On the subject of Skin Color, the Albinos have done many studies in an effort to find a way to explain their "Whiteness" which does not involve the disease Albinism. Which is of course impossible, because even the name of their disease tells its associated skin color - look up the Latin for White - but try they will continue to do.
Before going into the subject of skin color, its probably best to explain how "Cell Mutations" effect the Human Body. As we replicate ourselves, through sexual procreation, and then as we repair our bodies, our existing cells create new cells for growth and repair. Now ideally the new cells would follow the map provided by our genome and be exact duplicates, but they don't, all too often mistakes are made, and the new cell is different. Sometimes this is good, and sometimes it is bad, depending on the circumstance.
Good mutations allow Humans to survive better, therefore Humans with those mutations are preferred mates. Those without the mutation either die outright, or are denied Mates, which ends their line anyway. It was undoubtedly a buildup of these cellular mistakes over millions of years, which allowed Humans to grow bigger Brains and make other bodily modifications which allowed them to conquer their environment.
Quote: Only in some individuals do malaria episodes progress to severe life-threatening disease, while in the majority the episodes are self-limiting. This is partly because of host genetic factors such as the sickle cell gene. The sickle cell gene is caused by a single amino acid mutation (valine instead of glutamate at the 6th position) in the beta chain of the hemoglobin gene. Inheritance of this mutated gene from both parents leads to sickle cell disease and people with this disease have shorter life expectancy. On the contrary, individuals who are carriers for the sickle cell disease (with one sickle gene and one normal hemoglobin gene, also known as sickle cell trait) have some protective advantage against malaria. As a result, the frequencies of sickle cell carriers are high in malaria-endemic areas.
Bad mutations are called "Disease" - invariably bad mutations adversely effect a Humans survivability. But because Humans still have the big Brains, the effects of many diseases, such as Albinism, can be ameliorated. Below we offer examples of "Skin Color Studies" Albinos have done.
Author information - Department of Dermatology, Archet-2 Hospital, BP 3079, Nice cedex 3, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chinese (Mongol) Child
African (Black) Child
New gene variants reveal the evolution of human skin color
By Ann GibbonsOct. 12, 2017 , 2:00 PM
Most people associate Africans with dark skin. But different groups of people in Africa have almost every skin color on the planet, from deepest black in the Dinka of South Sudan to beige in the San of South Africa. Now, researchers have discovered a handful of new gene variants responsible for this palette of tones.
The study, published online this week in Science, traces the evolution of these genes and how they traveled around the world. While the dark skin of some Pacific Islanders can be traced to Africa, gene variants from Eurasia also seem to have made their way back to Africa. And surprisingly, some of the mutations responsible for lighter skin in Europeans turn out to have an ancient African origin.
“This is really a landmark study of skin color diversity,” says geneticist Greg Barsh of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology in Huntsville, Alabama.
Researchers agree that our early australopithecine ancestors in Africa probably had light skin beneath hairy pelts. “If you shave a chimpanzee, its skin is light,” says evolutionary geneticist Sarah Tishkoff of the University of Pennsylvania, the lead author of the new study. “If you have body hair, you don’t need dark skin to protect you from ultraviolet [UV] radiation.”
Until recently, researchers assumed that after human ancestors shed most body hair, sometime before 2 million years ago, they quickly evolved dark skin for protection from skin cancer and other harmful effects of UV radiation. Then, when humans migrated out of Africa and headed to the far north, they evolved lighter skin as an adaptation to limited sunlight. (Pale skin synthesizes more vitamin D when light is scarce.)
Previous research on skin-color genes fit that picture. For example, a “depigmentation gene” called SLC24A5 linked to pale skin swept through European populations in the past 6000 years. But Tishkoff ’s team found that the story of skin color evolution isn’t so black and white. Her team, including African researchers, used a light meter to measure skin reflectance in 2092 people in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Botswana. They found the darkest skin in the Nilo-Saharan pastoralist populations of eastern Africa, such as the Mursi and Surma, and the lightest skin in the San of southern Africa, as well as many shades in between, as in the Agaw people of Ethiopia.
At the same time, they collected blood samples for genetic studies. They sequenced more than 4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)—places where a single letter of the genetic code varies across the genomes of 1570 of these Africans. They found four key areas of the genome where specific SNPs correlate with skin color.
The first surprise was that SLC24A5, which swept Europe, is also common in East Africa—found in as many as half the members of some Ethiopian groups. This variant arose 30,000 years ago and was probably brought to eastern Africa by people migrating from the Middle East, Tishkoff says. But though many East Africans have this gene, they don’t have white skin, probably because it is just one of several genes that shape their skin color.
The team also found variants of two neighboring genes, HERC2 and OCA2, which are associated with light skin, eyes, and hair in Europeans but arose in Africa; these variants are ancient and common in the light-skinned San people. The team proposes that the variants arose in Africa as early as 1 million years ago and spread later to Europeans and Asians. “Many of the gene variants that cause light skin in Europe have origins in Africa,” Tishkoff says.
The most dramatic discovery concerned a gene known as MFSD12. Two mutations that decrease expression of this gene were found in high frequencies in people with the darkest skin. These variants arose about a half-million years ago, suggesting that human ancestors before that time may have had moderately dark skin, rather than the deep black hue created today by these mutations.
These same two variants are found in Melanesians, Australian Aborigines, and some Indians. These people may have inherited the variants from ancient migrants from Africa who followed a “southern route” out of East Africa, along the southern coast of India to Melanesia and Australia, Tishkoff says. That idea, however, counters three genetic studies that concluded last year that Australians, Melanesians, and Eurasians all descend from a single migration out of Africa. Alternatively, this great migration may have included people carrying variants for both light and dark skin, but the dark variants later were lost in Eurasians.
To understand how the MFSD12 mutations help make darker skin, the researchers reduced expression of the gene in cultured cells, mimicking the action of the variants in dark-skinned people. The cells produced more eumelanin, the pigment responsible for black and brown skin, hair, and eyes. The mutations may also change skin color by blocking yellow pigments: When the researchers knocked out MFSD12 in zebrafish and mice, red and yellow pigments were lost, and the mice’s light brown coats turned gray. “This new mechanism for producing intensely dark pigmentation is really the big story,” says Nina Jablonski, an anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University in State College.
The study adds to established research undercutting old notions of race. You can’t use skin color to classify humans, any more than you can use other complex traits like height, Tishkoff says. “There is so much diversity in Africans that there is no such thing as an African race.”
Sān or Saan peoples are members of various Khoesān-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups representing the first nation of Southern Africa, whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. There is a significant linguistic difference between the northern peoples living between the Okavango River in Botswana and Etosha National Park in northwestern Namibia, extending up into southern Angola; the central peoples of most of Namibia and Botswana, extending into Zambia and Zimbabwe; and the southern people in the central Kalahari towards the Molopo River, who are the last remnant of the previously extensive indigenous Sān of South Africa.
The ancestors of the hunter-gatherer Sān are considered to have been the first inhabitants of what is now Botswana and South Africa. The historical presence of the San in Botswana is particularly evident in northern Botswana's Tsodilo Hills region. In this area, stone tools and rock art paintings date back over 70,000 years and are by far the oldest known art. Sān were traditionally semi-nomadic, moving seasonally within certain defined areas based on the availability of resources such as water, game animals, and edible plants.
The Khoikhoi (Khoekhoe); (formerly also Hottentots) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa. They are grouped with the hunter-gatherer San under the compound term Khoisan. The name Khoikhoi is the native self-designation, khoe-khoe, as it were "men of men, proper humans", from khoe "human being". While it is clear that the presence of the Khoikhoi in southern Africa predates the Bantu expansion, it is not certain by how much, possibly in the Late Stone Age, or displaced by the Bantu expansion to Southeastern Africa. The Khoikhoi maintained large herds of Nguni cattle in the Cape region at the time of Dutch colonization in the 17th century. Their nomadic pastoralism was mostly discontinued in the 19th to 20th century.
The Griqua (Griekwa), sometimes incorrectly referred to as Korana or Koranna) are a subgroup of Southern Africa's heterogeneous and multiracial Colored people, who have a unique origin in the early history of the Cape Colony. Similar to the Trekboers, another Afrikaans-speaking group at the time, they originally populated the frontiers of the nascent Cape Colony. The men of their semi-nomadic society were mobilized into commando units of mounted gunmen, but chose to leave Dutch society. Also like the Boers, they migrated inland from the Cape, and established several states in what are now South Africa and Namibia.
During apartheid, the Griqua people were classified as Colored’s, as they were mostly descended from mixed-race unions between Dutch male colonists and Khoikhoi women, in addition to some Tswana and San women. They have since mostly integrated with other mixed-race populations in South Africa and Namibia. As time went on, mixed-race people began to marry among themselves, establishing a distinct ethnic group that tended to be more assimilated to Dutch and European ways than tribal peoples in separated villages. The mixed-race groups that developed in the early Cape Colony adopted different names for themselves, including Bastaards, Basters, Korana, Oorlam, and Griqua. Like the Afrikaners, many of these groups migrated inland to escape British colonial rule.
According to the 18th-century Dutch historian Isaak Tirion, the Khoi name Griqua (or Grigriqua) is first recorded in 1730 in reference to a group of people living in the northeastern section of the Cape Colony. In 1813, Reverend John Campbell of the London Missionary Society (LMS) used the term Griqua to describe a mixed-race group of Chariguriqua (a Cape Khoikhoi group), Bastaards, Korana, and Tswana living at the site of present-day Griekwastad (then known as Klaarwater). The British found their "proud name", Bastaards, offensive, so the LMS called them Griqua. Because of a common ancestor named Griqua and shared links to the Chariguriqua (Grigriqua), the people officially changed their name to the Griqua.
Several areas of South Africa became known as Griqualand when the group migrated inland from the Cape and established separate communities. Griqualand East is the area around Kokstad on KwaZulu-Natal's frontier with the Eastern Cape. Griqualand West is the area around Kimberley.
Just south of the Equator, between the soda waters of Tanzania's Lake Eyasi and the ramparts of the Great Rift Valley, live the Hadza, a small tribe of approximately 1,300 hunter-gatherers: one of the last in Africa. The Hadza's homeland lies on the edge of the Serengeti plains, in the shadow of Ngorongoro Crater.
The Sandawe are an indigenous ethnic group of Southeast Africa, based in the Kondoa District of Dodoma Region in central Tanzania. They were predominantly hunter-gatherers before Europeans colonized Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 2000, the Sandawe population was estimated to be 40,000.
Cushitic - Relating to or denoting a group of East African languages of the Afro-Asiatic family spoken mainly in Ethiopia and Somalia, including Somali and Oromo.
Nilo-Saharan - The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet. The languages extend through 17 nations in the northern half of Africa: from Algeria to Benin in the west; from Libya to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the center; and from Egypt to Tanzania in the east. As indicated by its hyphenated name, Nilo-Saharan is a family of the African interior, including the greater Nile basin and the central Sahara desert. Eight of its proposed constituent divisions (excluding Kunama, Kuliak and Songhay) are found in the modern two nations of Sudan and South Sudan, through which the Nile River flows. In his book The Languages of Africa (1963), Joseph Greenberg named the group and argued it was a genetic family. It contains the languages not included in the Niger–Congo, Afro-asiatic or Khoisan groups.
Niger-Congo - Denoting or belonging to a large phylum of languages in Africa, named after the rivers Niger and Congo. It comprises most of the languages spoken by the indigenous peoples of Africa south of the Sahara and includes the Bantu, Mande, Gur, and Kwa families.
By Daniel Shriner, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N. Rotimi.
The Hadza and Sandawe populations in present-day Tanzania speak click languages thought to be distantly related to southern African Khoisan languages (Ehret 2000; Güldemann and Vossen 2000; Heine and Nurse 2000). (Throughout, we use “Khoe-San” to refer to people and “Khoisan” to refer to both language and ancestry, without implying identity.) Eastern and southern African hunter-gatherer groups have been genetically separated for at least 30,000 years (Tishkoff et al. 2007). Herding and cultivating Cushitic speakers reached northern Tanzania 4,000 years ago, followed by pastoralist Nilo-Saharan speakers, and then followed by agricultural Niger-Congo speakers 2,500 years ago (Newman 1995).
In the Hadza population, the distribution of Y chromosomes includes mostly B2 haplogroups, with a smaller number of E1b1a haplogroups, which are common in Niger-Congo-speaking populations, and E1b1b haplogroups, which are common in Cushitic populations (Tishkoff et al. 2007). In the Sandawe population, E1b1a and E1b1b haplogroups are more common, with lower frequencies of B2 and A3b2 haplogroups (Tishkoff et al. 2007). Using autosomal data, Tishkoff et al. (2009) concluded that the Hadza population had 72% ancestry distantly related to Khoisan and Pygmy ancestries, with 22% Niger-Congo ancestry and 6% Cushitic ancestry. Similarly, the Sandawe population had 73% ancestry distantly related to Khoisan and Pygmy ancestries, with 18% Niger-Congo ancestry and 9% Cushitic ancestry (Tishkoff et al. 2009). Henn et al. (2011) concluded that 1) the Hadza and Sandawe populations share ancestry with the South African Khomani population but distinct from Pygmy ancestry, 2) the Hadza and Sandawe populations share substantial amounts of eastern African ancestry with the Maasai population in Kenya, 3)the Hadza and Sandawe populations share ancestry with Niger-Congo-speaking populations such as Yoruba from Nigeria and Luhya from Kenya, and 4) the Sandawe population shares a small amount of ancestry with Europeans (represented by Tuscans from Italy). Using whole-genome sequence data, Lachance et al. (2012) concluded that Khoisan-speaking populations diverged first, followed by divergence of Pygmies, and then followed by divergence of the ancestors of the Hadza and Sandawe populations. Pickrell et al. (2012) also inferred that the Hadza and Sandawe populations shared ancestry with Khoisan-speaking populations, with gene flow around 3,000 years ago of west Eurasian ancestry into eastern Africa (Pickrell et al. 2014).
The recent origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa involves a basal divergence event such that one lineage includes Khoisan ancestry in south Africa; Pygmy ancestry in central Africa; Niger-Congo ancestry across west, east, and south Africa; and Cushitic, Nilo-Saharan, and Omotic ancestries in east Africa (Shriner et al. 2014). The other lineage includes Berber ancestry in north Africa; Indian and Kalash ancestries in south Asia; Chinese, Japanese, and southeast Asian ancestries in east Asia; Siberian ancestry in north Asia; Native American ancestry in the Americas; Melanesian ancestry in Oceania; southern and northern European ancestries; and Arabian and Levantine-Caucasian ancestries in the Middle East and the Caucasus (Shriner et al. 2014). These ancestries reflect shared history at a scale bigger than tribes or ethno-linguistic groups but smaller than continents. The divergence of ancestries is mainly due to random genetic drift following serial founder effects as modern humans peopled the world (Li et al. 2008). A notable exception is Cushitic ancestry, which did not form by a splitting event but rather by a mixing event between Arabian ancestry and Nilo-Saharan or Omotic ancestry (Shriner et al. 2016). We previously described integration of genotype data from 12 human diversity projects, yielding 3,528 unrelated individuals from around the world (Shriner et al. 2014). To more precisely identify west Eurasian ancestry and to investigate the origins and phylogenetic relationships of Hadza and Sandawe ancestries in the global context, we merged samples from these two populations (Henn et al. 2011) into our data set. Using cluster analyses and analysis of ancestry-specific allele frequencies, we provide greater detail about the history of the Hadza and Sandawe populations as well as novel insights into the ancestries of modern humans.
Above is the full list of Scientists and the scientific and academic institutions they are associated with,
which produced this "Mostly" Nonsense Study.
We though it important that you see just how corrupt and dishonest Albino scientists and their institutions can be.
Below, we will debunk their lies in order.
Here we have two of the Albinos most cherished lies: 1) that they CHOSE to be WHITE (that's what under "Selection" means); and 2) they try to make it seem like Europe's Albinos EVOLVED White Skin for better Vitamin "D" production in the lower Sunlight of Europe. The fact is that being outdoors only 15 minutes every other day, produces enough Vitamin "D" in the Human body for good health. And as the following study shows: SKIN COLOR IS IRRELEVANT!
As much as Albinos try to deny it, their own research keeps PROVING it: THEY ARE ALBINOS!
NOTE WHAT SLC24A5 TRULY IS!
^Here again, the constant Albino refrain (Positive Selection):
WE CHOOSE TO BE WHITE BECAUSE WHITE IS PRETTIER!
Some actually believe that - which is like saying..
So what if the Sun kills us, at least we look good (in their minds) frying!
Here these "IDIOTS" with PHD's are saying that only people like themselves:
"non-Africans" - can have Blonde Hair and Blue or "Colored" eyes.
First - they certainly DO have those traits - HERE IS WHY!
ONCE AGAIN - THEY SIMPLY PROVE THAT "THEY ARE ALBINOS!"
And as to the Blonde hair and "Colored" eyes..
Sure Blacks have that, it just means that they have a "Touch" of Albinism.
Quote: Genetic evidence indicates that the light pigmentation variant
at SLC24A5 was introduced into East Africa by gene flow from non-Africans.
Wait - Wait - Wait! Isn't it accepted as proven fact that ALL "Modern Humans" EVOLVED in Africa? So who could these "Non-Africans" be?
Heh, heh, as is common with the Albinos, they like to play word games to throw you off. Here what they REALLY mean is "NON-BLACK". Which makes perfect sense since we ARE talking about Albinos and Albinism.
And who would these "NON-BLACK" people who brought SLC24A5 into East Africa be?
Why THESE people of course:
THE WHITE/ALBINO (Central Asian) PEOPLE WHO "WERE" SUPPOSED TO BE "NATIVE" TO EUROPE!
Except in NO history book will you ever find Germanics or Slav's (like Russians) or Turks;
as being NATIVE to the West.
Question - How can you be "Native" to lands that you INVADED and Conquered?
Speaking further to the Albinos delusion: Even today you will find Albinos who will swear, and fight to defend, their claim that they were Egyptians, Persians, Arabs, etc.
Even though North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula are mostly HOT, SUN DRENCHED, DESERT!!!!
Meaning that were a White/Albino person to venture out into the fields of those lands shirtless: like the Ancient Egyptians did, he would quickly die.
Yet Albinos continue to delude themselves into thinking that they were part of those founding civilizations.
Even worst; they refuse to accept that Blacks were the founders of civilization.
In that regard, even the simplest questions are beyond their capacity to comprehend: To wit - Europe was settled by Modern Humans 45,000 years ago. If you Albinos from Central Asia arrived only 2,000 years ago (which you did - see below): then WHO was in Europe for the first 43,000 years?
Sometimes as we gleefully knock down the Albinos lies, and watch them twist themselves into pretzels trying to find support for their lies, we almost feel sorry for them. But they brought it on themselves, there was no need to lie in the first place, no people are perfect. But then, when you see the terrible things the Albinos have done to other Human beings, just in order to compensate for, and cover-up their defect, you realize that water finds it's own level.
Note that many of the "So-Called" scientists (Idiots with PHD's) associated with this silly lying paper, are associated with the University of Pennsylvania. That is in perfect accord with the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Chicago, which because of their own works, are perhaps the most untrustworthy institutions for Blacks in the United States. As a reminder, Donald Trump proudly tells everyone that he attended the "Wharton School of Business". The Wharton School of Business is a College of the University of Pennsylvania.
|Click for Realhistoryww Home Page|