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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

Letter from Pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa


To Endaruta [1], the ruler of Akshapa say: Thus says the king: He sends this tablet to you, saying to you, Be on your guard; guard the place of the king where you are.

 Behold, the king sends you Hanni, the son of Maireya, the akil tarbasi of the king in Canaan. Pay close attention to what he tells you so that the king does not find fault in you. Everything he tells you, pay careful attention and carefully carry it out. And be on guard! Be on guard! Do not be negligent. And prepare for the archers [4] a great deal of food, and wine, and a great deal of everything else. Indeed, he will reach you very quickly, and he will behead the enemies of the king. And know that the king is strong like the sun [5] in the sky. For his soldiers and his chariots are numerous and in good condition.


[1]     Endaruta supported Shuwardata.
[2]     Akshapa, biblical Achshaph, near Acco. (see map)
[3]     akil tarbasi, official
[4]     archers, the Egyptian army relied heavily on archery, both on foot and on chariot.
[5]     sun: this is the period of ascendency of Aten.