimed the title of Apostle, apparently on the ground that he had seen the Lord and received a commission directly from him. This appears to be in agreement with the condition in Acts that a newly appointed Apostle should be capable of giving eyewitness testimony to the Lord's Resurrection. According to some early Christian writers however, some were called apostles after the period covered by the New Testament.

The Hebrew Scriptures viewed history as the stage of a providential drama, which would eventually end in a triumph of God, over all present sources of frustration (foreign domination, the sins of man, etc.). They believed that God's rule would be established by an anointed prince, (a Messiah), of the line of David – (former king of Israel in the 10th century B.C.). However, the proper course of action leading to the consummation of this drama was the subject of some disagreement. The Sanhedrin (supreme Hebrew legislative and judicial court) at Jerusalem was made up of both Pharisees and Sadducees. The Zealots were aggressive revolutionaries seeking independence from Rome. Other groups were the Herodians, supporters of the client kingdom of the Herods (a dynasty that supported Rome) and abhorrent to the Zealots, and the Essenes - a quasi-monastic dissident group, probably including the sect that preserved the Dead Sea Scrolls. This latter sect did not participate in the Temple worship at Jerusalem, and observed another religious calendar; from their desert retreat they awaited divine intervention and searched prophetic writings for signs indicating the consummation.

What relationship the followers of Jesus had to some of these groups is not clear. In the canonical Gospels (those accepted as authentic by the Catholic church) the main targets of criticism are the scribes and Pharisees, whose attachment to the tradition of Judaism is presented as legalistic and disreputable. The Sadducees and Herodians, likewise receive an unfriendly portrait, the Essenes are never mentioned. Jesus himself may have been a Zealot, as well as Simon, one of Jesus’ twelve disciples. Among the diverse Hebrew groups, were the aristocratic and conservative Sadducees, who accepted only the five books of Moses (the Pentateuch), then there were the more popular and strict Pharisees. The Pharisees not only accepted biblical books outside the Pentateuch but also embraced doctrines - such as those on resurrection and the existence of angels – which was of recent acceptance in Judaism

Thus the choice for many Hebrews lay between the Pharisees and Christianity, the former dedicated to the meticulous preservation of the Mosaic Law, and Christianity – as later defined by Europeans - the universal propagation of the Christian version of the Hebrew faith, as a religion for all mankind, (Catholic means universalistic). In the first Christian generation, authority in the church lay either in the kinsmen of Jesus or in those whom he had commissioned as Apostles and missionaries. The Jerusalem church under James, the brother of Jesus, was the mother church. Paul admitted that if they had refused to grant recognition to his Gentile converts; he would have labored in vain. If there was an attempt to establish a hereditary family overlordship in the church (by James’ descendants), it did not succeed.

Early Christianity was predominantly urban; peasants on farms were deeply attached to old ways and followed the paganism favored by most aristocratic landowners. By 400 A.D. some landowners had converted and built churches on their property, providing a “benefice” for the priest, who might often be one of the magnate's servants. In the East and in North Africa (now under Roman control), each township normally had its own bishop. From the beginning, the Christians in Rome assumed responsibilities for leading the church, (no doubt as a consequence of Roman military power), how this was viewed by James’ Church in Jerusalem, is not known. About 165 A.D, memorials were erected in Rome to the Apostles Peter and Paul - to Peter in a necropolis on the Vatican Hill, and to Paul on the road to Ostia.

If St. Paul's Gentile mission was valid (the inclusion of Europeans), then the Old Testament Law was viewed as no longer God's final word to his people. Thus, the Hebrew Scriptures began to be called the old covenant. The new covenant, accepted by most, but not all of the Gentile Christian communities, was the Septuagintal canon. Though this Greek version of the Old Testament (called the Septuagint) included books (such as the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and others) that were not accepted in the Hebrew canon.

 

 

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

 

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

 

Tacitus: History Book 5

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian's. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy's territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name. (The Solymi were supposedly a tribe from Pisidia, a region of ancient Anatolia/Asia Minor/Byzantium/Eastern Roman Empire/Turkey).

 

Watch out for Racist Translations!

Here we must pause and caution against using any translation of ancient texts without crosschecking it with others. In this case, the Racist Degenerates at the University of Chicago once again reveal their vile nature by conveniently leaving out Ethiopian as a possible origin of the Hebrews. The reason is quite simple, though the simple-minded might be fooled into believing that Cretans, Egyptians, Assyrians and Solymi were Albinos: Even the dumbest knows that Ethiopians are Black.

Do NOT use this Translation!

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Tacitus/Histories/5A*.html

_____________________________________________________________________

This translation at Tufts University seems Okay.

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0080%3Abook%3D5%3Achapter%3D2

 

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine's flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

 

 

In 248–250 A.D, when Germanic tribes from Central Asia threatened the Empire, popular hostility culminated in the persecution of Christians under the emperor Decius (reigned 249–251): by his edict all citizens were required to offer sacrifice, and to obtain from commissioners a certificate witnessing to the act, many of these certificates have survived. This requirement created an issue of conscience, especially because certificates could be bought by bribes. Under this renewed attack, the great bishop-theologian Cyprian of Carthage was martyred (257–259 A.D.). The persecuting emperor Valerian, however became a Persian prisoner of war, and his son Gallienus, issued an edict of toleration, restoring confiscated churches and cemeteries.

 

 

The Scythians were a group of ancient Albino tribes of nomadic warriors who originally lived in what is now southern Siberia. Their culture flourished from around 900 B.C. to around 200 B.C. by which time they had extended their influence over Central Asia – from China to the northern Black Sea. British Museum

 

 

The church prospered from 261 to 303 A.D, but the empire suffered external attack, internal sedition, and rampant inflation. In February 303 A.D, the worst of all persecutions erupted under the co-emperors Diocletian and Galerius. The persecutions ended and peace was reached with the ascension of Emperor Constantine.

 

 

Note that Emperor Valerian (kneeling) is a Black Man


Constantine's Rise to Power


The future emperor Constantine, was born at Naissus in the province of Moesia Superior, the modern Nish in Serbia, on 27 February of 271, 272, or 273. His father was a military officer named Constantius (later Constantius Chlorus or Constantius I), his mother a woman of humble background named Helena (later St. Helena). There is good reason to think that Constantius and Helena lived in concubinage rather than in legally recognized marriage. Having previously attained the rank of tribune, provincial governor, and probably praetorian prefect, Constantius was raised, on 1 March 293, to the rank of Caesar in the First Tetrarchy organized by Diocletian. On this occasion he was required to put aside his wife Helena and to marry Theodora, the daughter of Maximian (The emperor). Upon the retirement of Diocletian and Maximian, on 1 May 305 Constantius succeeded to the rank of Augustus.

His son Constantine, in the meanwhile, had served with distinction under both Diocletian and Galerius in the East. He was kept initially at the court of Galerius, as a pledge of good conduct on his father's part, but he was later allowed to join his father in Britain and assisted him in a campaign against the Picts. When Constantius died, on 25 July 306 at Eburacum (York), Constantine was at his side. The soldiers at once proclaimed Constantine Augustus; Constantine henceforth observed this day as his dies imperii.

 

 

 

 

Constantine thus became one of the four emperors of the empire, after the retirement of Diocletian, there were only three generals vying for control: Constantine in Gaul, the least populated portion of the empire, while Rome was under the control of Maxentius, and the East was under the control of Licinius.

Having settled affairs in Britain swiftly, Constantine returned to the Continent, where the city of Augusta Treverorum (Trier) served as his principal residence for the next six years. There too, in 307 he married Maximian's daughter Fausta, putting aside his mistress Minervina, who had borne him his first son, Crispus.

At the same time, the Senate and the Praetorian Guard in Rome had allied themselves with Maxentius, the son of Maximian. On 28 October 306 they proclaimed him emperor, in the lower rank of Princeps initially, although he later claimed the rank of Augustus. Constantine and Maxentius, although they were brothers-in-law, did not trust each other. Their relationship was further complicated by each ones wish for more power, consequently in 310 A.D, upon the death of Maximian, open hostilities between the two rivals broke out. In 312 A.D, Constantine threw caution to the wind and marched on Maxentius's forces, even though he was vastly outnumbered. The most important battle occurred at Milvian Bridge; he both won the battle and killed his rival, making him emperor of Rome and Gaul and soon emperor of the east as well.

Constantine's Conversion

The early Christians had tolerated the emperors and regarded them as a kind of necessary evil. Constantine, as a Christian emperor, though demanded their obedience both temporally and in terms of faith. To this end, he merged the office of Emperor with the Christian faith and assumed authority over religious matters. Added to this equation was the divinity or partial divinity normally bestowed on the Emperor. Constantine's Christian conversion did not stop him from presenting himself as divine both in the theater of imperial power and on coinages. There's no reason to believe that Constantine did not in fact believe that he was divine, even in spite of his Christianity.

This was a new and unsolvable problem in Christianity. As long as the Emperor was a pagan, there was no question of the relationship between the church and the state. The church did its thing and the state did its sinful thing. The presence of Christian imperial authority, however, led to severe conflicts and disruption. The question of the relationship between the church and a Christian government has yet to be resolved.

Constantine believed that the Church and the State should be as close as possible. From 312-320 A.D, Constantine was tolerant of paganism, keeping pagan gods on coins and retaining his pagan high priest title "Pontifex Maximus" (the Roman high priest whose main job was to maintain the - pax deorum, the 'peace with the gods') in order to maintain popularity with his subjects.

Possibly indicating that he never understood the theology of Christianity. From 320-330 A.D, he began to attack paganism through the government, but in many cases persuaded people to follow the laws by combining pagan worship with Christianity. He made December 25th - the birthday of the pagan “Unconquered Sun god” - the official holiday it is now - the birthday of Jesus. It is likely that he also instituted celebrating Easter and Lent based on pagan holidays.

 


The Edict of Milan


In February 313 A.D, Constantine and Licinius met at Milan. On this occasion Constantine's half-sister Constantia was wed to Licinius. Also on this occasion, the two Emperors formulated a common religious policy. Several months later, Licinius issued an edict, which is commonly but erroneously known as the Edict of Milan. The Edit of Milan was a proclamation, initiated by Constantine in the West, but agreed to by Licinius in the East, by which Christianity was given legal status, equal to paganism if not a little superior to it. Persecution in any form from 313 A.D, was supposed to come to a stop.

Unlike Constantine however, Licinius did not commit himself personally to Christianity; even his commitment to toleration eventually gave way to renewed persecution. Meanwhile, Constantine's profession of Christianity was not an unmixed blessing to the church. Constantine used the church as an instrument of imperial policy, imposed upon it his imperial ideology, and thus deprived it of much of the independence, which it had previously enjoyed.


The Arian Controversy, the Council of Nicaea, and its Aftermath


Constantine had other problems as well. In Constantine's view, the Christian church could be a powerful tool for unifying the Empire socially and politically. If the church could become unified, that would provide a bulwark against the forces pulling the empire apart. The problem though, was there was no established or unifying doctrine. In fact, there were as many forms of Christianity as there were communities of Christians. The church was severely divided over fundamental questions; in particular, the speculations of the eastern churches on the nature of divinity were considered grossly heretical by the (Roman) churches. What would finally call Constantine into action to unify the church was the schism between the Arians and the Athanasians.

The major schism between the churches in the Greek-speaking east and the churches in the West was founded on the eastern insistence in engaging in philosophical speculation on questions of doctrine; the western churches by contrast, largely focused on administrative rather than doctrinal problems. If the church was going to be unified however, these two separate approaches had to be unified. The flash point came with the dispute over Arianism (Bishop Arius), which the western churches regarded as outright heresy.

The Greek bishop Arius, like many of his eastern counterparts, was primarily interested in defining the nature of the Trinity — God, Christ, and the Holy Ghost — and insisted in his theology that there was an absolute division between God and Christ. God the Father, he argued, was hierarchically differentiable from God the Son. The opposite position, called Athanasianism, after the bishop Athanasius who advocated it, was that God the Father and God the Son were one and the same thing. Both the western church and the bishop of Constantinople came down on the side of Athanasianism—the Greek Church subsequently dug in its heels on the matter.

 

 

Judging by the dates: The Orthodox Patriarch was probably Gregory III, surnamed Mammis, he was Ecumenical Patriarch within the Eastern Orthodox Church during the period 1443–1450. He was prominent in unsuccessful initiatives toward reunification with the Roman Catholic Church, which led to his quitting his post as Patriarch.


The Catholic Pope was probably Pope Eugene IV, born Gabriele Condulmer, he was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1431 to his death in 1447. Condulmer was a Venetian, and a nephew of Pope Gregory XII. In 1431, he was elected pope. Portrait of Eugene is below.


Or, it could have been Pope Nicholas V, born Tommaso Parentucelli, he was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1447 until his death in 1455. Pope Eugene made him a cardinal in 1446 after successful trips to Italy and Germany, and when Eugene died the next year Parentucelli was elected in his place. He took his name Nicholas in memory of his obligations to Niccolò Albergati.

 

 

 

Arius teachings were condemned, and Arius excommunicated in 318 A.D, by a council convened by Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria (Egypt). But that did not by any means close the matter. Ossius (or Hosius) of Cordova, Constantine's trusted spiritual advisor, failed on his mission to bring about reconciliation. Constantine then summoned what has become known as the First Ecumenical Council of the church. The opening session was held on 20 May 325 A.D, in the great hall of the palace at Nicaea, Constantine himself presiding and giving the opening speech. The council formulated a creed, which although it was revised at the Council of Constantinople in 381-82 A.D, has become known as the Nicene Creed. It affirms the homoiousia, i.e. the doctrine of consubstantiality. A major role at this council was played by Athanasius, Bishop Alexander's deacon, secretary, and ultimately his successor.

Constantine accomplished more however, for the Nicene council also ratified his own power, and Christianity would begin the long struggle, between the anti-political ideas of Jesus of Nazareth and the Christianity that is compromised to allow for human authority and power. If Constantine had hoped that the council would settle the issue forever, he must have been bitterly disappointed. The disputes continued, and Constantine himself vacillated. Eusebius of Nicomedia, a supporter of Arius, who was exiled in 325 A.D, was recalled in 327 A.D, and soon became the emperor's chief spiritual advisor. In 335 A.D. Athanasius, now bishop of Alexandria and unbending in his opposition to some of Constantine's policies, was sent into exile at far-away Trier.

The Donatists and Catholics

Another important conflict of the fourth century was the doctrinal dispute between the Donatists and the Catholics; Donatus was a bishop in North Africa during the persecutions of Diocletian; unlike the rest of the Empire, the persecutions in North Africa were relatively mild, as the governor only demanded that Christians hand over written copies of the Christian scriptures as a gesture of repudiating their faith. He did not really interfere with Christianity in other ways. Many Christians complied with the law. However, after the persecutions ended, those Christians that had not given up their scriptures, called the others traitors, and would not allow them back into the church - among these "traitors" were some priests. Donatus argued that the sacraments were rendered invalid, if they were administered by these corrupt priests. The North African Donatists were fiercely opposed by the western church and energetically opposed by Augustine, who was bishop of Hippo in North Africa.

In April of 313 A.D, the Donatists presented to Constantine their grievance against Caecilian, the bishop of Carthage - held to have become implicated in apostasy by receiving consecration as bishop from Felix of Aptunga, an apostate. Constantine convened a synod of bishops to hear the complaint; the synod met in Rome's Lateran Council, and is known as the Synod of Rome. When the synod ruled in favor of Caecilian, the Donatists appealed to Constantine again. In response to the appeal Constantine convened a larger council of thirty-three bishops, who met at Arles in southern Gaul on 1 August 314 A.D, This council too, ruled against the Donatists, and again they refused to submit. Constantine attempted, unsuccessfully, to suppress them.

The Donatists however, hung on as a secret church until the Muslims invaded North Africa in the late 600's A.D. The reason Donatism is important though, is that the movement was revived in the twelfth century in Europe, as the Catholic clergy had become desperately corrupt. A new, popular movement revived Donatism and not only criticized corrupt clergy but declared them unworthy to deliver valid sacraments. In this respect, sixteenth century Protestantism in its attacks on the corrupt clergy was the descendant of the Donatist movement.


The Conflict with Licinius

War erupted again in 324 A.D, Constantine defeated Licinius twice, first at Adrianople in Thrace, and then at Chrysopolis on the Bosporus. Initially, yielding to the pleas of his wife Constantia, Constantine spared the life of his brother-in-law, but some months later he ordered his execution, breaking his solemn oath. Before too long the younger Licinius, also fell victim to Constantine's anger or suspicions. Constantine was now the sole and undisputed master of the Roman world.


Crisis in the Imperial Family

At some time in 326 A.D, Constantine ordered the execution of his oldest son Crispus, who had been appointed Caesar in 317 A.D, and had three times served as consul, also distinguishing himself in the recent campaign against Licinius. In the same year, soon after the death of Crispus, Constantine also ordered the death of Fausta, the mother of his other three sons. A connection between the two deaths is likely. Zosimus reports that Crispus had come under suspicion of "being involved" with his stepmother Fausta. The Epitome of Aurelius Victor reports that Constantine killed Fausta, when his mother Helena rebuked him for the death of Crispus. It is impossible now to separate fact from gossip and to know with certainty what offenses Crispus and Fausta had committed. Both of them suffered damnatio memoriae and were never rehabilitated. Some involvement of Helena in this family tragedy cannot be excluded, but there is no reason to shift the responsibility from Constantine to her.

 

 

 

 

Shortly after these sad events, probably in 326-28 A.D, Helena undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. It has been suggested that this pilgrimage was an act of expiation, either for her own sins, or for those of her son. In the course of her journey Helena impressed Eusebius of Caesarea and others by her piety, humility, and charity. She played a role in the building of the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem and the Church of the Eleona on Jerusalem's Mount of Olives; but the Church of the Holy Sepulcher seems to have been an undertaking of Constantine alone. A tradition more cherished than trustworthy, credits Helena with the invention of the True Cross.

Constantines Death

Constantine knew death would soon come. Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself. It came sooner than he had expected. Soon after the Feast of Easter 337, Constantine fell seriously ill. He left Constantinople for the hot baths near his mother's city of Helenopolis (Altinova), on the southern shores of the Gulf of Nicomedia (present-day Gulf of İzmit). There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying. Seeking purification, he became a catechumen, and attempted a return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia. He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan, where Christ was written to have been baptized. He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness. The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom". He chose the Arianizing bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, bishop of the city where he lay dying, as his baptizer. In postponing his baptism, he followed one custom at the time which postponed baptism until after infancy. It has been thought that Constantine put off baptism as long as he did so as to be absolved from as much of his sin as possible. Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on the last day of the fifty-day festival of Pentecost directly following Pascha (or Easter), on 22 May 337.

 

 

 

 

The Papacy

The Papacy, the office and jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome, the pope (Latin papa, from Greek pappas, “father”), who presides over the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest of the modern three major branches of Christianity. The term pope was originally applied to all the bishops in the West and also used to describe the patriarch of Alexandria, who still retains the title. In 1073, however, Pope Gregory VII restricted its use to the bishop of Rome, confirming a practice that had existed since the 9th century. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the papal annual, there have been more than 260 popes since St. Peter, traditionally considered the first pope.

The early papacy

Apart from the allusion to Rome in the First Letter of Peter, there is no historical evidence that St. Peter was Rome’s first bishop or that he was martyred in Rome (according to tradition, he was crucified upside down) during a persecution of the Christians in the mid-60s A.D. By the end of the 1st century, however, his presence in the imperial capital was recognized by Christian leaders, and the city was accorded a place of honour, perhaps because of its claim to the graves of both Saints Peter and Paul. Rome’s primacy was also fostered by its many martyrs, its defense of orthodoxy, and its status as the capital of the Roman Empire.

By the end of the 2nd century, Rome’s stature was further bolstered by the Petrine theory, which claimed that Jesus Christ had designated Peter to be his representative on earth and the leader of the church and that this ministry was passed on to Peter’s successors as bishops of Rome. Peter received this authority, according to the theory, when Jesus referred to him as the rock of the church and said to him, “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven” (Matthew 16:18–19). The Roman position of honour was challenged in the middle of the 3rd century when Pope Stephen I (254–257) and St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, clashed over Stephen’s claim to doctrinal authority over the universal church. Nonetheless, in the critical period between Popes Damasus I (366–384) and Leo I (440–461), nine popes made a strong case for Rome’s supremacy, despite a growing challenge from the see of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

 

The Ancient History Encyclopedia – UNESCO digital archives


The (Albino) Migration Age

(Albinos Enter Europe - in whole)


The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between 300 to 700 A.D. in Europe. These movements were catalyzed by profound changes within both the Roman Empire and the so-called 'barbarian frontier'. Migrating peoples during this period included the Huns, Goths, Vandals, Bulgars, Alans, Suebi, Frisians, among other Germanic and Slavic tribes.

The migration movement may be divided into two phases: The first phase, between 300 and 500 CE, put Germanic peoples in control of most areas of the former Western Roman Empire. The first to formally enter Roman territory — as refugees from the Huns — were the Visigoths in 376. Tolerated by the Romans on condition that they defend the Danube frontier, they rebelled, eventually invading Italy and sacking Rome itself in 410 A.D, before settling in Iberia (Spain) and founding a kingdom there that endured 300 years. They were followed into Roman territory by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy itself. In Gaul, western Germanic tribes whose leaders had been strongly aligned with Rome, entered Roman lands more gradually and peacefully during the 5th century, and were generally accepted as rulers by the Roman-Gaulish population. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of the future states of France and Germany. Meanwhile, Roman Britain was more slowly invaded and settled by Angles and Saxons.

 

 

The second phase, between 500 and 700 CE, saw Slavic tribes settling in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in eastern Magna Germania, and gradually making it predominantly Slavic. The Bulgars, a now-Slavicized people possibly of Turkic origin who had been present in far Eastern Europe since the 2nd century A.D, conquered the eastern Balkan territory of the Byzantine Empire in the 7th century CE. The Lombards, a Germanic people, settled northern Italy in the region now known as Lombardy. Migrations of peoples, although not strictly part of the 'Migration Age', continued beyond AD 1000, marked by Viking, Magyar, Moorish, Turkic and Mongol invasions, and these also had significant effects, especially in Central and Eastern Europe.

 

The decline of the Western Roman Empire was a slow process, which occurred over a period of over 350 years. Beginning at about 100 A.D. and culminating on September 4, 476, when Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain.


Pope Gregory I (590–604), the first of the medieval popes and the second pope deemed “great,” faced numerous challenges during his reign, including plague, famine, and threats from the Byzantines and the Lombards (a Germanic (white) people who invaded Italy in the 6th century). Although he believed that he was part of a Christian commonwealth headed by the Byzantine emperor, Gregory turned the papacy’s attention to the Germanic (White) peoples who succeeded the Romans as rulers of the Western Empire. In this fashion he opened up the West to the papacy. Among the many important accomplishments of Gregory’s reign were his efforts to stop the Lombard (a tribe of Albino Germanics) advance and to convert the invaders to Catholic Christianity.

 

 

In 739 Pope Gregory III (731–741) sent an unsuccessful appeal for aid to the Frankish mayor of the palace (the effective political power in the kingdom), Charles Martel. When the Lombards again threatened Rome, Pope Stephen II (or III; 752–757) fled to the Frankish kingdom and appealed to Pippin III, who in 751 had become the first Carolingian king of the Franks. In 754 Stephen formally crowned Pippin, and the king marched south with his army in that year and again in 756 to restore papal authority in central Italy (Albino babble: the Albinos were rampaging through southern Europe). The king also issued the Donation of Pippin (756) to establish the Papal States, which endured until 1870. These events probably also inspired the compilation of the Donation of Constantine (later proved to be a forgery), which asserted that the first Christian emperor, Constantine, granted control of the Western Empire to Pope Sylvester I, who had baptized the emperor and cured him of leprosy. It was later cited in support of papal claims of sovereignty in western Europe.

By linking the fate of Roman primacy to the support of Pippin and the Carolingian dynasty, Stephen and his successors gained a powerful protector. Indeed, a council regulating papal elections in 769 decreed that news of the pope’s election was to be transmitted to the Frankish court and no longer to Constantinople. The Frankish-papal alliance was reinforced when Pope Leo III (795–816), following a period of turmoil in Rome that was ended by Carolingian intervention, crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day 800. Because there was already a Latin Roman Empire in Anatolia (the Eastern Roman Empire), Charlemagne's Empire was termed "The Holy Roman Empire". Although the popes gained a measure of security from this relationship, they lost an equal measure of independence, because the Carolingians followed in the footsteps of their Byzantine and Roman predecessors by asserting considerable control over the Frankish church and the papacy itself. On the other hand, the pope exercised influence in Carolingian affairs by maintaining the right to crown emperors and by sometimes directly intervening in political disputes.

 

 

 

 

As Carolingian power waned in the late 9th and the 10th century, the papacy once again found itself at the disposal of powerful local nobles, including the Crescentii family. Competition for control of the papal throne and its extensive network of patronage weakened the institution. Unsettled conditions in Rome drew the attention of Otto I, who revived Charlemagne’s empire in 962 and required papal stability to legitimate his rule. In keeping with that goal, Otto deposed Pope John XII (955–964) for moral turpitude. During the late 10th and the 11th century, problems in the papal court and political conditions in Italy reinforced the close ties between the papacy and the German emperors, especially in the case of Pope Sylvester II (999–1003) and Otto III. Despite this alliance, the emperor was often absent from Rome, and local powers reasserted themselves. At times, the papacy suffered from weakness and corruption. But even in the darkest times of the 10th and 11th centuries, Rome remained the focus of devotion and pilgrimage as the city of Peter and of the martyrs and saints.

 

 

The relation of the Byzantine church to the Roman may be described as one of growing estrangement from the 5th to the 11th century. In the early church three bishops stood forth prominently, principally from the political eminence of the cities in which they ruled—the bishops of Rome (Italy), Alexandria (Egypt), and Antioch (Anatolia). The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople and the later eclipse of Alexandria and Antioch as battlegrounds of Islam and Christianity promoted the importance of Constantinople. Concurrently, the theological calmness of the West, in contrast to the often violent theological disputes that troubled the Eastern patriarchates, strengthened the position of the Roman popes, who made increasing claims to preeminence. But this preeminence, or rather the Roman idea of what was involved in it, was never acknowledged in the East. To press it upon the Eastern patriarchs was to prepare the way for separation; to insist upon it in times of irritation was to cause a schism.

The theological genius of the East was different from that of the West. The Eastern theology had its roots in Greek philosophy, whereas a great deal of Western theology was based on Roman law. This gave rise to misunderstandings and at last led to two widely separate ways of regarding and defining one important doctrine—the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father or from the Father and the Son. The Roman churches, without consulting the East, added “and from the Son” (Latin: Filioque) to the Nicene Creed. Also, the Eastern churches resented the Roman enforcement of clerical celibacy, the limitation of the right of confirmation to the bishop, and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.

 

The Black kings of Europe often had no choice but to accept Albino Princesses as Wives to achieve peace against invading Albino tribes. This of course meant that future Kings would be Mulattoes.

 

 

The Mulatto last Emperor of the Black Byzantine Empire

 

THE GREAT SCHISM

 

Political jealousies and interests intensified the disputes, and, at last, after many premonitory symptoms, the final break came in 1054, when Pope Leo IX struck at Michael I Cerularius who was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059 A.D. and his followers with an excommunication and the patriarch retaliated with a similar excommunication. There had been mutual excommunications before, but they had not resulted in permanent schisms. At the time there seemed possibilities of reconciliation, but the rift grew wider; in particular, the Byzantines were bitterly antagonized by such events as the capture of Constantinople in 1204. Western pleas for reunion (on Western terms), such as those at the Council of Lyon (1274) and the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1439), were rejected by the Byzantines.


The schism has never healed, though relations between the churches improved following the Second Vatican Council (1962), which recognized the validity of the sacraments in the Eastern churches. In 1979 the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church was established by the Holy See and 14 autocephalous churches to further foster ecumenism. Dialogue and improved relations continued into the early 21st century.

 

THE ORTHODOX CHURCH

(Orthodox meaning religious views conforming to what is generally or traditionally accepted as right or true).

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 230 million baptized members, comprising 80% of all Orthodox Christians. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods. Roughly half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognized by all as primus inter pares ("first among equals") of the bishops. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed. The church teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, and that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains that it practices the original Christian faith, as passed down by Holy Tradition. Its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, and other autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organization. It recognizes seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honored in devotions.

HOW TO WRITE BLACKS OUT OF HISTORY

 

There is also a schism between the Usurped Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church as to what to do about BLACKS! After their victories in the wars of the 1600s, Albinos in the west decided to destroy everything Black, and deny that they ever existed. But for reasons unknown, Eastern Albinos didn't want to go that far: they chose instead to continue depicting Christians in their true skin color, but often gave them caucasian features.

 

 

 

 

 

This is typical of the Albinos contribution to religion - Fake art.

 

 

 

 

This is typical of the Albinos contribution to religion - Fake Art

 

 

The papacy suffered two schisms in the 12th century, the Anacletan and the Alexandrine. The latter was caused by renewed tensions between the papacy and the emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa, who eventually yielded to the legitimate pope, Alexander III (1159–81). The Alexandrine schism led to the decision of the third Lateran Council (1179) to require a two-thirds majority vote of the cardinals to elect a pope.

The Avignon Papacy

The Avignon Papacy, also known as the Babylonian Captivity, was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon - then in the Kingdom of Arles, in France (part of the Holy Roman Empire), rather than in Rome.

 

 

 

The continued decline of the political power of the Holy See was accelerated by the Great Schism (Western Schism; 1378–1417), in which rival factions of cardinals elected popes in both Rome and Avignon. The schism erupted as a result of the growing desire, voiced by Petrarch and by St. Catherine of Siena, among others, to see the papacy return to Rome. Gregory XI’s (1370–78) attempt at this led to further problems for the papacy and the outbreak of schism. His successor, Urban VI (1378–89), acted in such a high-handed fashion that he alienated a considerable number of cardinals, who elected a new pope and returned to Avignon. Although Christians were divided in their loyalties, all of them recognized the dire nature of the situation. Theologians responded with the doctrine of conciliarism, which holds that an ecumenical council has greater authority than the pope and may depose him. Although the conciliar movement ultimately collapsed under the weight of its own success, it did help to resolve the crisis. In 1417 the Council of Constance ended the schism by deposing or accepting the resignations of three rival popes (one had been elected by the Council of Pisa in 1409).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note that today, Popes pray for forgiveness from a Black Mary and Jesus

 

 

 

IMPORTANT DATES IN CHRISTIAN HISTORY

 

During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.
November 3, 324: Constantine lays the foundations of the new capital of the Roman Empire in Byzantium, later to be known as Constantinople, and today after the Turk takeover - Istanbul.


452: Pope Leo I (the Great) meets Attila the Hun and dissuades him from sacking Rome.

455: Sack of Rome by the Vandals. The spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem previously taken by Titus are allegedly among the treasures taken to Carthage.

September 4, 476: Emperor Romulus Augustus is deposed in Rome, marked by many as the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The focus of the early Church switches to expanding in the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople.


732: Muslim advance into Western Europe halted by Charles Martel at Poitiers, France.


Popes granted independent rule of Rome by King Pepin the Short of the Franks.
December 25, 800: King Charlemagne of the Franks is crowned Holy Roman Emperor of the “Holy Roman Empire” based in what is now Germany.
962: King Otto the Great of Germany (East Francia) was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in St. Peter's Basilica.

1000/1001 Stephen I of Hungary becomes King of Hungary, He would later convert to Roman Catholicism becoming the Founder of the Catholic Church in Hungary.

 

 

 

July 16, 1054: Liturgical, linguistic, and political divisions cause a permanent split between the Eastern and Western Churches, known as the East–West Schism or the Great Schism. The three legates, Humbert of Mourmoutiers, Frederick of Lorraine, and Peter, Archbishop of Amalfi, entered the Cathedral of the Hagia Sophia (in Constantinople) during Mass on a Saturday afternoon and placed a papal Bull of Excommunication on the altar against the Patriarch Michael I Cerularius. The legates left for Rome two days later, leaving behind a city near riots. The Cathedral of the Hagia Sophia is now a Muslim Mosque in Istanbul (the new name of Constantinople after the Turks took over in 1453 A.D.). The new name of Hagia Sophia is the Great Mosque of Ayasofya.

 

 

 

 

1255: Clare of Assisi (1194–1253) was an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Francis of Assisi. She founded the Order of Poor Ladies, a monastic religious order for women in the Franciscan tradition, and wrote their Rule of Life, the first set of monastic guidelines known to have been written by a woman. Following her death, the order she founded was renamed in her honor as the Order of Saint Clare, commonly referred to today as the Poor Clares. Her feast day is on 11 August. She was Canonized 26 September 1255, in Rome by Pope Alexander IV.

 

 


 

1342: Louis I, also Louis the Great; or Louis the Hungarian, was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370. He was the first child of Charles I of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth of Poland, to survive infancy. A 1338 treaty between his father and Casimir III of Poland, Louis's maternal uncle, confirmed Louis's right to inherit the Kingdom of Poland if his uncle died without a son. In exchange, Louis was obliged to assist his uncle to reoccupy the lands that Poland had lost in previous decades. He bore the title of Duke of Transylvania between 1339 and 1342 but did not administer the province. Like his father, Louis administered Hungary with absolute power and used royal prerogatives to grant privileges to his courtiers. However, he also confirmed the liberties of the Hungarian nobility at the Diet of 1351, emphasizing the equal status of all noblemen. At the same Diet, he introduced an entail system and a uniform rent payable by the peasants to the landowners, and confirmed the right to free movement for all peasants. He waged wars against the Lithuanians, Serbia, and the Golden Horde in the 1350s, restoring the authority of Hungarian monarchs over territories along frontiers that had been lost during previous decades.

 

 

 

 

1443: Pope Eugene IV (born Gabriele Condulmer), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 3 March 1431 to his death. Condulmer was a Venetian, and a nephew of Pope Gregory XII. In 1431, he was elected pope. In 1443 Eugene decided to take a neutral position on territorial disputes between Portugal and Castile regarding rights claimed along the coast of Africa.

 

 

 


May 29, 1453: Fall of Constantinople.

 

Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453): the conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Turkic Ottoman Empire. The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. Mehmed surrounded Constantinople from land and sea while employing cannon to maintain a constant barrage of the city’s formidable walls. The fall of the city removed what was once a powerful defense for Christian Europe against Muslim invasion, allowing for uninterrupted Turkic Ottoman expansion into eastern Europe.

 

 

 

1461: Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), a lay member of the Dominican Order, was a mystic, activist, and author who had a great influence on Italian literature and the Catholic Church. She was Canonized in 1461, she is also a Doctor of the Church.

 

 

The pictured Pope is likely Pope Gregory XI, Catherine played a role in his decision to leave Avignon for Rome. She was then sent by him to negotiate peace with Florence.

 

 

1493: The Pope asserts rights to colonize, convert, and enslave native Americans. Pope Alexander VI issues a papal bull or decree, “Inter Caetera," in which he authorizes Spain and Portugal to colonize the Americas and its Native peoples as subjects. The decree asserts the rights of Spain and Portugal to colonize, convert, and enslave. It also justifies the enslavement of Africans.

 

 

 

Quote: Out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde. With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins. And we make, appoint, and depute you and your said heirs and successors lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind…” —Pope Alexander VI, “Inter Caetera”

 

May 6, 1527: The Sack of Rome, then part of the Papal States, on 6 May 1527 was carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the League of Cognac. The largely Protestant German Landsknechts, mutinying over unpaid wages, entered the city of Rome and sacked it in a manner reminiscent of the barbarian pillages committed 1,100 years earlier. Spanish soldiers and Italian mercenaries also took part in the sack.

 

 

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE PROTESTANT RELIGIONS

 

October 31, 1517: Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses, protesting the sale of indulgences.

1530: John Calvin, a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva. He broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. In 1536 he published the first edition of the “Institutes” (a summary of biblical theology that became the normative statement of the PROTESTANT RELIGIONS).

 

 


October 30, 1534: English Parliament passes Act of Supremacy making the King of England Supreme Head of the Church of England, a national church canonically alienated from the bishop of Rome, the pope. The hegemony of one form of liturgy and order within the pre-Reformation English church is eventually broken or altered among ecclesial fractions, notably Dissenters, Anglicans (Church of England) and Catholics. Anglicans and Episcopalians in reality are just Protestants who acknowledge the Pope).

Henry VIII (1491–1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disagreement with Pope Clement VII on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated.

 

 

Could this "Curly Headed" little boy grow up to be the "Straight Haired" man below?

 

December 17, 1538: Pope Paul III definitively excommunicates King Henry VIII of England in papal bull, Cum redemptor noster.

1618: The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in continental Europe between 1618 and 1648. The war was instigated by the election of Ferdinand II as Holy Roman Emperor, a staunch Catholic who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains. In response, the Protestant states of northern Germany formed the Protestant Union to defend their interests. Tensions grew until the Defenestration of Prague (1618), when Bohemian Protestants threw the Emperor's representatives out of a window. The Bohemians then elected the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine, as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. The Catholic states of southern Germany, led by Bavaria, formed the Catholic League to help the Emperor restore his authority in Bohemia. The end of the war came in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia.

1648: The Thirty Years' War devastated the Empire. Foreign powers, including France and Sweden, intervened in the conflict and strengthened those fighting Imperial power, but also seized considerable territory for themselves. The long conflict so bled the Empire that it never recovered its strength. The actual end of the empire came in several steps. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, gave the territories almost complete independence. Calvinism was now allowed. The Swiss Confederation, which had already established quasi-independence in 1499, as well as the Northern Netherlands, left the Empire. The Habsburg Emperors focused on consolidating their own estates in Austria and elsewhere. Most surviving Native Black Europeans (called Palatines), were shipped off to the Americas (British Possessions) as Slaves and Indentures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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