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During the Ice Age that began some 2.4 million years ago, mountain ranges were covered in ice and snow. It was this freezing environment that helped transform the Scandinavian landscape into the one we recognise today. The first stage of this process started when falling snow compacted and turned to ice. This continuous cycle added to the physical weight and mass and ensured these formed glaciers gradually stared to move. This sliding movement was accelerated by the melting of the ice underneath, the place where it was warmest.
Massive rock boulders broke away from various points and became part of the glaciers themselves. This led to the erosion of the mountainside’s underneath and the carving of vast cliff faces and deep water inlets that today we call fjords. When the ice melted around 11,500 years ago, it wasn’t just the fjords that were left behind. In the flat, low-lying fields of Rogaland, further dramatic scars of the ice age remain. Here, great rocks look out of place, scattered in random places. These were once part of mountains before they were carried by the glaciers that slowly edged their way closer to the sea. When the Ice Age came to an end, the ice melted and they became stranded.
As Africans left Africa; they headed West to populate the Americas, East to populate Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific. But they couldn't venture very far North because Europe was still in the grips of the "ICE AGE". Finally at around 45,000 B.C. the Ice started to melt and Africans were able to start inhabiting Europe, Northern Asia, and North America.
The Stone Age and early coastal settlers
In Scandinavia the melting ice sheets brought in a new era, the Stone Age. These open coastal flatlands became ideal places for the earliest Scandinavian inhabitants to farm the land. These first setters of the region can be traced back to Stone Age. Evidence suggests that this population first arrived sometime between 10,000 BC and 5000 BC. They first settled on the flat expanses of Denmark and in the south of Sweden. Other parts of Europe were already populated at this time.
|Though called a Mummy, only this skull and some bones were recovered.|
|If you don't believe National Geographic can be so lying and blatantly Racist - google Sami yourself.|
Sami are the indigenous people of the northernmost parts of Sweden, Finland, Norway, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. The Sami speak a language belonging to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family with Finns, Karelians, and Estonians as their closest linguistic neighbors. The Sami languages can be further divided into 10 distinct extant languages. Sami are believed to have been present in the area from soon after glacial ice-sheet retreated. The Sami where initially hunters (mainly of reindeer and moose), but over time they domesticated the reindeer and became reindeer herders. Today, the Sami population is estimated to be less than 100,000 individuals (1). Some of the Sami are still reindeer herders and maintain a traditional lifestyle linked to the annual migration of the reindeer between summer and winter grazing areas, while the rest have other occupations. The Sami population is not known to have experienced any dramatic population changes and until recent, marriages between Sami and non-Sami families have been infrequent.
The Sami exhibit reduced genetic heterogeneity compared with other European populations. A few studies have suggested a population bottleneck followed by exponential growth, but the pattern of pairwise differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences in Sami agree with the prediction of a limited population size that has been maintained over a long period of time (18,25). Microsatellite diversity is also lower in the Sami, compared with the general Swedish population (26). A characteristic of a small population with constant population size is the sensitivity to random genetic drift, whereby the frequency of an allele or alleles at linked sites can increase or decrease in a population by chance. The effect of random genetic drift can be studied by screening for increased levels of linkage disequilibrium, the non-random association of alleles at different sites (27). However, few human populations have a demographic history that could lead to high linkage disequilibrium generated by genetic drift. A number of studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and microsatellite markers have shown the high linkage disequilibrium among the Sami (26,28,29). The pattern has been shown to be quite similar across studies with up to 5 times higher linkage disequilibrium in the Sami compared with the general Swedish population (Figure 1). Linkage disequilibrium created by genetic drift in populations such as the Sami represents a valuable asset in mapping disease genes at the population level (27).
In summary, genetic studies indicate that the Sami population has a heterogeneous origin and is the result of several migration events into Fennoscandia. A large portion of the genetic background is likely to be of Continental or Eastern European origin and reflects a migration of early hunter-gatherer tribes that arrived in the area soon after deglaciation. There is a small but detectable influence from Eastern Asian that may reflect people migrating into the region after it was already colonized by way of Central Asia and the Volga-Ural region. Of note is that while the Sami bear a genetic similarity to the Finns and some Eastern European populations, they are quite distinct from the Swedish and Norwegian populations, to which they are often compared for the purpose of studies of disease incidence. The Sami are also characterized by high linkage disequilibrium due to a long history of small population size, making them well suited to studies of genetic risk factors.
Scandinavia continued: The hunter-gatherers inhabited northern parts of Europe (Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia) for around 5,000 years. They weren't reindeer hunters until much more recently, however. The Sami people were also known as Komsa by archaeologists and researchers, or as lapps, a term which has since become offensive to some elements of the community. Today, the Sami population numbers somewhere in the region of 80-000–100,000 worldwide. In Norway there are between 37,890–60,000 Sami people, in Sweden between 14,6000–36,000, Finland 9,350, Russia 1,991, United States 945 and 136 Ukraine. In 1990, the Sami were formerly recognised as indigenous peoples of Norway.
Next came the Nordic Bronze Age between 1,700 BC and 500 BC. In this period, we don't just see settlers in the flats of Sweden and Denmark but also Norway. Generally, populated areas sprung up in coastal and low-lying areas, from the boarder with Sweden all the way up to Trondheim. There were no towns or large villages during the Bronze Age, only a small number of dwellings and farmstead in any one place. They were mostly comprised of long timber structures, similar to the longhouses built by the Vikings, and were home to large families and kinships.
Following on from the Bronze Age, came the Scandinavia Iron Age from around 500 BC to 800 AD. It immediately preceded the start of the Viking Age, which began around 800 AD. Still, populations were confined to the lowlands and coastal areas in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. However, the original settlements from the preceding ages were bigger and more robust. They sprung up on lands that had previously only been occupied by nature.
Due to conflict and wars in central Europe between Celtic tribes and Mediterranean populations, trade to and from Scandinavia was severely disrupted. Most established routes ran right through these tense areas and so trade all but stopped. For the first time in many years, the people of Scandinavia had to be totally self-sufficient. They had to be resourceful, so developed new ways of surviving. In Denmark, with the amount of imported metals now scarce, iron was produced from deposits found in bogs and swamps. Iron was much stronger and more useful for weapons and tools, so the people no longer had to depend on imported bronze from Europe.
Next came a time in Scandinavia's past much more familiar to most people: the Viking Age. It is an era that is no more or no less important than what had come before, but one that we do know much more about. Tales from the era—some based on fact, others mostly fiction—have also become part of popular culture, especially in recent years.
^^Notice that whenever Albinos have to show Black people in places where they once said there were none; they make them look like "Dark White People".
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), more commonly known as DNA, is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism, including Humans. It is a self-replicating material that is divided into functional units called genes. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is a segment of DNA that codes for a functional product (mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA). Since the vast majority of genes are transcribed into mRNA, and mRNA is subsequently translated into polypeptides or proteins, most genes code for protein synthesis. However, many genes do not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases - A base pair is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA that may be more than 2 million base pairs.
Genes independently assort at a distance of 50 cM or more apart. This means that no statistical test would allow researchers to measure linkage. Physical crossing over during meiosis I is a normal event (see definitions below). The effect of this event is to rearrange heterozygous homologous chromsomes into new combinations. The term used for crossing over is recombination. Recombination can occur between any two genes on a chromosome, the amount of crossing over is a function of how close the genes are to each other on the chromosome. If two genes are far apart, for example, at opposite ends of the chromosome, crossover and non-crossover events will occur in equal frequency. Genes that are closer together undergo fewer crossing over events and non-crossover gametes will exceed the number of crossover gametes. In meiosis, the chromosome or chromosomes duplicate (during interphase) and homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information (chromosomal crossover) during the first division, called meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II, splitting up sister chromatids to form haploid gametes.
Finally, for two genes that are right next to each other on the chromosome, crossing over will be a very rare event. Two types of gametes are possible when following genes on the same chromosomes. If crossing over does not occur, the products are parental gametes. If crossing over occurs, the products are recombinant gametes. The allelic composition of parental and recombinant gametes depends upon whether the original cross involved genes in coupling or repulsion phase.
DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).
DNA that actually codes for proteins cannot vary much without rendering the proteins ineffective. The four nucleotide bases that make up the backbone of DNA provide instructions for assembling the amino acids in proteins in a precise sequence: with each “Three-Base” group coding for a specific amino acid. If that DNA base sequence is altered (or "mutated"), the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein can also be altered. As a result, because protein function derives from a specific amino acid sequence, the protein may not work.
Think of DNA as the "Blueprint" for a house and Proteins as the steel, timber, bricks and mortar, from which the house will be built. A brick that is mostly sand instead of clay will crumble, and mortar with the wrong ratio of cement to aggregate will fail. Likewise, a protein with the wrong sequence of amino acids often won't function. (This analogy fails to capture the complexity of the DNA-protein system) because proteins are not only the "Bricks" and "Timber." Some also "READ" the "Blueprint" and SUPERVISE the building, others are the "Bricklayers" and "Carpenters" and still others “Maintain” and keep the house functioning after it is built.) “Non-functional” or missing proteins are the basis for many Genetic Diseases.
DNA's ability to store - and transmit - information lies in the fact that it consists of two polynucleotide strands that twist around each other to form a double-stranded helix. DNA belongs to a class of molecules called the nucleic acids, which are polynucleotides - that is, long chains of nucleotides. The bases link across the two strands in a specific manner using hydrogen bonds: cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G), and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T). The double helix of the complete DNA molecule resembles a spiral staircase, with two sugar phosphate backbones and the paired bases in the centre of the helix. This structure explains two of the most important properties of the molecule. First, it can be copied or 'replicated', as each strand can act as a template for the generation of the complementary strand. Second, it can store information in the linear sequence of the nucleotides along each strand.
An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell. DNA and histone proteins are packaged into structures called chromosomes.
In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule (molecule - a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction): is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.
Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Each gene resides at a specific locus (location on a chromosome) in two copies, one copy of the gene inherited from each parent. As a simplistic example: When two Chinese mate, the child will look Chinese because all the genes are healthy and all the genes are the same. But if a Chinese and a White European mate, the children will look like some combination of the two, because the "Appearance" genes are not all the same. Gene copies, however, are not always healthy. When the copies of a gene differ from each other, as through deleterious mutation or failure: Then in this heterozygous condition, we call the two parts “Alleles” and the undamaged or un-mutated allele is dominant, and the organism’s appearance and function is normal. The damaged "other" allele has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance, and is called the “Recessive” allele.
When BOTH alleles of a gene become recessive, then the gene cannot complete its assignment. As an example: many Black people have alleles of their “P” gene which are heterozygous and they look normal in every way: (The “P” gene controls the production of Melanin in the skin for protection from the Sun). But if TWO of these people with heterozygous alleles in their “P” gene MATE, then one or more, of their children will be an Albino. If two Albinos mate, there is only damaged or recessive “P” genes to inherit; therefore ALL of their children will be White. The trait for curly hair (which is the normal for humans) follows the same rules, two damaged or recessive allele’s of the "TCHH" gene means straight hair. Same for the genes which control eye color and hair color: (Blonde and Red hair is recessive, as is Blue, Green, and Gray eyes).
Note: The trait for Curly/Kinky hair (which is the "Normal" for humans): is produced by two "Undamaged" TCHH genes. That means that "Curly Hair" is "ANCESTRAL" to Modern Humans. You might keep that in mind the next time you see the White mans depictions of ancient humans shown with "Straight" hair.
Nappy or Straight Hair? The TCHH gene provides instructions for making a protein called trichohyalin. This protein is primarily found in hair follicles. Normal = Nappy hair: Mutated = Straight hair. See graphic below.
Directly following the last ice age, people from the western parts of what is now Norway were a population that had substantially different genetics from the people living in the area corresponding to present day Sweden.
"We were surprised that the results showed such marked dissimilarities," says associate professor and archaeologist Birgitte Skar at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) University Museum. Skar is responsible for the museum's Stone Age and Bronze Age collections.
Scandinavia was one of the last parts of Europe to become habitable when the glaciers released their icy grip more than 10,000 years ago. The ocean's resources and the coastal archipelago attracted marine hunter-gatherers of yore to the region.
Swedish and Norwegian researchers have collaborated on analysing the DNA in 9500-year-old bone samples from the southern and western Norwegian coast and from the Swedish islands of Gotland and Stora Karlsö. This period corresponds to the Mesolithic Stone Age.
Researchers examined seven excavated individuals and compared their genetic material with samples from other parts of Europe.
"People from the Norwegian south and west coast were genetically similar to populations east of the Baltic Sea that came from today's Russia. People from eastern Scandinavia - present-day Sweden - were more genetically similar to populations from central and western Europe," says population geneticist Torsten Günther from Uppsala University. He is one of the main authors of the new study.
This finding may seem strange if you just look at the geography, but it may be due to multiple waves of migration to Scandinavia. About 11,500 years ago, people migrated from the south, through Germany and Denmark and then by sea to Norway. About 1000 years later, people traveled from the northeast and followed the Norwegian Atlantic coast southward.
"To understand the migration routes, it was essential to obtain data from the Norwegian individuals," explains Skar, co-author of the study. The Norwegian skeletal remains from southern Norway are also the oldest of the individuals studied.
Over time, the various migration waves led to extensive contact between the diverse populations, and this is also reflected in the genetic data.
The researchers analysed the genetic data in conjunction with other archaeological findings and new insights from climate models to increase their understand of the migration routes, settlement patterns and the first people to settle in Scandinavia as the ice retreated.
Archaeological artefacts and isotopic analysis - which can tell us something about what people ate - help to fill out the picture. The new immigrants that came from the northeast learned new boating and fishing skills to access marine resources, which offered their main source of food.
The researchers discovered that these immigrants also introduced new tools and innovative ways to produce them. This shift in material culture can now be linked to a particular migration wave.
"We expect that a migrating population comes with an entire cultural package - a knowledge of nature, ways of life, craft traditions, beliefs and other customs," says Skar. "Now we can explore more closely how the relationship between the original and new populations evolved. The original inhabitants were highly skilled and adventurous seafaring hunters, whereas the new population was originally an inland people. Archaeologists can track the processes of change in their material culture," she adds.
Norway study continued: People at that time were largely dependent on the ocean for food. They braved challenging climate conditions that required behavioral adaptations in the short term, and that in the longer term could lead to changes in the population's genetic composition.
"The two groups that migrated to Scandinavia at that time were genetically distinct. People from the south probably had blue eyes and dark skin, while those from the northeast had various eye colours and light skin," says population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson from Uppsala University, another of the main authors.
^Lying Albinos say things like that to make you imagine dark skinned "White People". Think about it, if they were White people (Albinos) then they couldn't be Black! Even though we DO have Blue Eyed Black people.
The genetic variation between the Mesolithic individuals from Scandinavia is surprisingly high, and greater than in the populations who lived in western and central Europe. This contrasts with the Europe of today, where the largest genetic variation is found in the south.
The lighter variations of skin and eye color that are more common in Scandinavia than in other parts of Europe; (Scandinavians are more "Pure-Blooded Albinos because of limited contact with Blacks). That also appear to have been the case at the time of the migrations. Pigmentation, now as then, tends to decrease the farther away a population group lives from the equator. We can assume this to be an indicator of climate adaptation. << Albino lie! They're still trying to work the old "Vitamin D" lie.
Humans natural to the Arctic are BROWN skinned: NOT ALBINOS/WHITE SKINNED,
The Brown skinned are likely the Mulattoes of the original Black Arctic people and later arriving Albinos.
Scientific American credits W.E.B. Du Bois with the hypothesis
that Race is a Social Construct from more than 100 years ago.