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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

Sumerian Tigi’s

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A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A)

A tigi of Enki for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta B): translation

A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): translation

A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): translation

A tigi to Nanaya for Ishbi-Erra (Ishbi-Erra C): translation

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Shu-Suen (Shu-Suen D): translation

Inana and Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan A): translation

Inana and Ishme-Dagan (Ishme-Dagan K): translation

 

A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A)

My lady, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the interior of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods. Bau, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the midst of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods.

My lady, you have brought the divine powers from the interior of heaven. Your own father, An, the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods. Bau, you have brought the divine powers from the midst of heaven. Your own father, An the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods.

After you had chosen the shepherd in the assembly for his attractiveness, you recognised him in ……, his lofty place, gave him ……, and ……. Bau, after you had chosen Gudea for his attractiveness in the divine assembly, you recognised him in ……, his lofty place, gave him ……, and …….

    The sa-gida.

My lady, imbued with great fearsomeness, ……, lord Ning̃irsu has looked at you approvingly. He …… you with allure and has made your …… table in the E-tar-sirsir lavishly famous. Bau, imbued with great fearsomeness, ……, lord Ning̃irsu has looked at you approvingly. He …… you with allure and has made your …… table in the E-tar-sirsir lavishly famous.

You are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgments and ……. You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in the heaven and on the earth. Bau, you are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgments and ……. You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in heaven and on earth.

My lady, you have looked up in the divine assembly and …… him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagaš! Bau, you have looked up in the divine assembly and …… him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd, Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagaš!

    The sa-g̃ara.

    A tigi of Bau.

 

 

A tigi of Enki for Ur-Ninurta (Ur-Ninurta B): translation

Lord of complex divine powers, who establishes umderstanding, whose intentions are unfathomable, who knows everything! Enki, of broad wisdom, august ruler of the Anuna, wise one who casts spells, who provides words, who attends to decisions, who clarifies verdicts, who dispenses advice from dawn to dusk! Enki, lord of all true words, I will praise you. Your father, An the king, the lord who caused human seed to come forth and who placed all mankind on the earth, has laid upon you the guarding of the divine powers of heaven and earth, and has elevated you to be their prince. An, king of the gods, has instructed you to keep open the holy mouths of Tigris and Euphrates, to fill them with splendour, to make the dense clouds release plentiful water and make them rain all over the fields, to make Acnan lift her head in the furrows, to make vegetation ...... in the desert, and to make orchards and gardens ripe with syrup and vines grow as tall as forests.

Enlil, the lord who creates everything, has bestowed on you his august, proud and greatly awe-inspiring name: you are the junior Enlil. Throughout heaven and earth he alone is divine, and you are his younger brother. He has placed in your hands the power like him to decide destinies of both the south and the uplands. A good decision that comes forth from your mouth is exceptionally powerful. Sa-bara (a name of Enlil as judge) , you concern yourself with the sustenance of the people who are widely settled as far as the borders of the mountains: you are their true father. Lord, all together they praise your greatness like the greatness of their protective deities.

Sa-gida.

 

Nudimmud, let your holy word and august command be a source of honour for Ur-Ninurta, and let him have no rivals.

Jicgijal.

 

August lord, you excel in heaven and earth, and you have made your name shine forth. Enki, you have gathered up all the divine powers that there are, and stored them in the abzu. You have made praiseworthy the divine powers, exceeding all other divine powers, of your holy dwelling which you have chosen in your heart -- the abzu, the august shrine ...... -- as well as its divine plans. Its shadow covers all lands from east to west, and its terrifying splendour rests upon the holy heavens like dense thunderclouds. It fills with terror E-kur, the holy dwelling of An and Enlil. Therein, equipped with the sceptre, you fashion the numerous seeds (?) ...... for the assigned divine powers of the great gods; to create mankind and to preserve them alive is in your power, father Enki, when you take your seat on the dais where you decide destinies.

Sa-jara.

 

May Ur-Ninurta, the king in whom Enlil trusts, open up your house of wisdom in which you have gathered knowledge in plenty, and then be the great ruler of the black-headed. Make terrifying splendour befitting his godhead issue from him, the lion of kingship, in everything that he does, for as long as he lives. May you present him with weighty tribute from the upper and the lower seas, and let Ur-Ninurta bring it into the glorious E-kur. May Enlil look upon him joyously, and add to his period of rule blissful days and years of joy and life. Father Enki, inspiring terrible awe, surpassing description, may the Anuna, your divine brothers, rejoice over you. Son of An, possessor of august honour, it is sweet to praise you!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): translation

My lady, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the interior of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods. Bau, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the midst of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods.

My lady, you have brought the divine powers from the interior of heaven. Your own father, An, the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods. Bau, you have brought the divine powers from the midst of heaven. Your own father, An the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods.

After you had chosen the shepherd in the assembly for his attractiveness, you recognized him in ......, his lofty place, gave him ......, and ....... Bau, after you had chosen Gudea for his attractiveness in the divine assembly, you recognized him in ......, his lofty place, gave him ......, and .......

The sagida.

 

My lady, imbued with great fearsomeness, ......, lord Ninjirsu has looked at you approvingly. He ...... you with allure and has made your ...... table in the E-tarsirsir lavishly famous. Bau, imbued with great fearsomeness, ......, lord Ninjirsu has looked at you approvingly. He ...... you with allure and has made your ...... table in the E-tarsirsir lavishly famous.

You are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgements and ....... You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in the heaven and on the earth. Bau, you are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgements and ....... You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in heaven and on earth.

My lady, you have looked up in the divine assembly and ...... him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagac! Bau, you have looked up in the divine assembly and ...... him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd, Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagac!

The sajara.
A tigi of Bau.

 

 

 

A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): translation

Exalted Enlil, ...... fame ......, lord who ...... his great princedom, Nunamnir, king of heaven and earth ......, looked around among the people. The Great Mountain, Enlil, chose Ur-Namma the good shepherd from the multitude of people: "Let him be the shepherd of Nunamnir!" He made him emanate (?) fierce awesomeness.

The divine plans of brick-built E-kur were drawn up. The Great Mountain, Enlil, made up his mind, filled with pure and useful thoughts, to make them shine like the sun in the E-kur, his august shrine. He instructed the shepherd Ur-Namma to make the E-kur rise high; the king made him the mightiest in the Land, he made him the first among the people. The good shepherd Ur-Namma, ...... whose trust in Nunamnir is enduring, the knowledgeable judge, the lord of great wisdom, prepared the brick mould. Enlil brought order in his rebellious and hostile lands for the shepherd Ur-Namma, and made Sumer flourish in joy, in days filled with prosperity. The foundations were laid down firmly and the holy foundation pegs were driven in. The enkum and ninkum priests praised it duly and Enki made the temple rejoice with his artful incantations.

The shepherd Ur-Namma made the lofty E-kur grow high in Dur-an-ki. He made it to be wondered by the multitude of people. He made glittering the eyebrow-shaped arches of the Lofty Gate, the Great Gate, the Gate of Peace, the Artfully Built Mountain and the Gate of Perpetual Grain Supplies, by covering them with refined silver. The Anzud bird runs there and an eagle seizes enemies in its claws (?). Its doors are lofty; he filled them with joy. The temple is lofty, it is surrounded with fearsome radiance. It is spread wide, it awakes great awesomeness. Within it, he made the Artfully Built Mountain, the raised temple (?), the holy dwelling stand fast for the Great Mountain like a lofty tower (?).

In the Gagiccua of the great palace, where she renders verdicts with grandeur, he made the great mother Ninlil glad. Enlil and Ninlil relished it there. In its great dining-hall, the trustworthy hero chosen by Nunamnir made them enjoy a magnificent meal: the E-kur was rejoicing. They looked with approval at the shepherd Ur-Namma, and the Great Mountain decreed a great destiny for Ur-Namma for all time, making him the mightiest among his black-headed people.

The sagida.

 

I am Nunamnir, whose firm commands and decisions are immutable! You have made my lofty E-kur shine gloriously, you have raised it high with a brilliant crenellation. Trustworthy hero, you have made it shine gloriously in the Land. Ur-Namma, mighty lord, may your (?) kingship be unparalleled, may your fame spread to heaven's borders, as far as the foot of the mountains!"

I am the Great Mountain, father Enlil, whose firm commands and decisions are immutable! You have made my lofty E-kur shine gloriously, you have raised it high with a brilliant crenellation. Trustworthy hero, you have made it shine gloriously in the Land. Ur-Namma, mighty lord, may your (?) kingship be unparalleled, may your fame spread to heaven's borders, as far as the foot of the mountains!"

Lord Nunamnir gave to my king the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands; he gave to the shepherd Ur-Namma the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot. Lord Nunamnir gave it to the shepherd Ur-Namma, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot.

He destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. The shepherd Ur-Namma destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. He has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming ...... the wicked. The shepherd Ur-Namma has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming ...... the wicked.

He has made the royal dais stand firmly, he has made Urim resplendent. The shepherd Ur-Namma has made it exude awesomeness, and he, as king of the Land, has lifted his head high there. All this was granted to him in the place of his king, Enlil: a fate was decreed and then it was duly fulfilled. There is now joy and abundance in Urim because (?) of Ur"Namma.

The sajara. A tigi of Enlil.

 

 

 

 

 

A tigi to Nanaya for Ishbi-Erra (Ishbi-Erra C): translation

Lady of the princely powers, emerging brilliantly like the daylight, chosen forever for her virtuous beauty! Nanaya, ornament of E-ana, worthy of the Lady! Wise one, correctly chosen as lady of all the lands by the Mistress: Nanaya, you instruct the Land, bestowing wisdom in E-ana.

Barsud.

 

As fine as An, woman with a holy (?) head, made perfect by the ...... lady! Nanaya, properly educated by holy Inana, woman who is as bright as the stars, wise lady who is available for everything, righteous sympathetic woman, lady who is always available on request, counselled by holy Inana, beloved by the Mistress! Nanaya, great judge, deity who occupies the high throne of Unug!

Cagbatuku.

 

Righteous woman who knows well the verdicts of the good decisions of the Land, Nanaya, who is wise in directing the city and the numerous people, exalted woman adept at holy speech, lady fitted for beauty, Nanaya, pride of E-ana, well-spoken one of the Land!

2nd barsud.

 

By An, the benevolent eye of the Land, the king of all countries, Nanaya ...... the Land ...... E-ana ...... beauty ....... The youthful good shepherd, the son of Nunamnir, has ...... -- Icbi-Erra, who wields great powers, ...... Nanaya his prayers unendingly like strong liquor ...... of E-ana.

Cabaduga.

 

Icbi-Erra, constant benefactor of E-ana.

Sa-gida.

 

Your Nanaya, who is beloved in the Land by the Mistress, is chosen together with you (?), Icbi-Erra; may you always be eulogised by her.

Jicgijal.

 

Great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress: luxurious divine powers have been generously given to you by the Mistress. Nanaya, great lady, worthy source of inspiration, counselled (?) by the Mistress! Icbi-Erra, you are the king and shepherd of the people! Nanaya, by the command of An you are the queen of all the countries. In the shrine, in Kulaba, ...... he declares it, and the people turn their hearts towards you as you address them. Nanaya, good woman, you are the favourable (?) name of the black-headed! O youth chosen in beauty by the Mistress, son of Enlil, your wise word is brightly made good for the goddess Inana! O Nanaya, the goddess has created your holy powers ...... for you. You have ...... turned the favourable eye of life onto the bedchamber, and Icbi-Erra is the youth chosen for his beauty.

Sa-jara.

 

A tigi of Nanaya.

 

 

 

 

A tigi (?) to Ninurta for Shu-Suen (Shu-Suen D): translation

Ancient warrior, greatly respected and forceful, with the strength of a full-grown lion! Ninurta, ...... flood, great lion, fierce opponent in battle! Mighty one, who ...... the enemy peoples, destroyer of cities, who turns the settlements into dust! Ninurta, great wild bull, a battering ram who ...... great walls!

Barsud.

 

A flood which frightens the rebel lands, without rival! Ninurta, deathly hush, ...... bolt of lightning (?), ...... (the other ms. has instead: imbued with fearsomeness, ......, ...... the enemy). You have made the name of king Cu-Suen known among the widespread people. When he directs big bulls and big sheep to the main courtyard of your E-cumeca, the holy residence, the Igi-cu-galam in which the fates are determined, may he greet (?) you from its holy royal offering place, may Cu-Suen greet (?) you from there. ...... Ninurta ...... long life ....... ...... long life ...... for Cu-Suen.

Cagbatuku.

 

2 lines fragmentary
Ninurta, firstborn son of Enlil, ...... fearsomeness.
2nd barsud.

 

2 lines fragmentary
...... raging ...... horizon ....... Ninurta, the strong one, the august provider, born of Ninlil! ...... deathly hush ...... Cu-Suen who is always at Enlil's service. Ninurta, may you be his great wall, may you look on him favourably; may you be Cu-Suen's great wall, may you look on him favourably.

Sa-gida.

 

Ninurta, may you be the aid of my Cu-Suen's weapons.

Its jicgijal.

 

...... who moves fast into the heart of the mountains! Ninurta, massive stormwind over the rebel lands, devastating the people! Counsellor, who controls perfectly the divine powers of the E-kur, support of his father! Ninurta, ...... who moves fast into the heart of the mountains! Ninurta, massive stormwind over the rebel lands, devastating the people! Counsellor, who controls perfectly the divine powers of the E-kur, support of his father! My king, the great strength of Enlil, from whose grasp no foreign country can escape! For Cu-Suen ......, given great strength by father Enlil -- you, Ninurta, will destroy myriads in the battle and the fray. Ninurta, the great strength of Enlil, from whose grasp no foreign country can escape! For Cu-Suen ......, given great strength by father Enlil -- you, Ninurta, will destroy myriads in the battle and the fray.

My king, you alone perform the ancient rites, a truly immense task. Ninurta, yellow evening light that casts fear over the Land, like holy Urac, a fearsome dragon brandishing a terrible torch! Ninurta, you alone perform the ancient rites, a truly immense task. Ninurta, yellow evening light that casts fear over the Land, like holy Urac, a fearsome dragon raising a terrible torch! My king, grandiloquent great warrior, confident in his strength! And may you, Cu-Suen, put your trust in him, in lord Ninurta. May Cu-Suen, the king whom Enlil has appointed for you, be your constable. Ninurta, grandiloquent great warrior, confident in his strength! And may you, Cu-Suen, put your trust in him, in lord Ninurta. May Cu-Suen, the king whom Enlil has appointed for you, be your constable. ...... of nir stone, ...... holy and fearsome ......, a truly immense task. Like ...... your august strength, he has written your name on it. ...... will be the guardian of his life forever. Cu-Suen! Holy and fearsome, a truly immense task. Like ...... your august strength, he has written your name on it. ...... will be the guardian of his life forever.
1 line missing

Sa-jara.

 

 

 

 

Inana and Iddin-Dagan (Iddin-Dagan A): translation

I shall greet her who ascends above, her who ascends above, I shall greet the Mistress who ascends above, I shall greet the great lady of heaven, Inana! I shall greet the holy torch who fills the heavens, the light, Inana, her who shines like daylight, the great lady of heaven, Inana! I shall greet the Mistress, the most awesome lady among the Anuna gods; the respected one who fills heaven and earth with her huge brilliance; the eldest daughter of Suen, Inana! For the young lady I shall sing a song about her grandeur, about her greatness, about her exalted dignity; about her radiantly ascending at evening; about her filling the heaven like a holy torch; about her stance in the heavens, as noticeable by all lands, from the south to the highlands, as that of Nanna or of Utu; about the greatness of the Mistress of heaven!

1st kirugu.

 

Her rising is that of a warrior.

Jicgijal.

 

When standing in the heavens she is the good wild cow of An, on earth she instils respect; she is the lady of all the lands. She received the divine powers in the abzu, in Eridug; her father Enki presented them to her. He placed the lordship and kingship in her hands. She takes her seat on the great dais with An; she determines the fates in her Land with Enlil. Monthly, at the new moon, the gods of the Land gather around her so that the divine powers are perfected. The great Anuna gods, having bowed before them, stand there with prayers and supplications and utter prayers on behalf of all the lands. My lady decrees judgments in due order for the Land. (2 mss. add the line: Inana decides verdicts for the Land together with Enlil.) Her black-headed people parade before her.

2nd kirugu.

 

Making silver aljar instruments sound for her, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall greet the great lady of heaven, Inana! Making holy ub and holy lilis drums sound for her, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall greet the great lady of heaven, Inana! Beating (?) holy balaj and holy lilis drums for her, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall greet (1 ms. adds: in (?) her grandeur, in (?) her greatness, in (?) her exalted dignity as she ascends radiantly at evening,) the eldest daughter of Suen (some mss. have instead: the great lady of heaven), Inana!

3rd kirugu.

 

Combing (?) their hair (?) for her, male prostitutes parade before her, holy Inana. Their locks of hair at the back are adorned for her with coloured bands (?); they parade before her, holy Inana. Clothed (?) in the leather (?) of divinity, they parade before her, holy Inana. The trustworthy man (1 ms. has instead: king) and the proud lady, the doyenne of the great wise women, parade before her, holy Inana. Those who are in charge (?) of beating (?) the soothing balaj drums parade before her, holy Inana. Each girded with a sword belt, the strength of battle, they parade before her, holy Inana. Grasping a spear, the strength of battle, in their hands, they parade before her, holy Inana.

4th kirugu.

 

Dressed with men's clothing on the right side, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall greet the great lady of heaven, Inana! Adorned (?) with women's clothing on the left side, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall great the great lady of heaven, Inana! Competing with skipping ropes of (?) coloured cords for her, they parade before her, holy Inana. I shall greet the eldest daughter of Suen (1 ms. has instead: the great lady of heaven), Inana!

5th kirugu.

 

Young men put into neck-stocks (?) sing to her and parade before her, holy Inana. Young women, cugia priestesses, coiffured, parade before her, holy Inana. ...... sword and dagger for her, they parade before her, holy Inana. With daggers in their hands, ...... kurjara priests parade before her, holy Inana. Those who cover their swords with gore spatter blood as they parade before her, holy Inana. Blood is poured on the dais standing in the guena hall, as tigi, cem and ala drums are made to sound loudly.

The Mistress stands alone in the pure heavens. From the midst of heaven my lady looks with joy at all the lands and the black headed people, who are as numerous as sheep (1 ms. has instead: ewes). (some mss. add the line: They parade before her, holy Inana). I praise the lady of the evening, Inana, the august one, the young lady, Inana. The lady of the evening reaches the borders of heaven! (1 ms. has instead: The lady exalted as high as the heaven, Inana), is august!

6th kirugu.

 

When at evening, the radiant star, the Venus star, the great light which fills the holy heavens, the lady of the evening, ascends above like a warrior, the people in all the lands lift their gaze to her. The men purify themselves, the woman cleanse themselves. The oxen toss (?) their heads in their yoke. The sheep stir up dust in their pens. Because of my lady, the numerous beasts of Cakkan, the creatures of the plain, the four-legged animals under the broad heavens (1 ms. has instead: of the broad high (?) plain), the orchards and gardens, the plots, the green reed-beds, the fish of the deep, the birds of heaven, all hasten to their sleeping places. All the living creatures and the numerous people bend the knee before her. When called for (?) by my lady the matriarchs plentifully provide food and drink, and my lady refreshes herself in her Land. There is play in the Land, which is made festive. The young men take pleasure in their spouses.

From the midst of heaven my lady looks down with joy. They parade before her, holy Inana. The lady of the evening, Inana, is august; I praise the young lady, Inana. The lady of the evening, her grandeur reaches the borders of heaven!

7th kirugu.

 

At night the skilled and beautiful one (?), the joy of An, the ornament of broad heaven, appears like moonlight; in the heat of the noon she appears like sunlight. After the storehouses of the Land have been filled with fine food, and all the lands and the black-headed people have assembled, (1 ms. adds: and the storehouses of the Land have been made full (?),) those who sleep on the roofs and those who sleep by the walls step up before her with ...... and bring her their cases. Then she makes her orders known, and identifies the evil. She judges the evil as evil and destroys the wicked. She looks with favour on the just and determines a good fate for them.

From the midst of heaven my lady looks down with joy. They parade before her, holy Inana. The lady exalted as high as the heaven, Inana, is august! I praise the young woman, Inana. The lady exalted as high as the heaven, her grandeur reaches the borders of heaven.

8th kirugu.

 

The beautiful lady, the joy of An, has ascended above like a warrior. She carries there what befits the ...... of heaven. She takes counsel with An in his lofty place. Among youths and heroes (some mss. have instead: heroic youths), may she be alone chosen!

 Jicgijal.

 

She is mighty, she is respected, she exalted, she is august and great, she is surpassing in youthfulness.

Cagbatuku.

 

As the lady, admired by the Land, the lone star, the Venus star, the lady elevated as high as the heaven, ascends above like a warrior, all the lands tremble before her ....... The faithful black-headed people bow to her. The young man travelling on the road directs himself by her. The oxen raise their heads in their yoke to her. (2 mss. add: The melody of the song of those tending the cattle resounds ...... on the plain. The farmer ...... the cattle ...... their yoke in the Land.) With her the storehouses of the Land prosper.

Everybody hastens to holy Inana. For my lady in the midst of heaven the best of everything is prepared (?). In the pure places of the plain, at its good places, on the roofs, on the rooftops, the rooftops of the dwellings (?), in the sanctuaries (?) of mankind, incense offerings like a forest of aromatic cedars are transmitted to her. They sacrifice alum sheep, long-haired sheep, and fattened sheep for her. They purify the earth for the Mistress, they carry out purification rites for her (some mss. have instead: celebrate her in songs).

They fill the tables of the Land with ghee, dates, cheese, and seven sorts of fruits as first-fruit offerings for her. They pour dark beer for her, they pour light beer for her. Dark beer, emmer beer, and emmer beer for my lady bubble in the cagub jar and the lamsari vat for her. From pastes of honey mixed with ghee (some mss. add the line: From ...... mixed with ghee), they bake date-syrup cakes for her. They pour out early-morning beer, flour, flour in honey, honey, and wine of sunrise for her. The personal gods of the people also attend upon her with food and drink. They provide the Mistress with food in the holy place, the pure place. (some mss. have instead: They purify the earth for the Mistress, they celebrate her in songs.)

From the midst of heaven my lady looks down with joy. They parade before her, holy Inana. Inana, the lady exalted as high as the heaven is august! I praise the young lady, Inana. The lady exalted as high as the heaven, her grandeur reaches the borders of heaven!

9th kirugu.

 

When the black-headed people have assembled in the palace, the house that advises the Land, the neck-stock of all the foreign countries, the house of the river of ordeal, a dais is set up for Ninegala. The divine king stays there with her. At the New Year, on the day of the rites, in order for her to determine the fate of all the countries (1 ms. has instead: in order for the life of all the countries to be attended to), so that during the day (?) the faithful servants can be inspected, so that on the day of the disappearance of the moon the divine powers can be perfected, a bed is set up for my lady. Esparto grass is purified with cedar perfume and arranged on that bed for my lady, and a coverlet is smoothed out on the top (?) of it.

In order to find sweetness in the bed on the joyous coverlet, my lady bathes her holy thighs. She bathes them for the thighs of the king; she bathes them for (some mss. have instead: with head held high she goes to) the thighs of Iddin-Dagan. Holy Inana rubs herself with soap; she sprinkles oil and cedar essence on the ground.

The king goes to her holy thighs with head held high, (some mss. add: she goes to the thighs of Iddin-Dagan,) he goes to the thighs of Inana with head held high. Ama-ucumgal-ana lies down beside her and caresses her holy thighs (some mss. have instead: (says:) "O my holy thighs! O my holy Inana!"). After the lady has made him rejoice with her holy thighs on the bed, after holy Inana has made him rejoice with her holy thighs on the bed, she relaxes (?) with him on her bed: "Iddin-Dagan, you are indeed my beloved!"

To pour libations, to carry out purification rites, to heap up incense offerings, to burn juniper resin (?), to set out food offerings, to set out offering-bowls, he goes into her Egal-mah. She embraces her beloved spouse, holy Inana embraces him. She shines like daylight on the great throne dais (1 ms. has instead: the throne at one side (?)) and makes the king position himself next (?) to her like the sun.

Abundance and celebration are prepared before her in plenty. He arranges a rich banquet for her. The black-headed people line up before her. With instruments loud enough to drown out the south wind-storm, with sweet sounding aljar instruments, the glory of the palace, and with harps, the source of joy for mankind, musicians perform songs which delight her heart. The king sees to what is eaten and drunk, Ama-ucumgal-ana sees to what is eaten and drunk. The palace is in festive mood, the king is joyous. The people spend the day amid plenteousness. Ama-ucumgal-ana stands in great joy. May his days be long on the splendid throne! He proudly (?) occupies the royal dais.

They praise my lady on my behalf (?) with the hymns of heaven and earth. "You are the Mistress born together with heaven and earth." In the holy place, the pure place, they celebrate the Mistress in songs: "Joy of the black-headed people, ornament of the assembly, Inana, eldest daughter of Suen, lady of the evening, your praise is good!".

From the midst of heaven my lady looks down with joy. They parade before her, holy Inana. Inana, the lady elevated as high as the heavens, is august! (some mss. have instead: The lady of the evening, her grandeur reaches the borders of heaven!)

10th kirugu.

 

She is mighty, she is respected, she is exalted, she is august and great, she is surpassing in youthfulness!

 Jicgijal.

 

A cirnamursaja of Ninsiana.

 

 

 

 

 

Inana and Ishme-Dagan (Ishme-Dagan K): translation

Young woman Inana, Suen's daughter, who makes the divine powers of the Land supreme, who achieves everything, who seizes the divine powers in heaven and gathers them up on earth, who proceeds proudly with her head reaching the heavens, whose radiance makes the nighttime secure like a fire which lights up into the distance -- no god can stand up as her opposition, .......

Holy Inana was endowed by Enlil and Ninlil with the capacity to make the heavens shake, to make the earth tremble, to hold the four directions in her hand and to act grandly as their lady, to shout with wide open mouth in battle and combat and to wreak carnage (?), to butt all at once valiantly (?) like a wild bull, to make the earth drink the blood of enemies like water and to pile up their bodies, to take captive their overwhelmed (?) troops and to make them serve, to make the people ascend from below to above, to make the foreign (1 ms. has instead: numerous) people change their place, and to turn light to darkness and darkness to light. They made her without rival in heaven and on earth. They bestowed on her the power to establish a woman's domain in ....... They detemined as her fate to ...... , to make them content together.

Inana was entrusted by Enlil and Ninlil with the capacity to gladden the heart of those who revere her in their established residences, but not to soothe the mood of those who do not revere her in their well-built houses; to turn a man into a woman and a woman into a man, to change one into the other, to make young women dress as men on their right side, to make young men dress as women on their left side, to put spindles into the hands of men ......, and to give weapons to the women; to see that women amuse themselves by using children's language, to see that children amuse themselves by using women's language, to ...... skill, to ....... They built a palace, her house of ladyship, for the mistress of An, and invested it with fearsome radiance. They made it into the neck-stock of all the foreign countries, and imbued it with awe-inspiring, terrifying splendour.

To clamp down (?) on the black-headed people, to ......, to decide justly the lawsuits of the numerous people, to select the just, ......, to ...... who speaks (?) violently -- all these were entrusted into Inana's hands by them.

Enlil and Ninlil gave her Icme-Dagan, the constant attendant, ...... as her husband ....... The duty to build temples for the gods, to furnish their daily portions, to purify their raised temples and to sanctify their daises, to secure their daily liquor, syrup and choice beer in their dining hall -- all this was bestowed on Inana and Icme-Dagan by Enlil and Ninlil.

August Nibru, no god excels like your lord and lady! In your midst they have bestowed the divine powers on the young woman Inana. I, Icme-Dagan, have put this (i.e., this composition) in everyone's mouth for all time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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