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The vast territory of North and Central Asia represents a poorly understood region in the prehistoric era, despite intensive excavations that have been conducted during the past century, the earliest human occupation in this region probably began sometime around 40,000 years ago. Small groups of big-game hunters likely migrated into this region from lands to the south and southwest, confronting a harsh climate and long, dry winters, by about 22,000 BP, two principal cultural traditions had developed in Siberia and northeastern Asia: the Mal'ta and the Afontova Gora-Oshurkovo - which is mostly about tools.
Modern human (i.e., Homo sapiens sapiens) remains from the sites of Afontova Gora II and Mal'ta contain the first evidence of Mongoloid features in Siberia, circa 21,000 years BP.
The Mal'ta tradition is known from a vast area spanning west of Lake Baikal and the Yenisey River. The site of Mal'ta is composed of a series of semi-subterranean houses made of large animal bones and huge numbers of reindeer antlers, (no doubt scavenged for hut construction after being shed by the reindeer). The huts had likely been covered with animal skins and sod to protect the inhabitants from the severe, prevailing northerly winds bearing loess dust from the edges of the glaciated regions. Among the artistic accomplishments evident at Mal'ta are remains of expertly carved bone, ivory, and antler objects. Figurines of birds and human females are the most commonly found items.
Evidence seems to indicate that Mal'ta is the most ancient site in eastern Siberia, however relative dating illustrates some irregularities. The use of flint flaking and the absence of pressure flaking used in the manufacture of tools, as well as the continued use of earlier forms of tools seem to confirm the fact that the site belongs to the early Upper Paleolithic. Yet, it lacks typical skreblos (large side scrapers,) that are common in other Siberian Paleolithic sites) Additionally, other common characteristics such as pebble cores, wedge-shaped cores, burins, and composite tools have never been found) The lack of these features, combined with an art style found in only one other nearby site, make Mal'ta culture unique in Siberia.
In late 2009, researchers sampled at the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg Russia: the remains of a boy from the Upper Palaeolithic site of Mal’ta in Siberia. The juvenile dated to approximately 24,000 years ago. Mal’ta, located along the Belaya River near Lake Baikal, was excavated between 1928 and 1958 and yielded a plethora of archaeological finds including 30 anthropomorphic Venus figurines, which are rare for Siberia but found at a number of Upper Palaeolithic sites across western Eurasia.
A double burial of two children was identified at Mal'ta, covered by a stone slab. The oldest individual was a single Homo sapiens boy of about 3-4 years old (MA-1), wearing a necklace of beads, several pendants and an ivory diadem. Partial remains include parts of the cranium, mandible and maxilla, and several post-cranial bones. The second child is only represented by teeth. Both have slightly shovel-shaped incisors, a characteristic of North American and modern Siberian people, but according to the Nature paper (Raghavan et al. 2013), bioarchaeologist Christy Turner investigated and concluded that the bones are morphologically most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Europeans. Other grave goods interred with the children include a decorated plaque, a bird-shaped pendant, an ivory bracelet, stone tools and an ivory baton.
“Representing the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported thus far, the MA-1 individual has provided us with a unique window into the genetic landscape of Siberia some 24,000 years ago“, says Dr. Maanasa Raghavan from the Centre for GeoGenetics and one of the lead authors of the study. “Interestingly, the MA-1 individual shows little to no genetic affinity to modern populations from the region from where he originated – south Siberia.” Instead, both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the boy indicate that he was related to modern-day western Eurasians. This result paints a picture of Eurasia 24,000 years ago which is quite different from the present-day context. The genome of the boy indicates that prehistoric populations related to modern western Eurasians occupied a wider geographical range into northeast Eurasia than they do today.
One of the researchers, Dr. Willerslev, an expert in analyzing ancient DNA, was seeking to understand the peopling of the Americas by searching for possible source populations in Siberia. He extracted DNA from bone taken from the child’s upper arm, hoping to find ancestry in the East Asian peoples from whom Native Americans are known to be descended. But the first results were disappointing.
The boy’s mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) belonged to the lineage known as "U", which is commonly found among the modern humans who first entered Europe from Africa about 44,000 years ago - i.e. the Khoisan like Grimaldi Man. The boy's Y-dna haplogroup is R, which is found in many areas of Africa.
Prior to the Christian era, the vast steppes of South Russia were home to disunited tribes, such as Proto-Indo-Europeans and Scythians. Astonishing remnants of these long-gone steppe civilizations were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta, Arkaim, and Pazyryk.
(Note: Typical Albino bull to make their beginnings seem mysterious. The appearance of those people is well documented by Persian reliefs at Apadana Palace. Those former Central Asian Albinos are todays Germanics, Slav's, and Turks).
In the 7th century B.C, the Greek merchants brought the classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Between the third and sixth centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would often move on to Europe, as was the case with Huns and Turkish Avars.
A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through the 8th century. Noted for their laws, tolerance, and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad. They were important allies of the Byzantine Empire and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Califates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism.
The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. The first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next seven centuries. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state, leaving a number of states competing for claims to be the heirs to its civilization and dominant position.
Rus, also spelled Ros, ancient people who gave their name to the lands of Russia and Belarus. Their origin and identity are much in dispute. Traditional Western scholars believe them to be Scandinavian Vikings, an offshoot of the Varangians, who moved southward from the Baltic coast and founded the first consolidated state among the eastern Slavs, centring on Kiev. Russian scholars, along with some Westerners, consider the Rus to be a southeastern Slavic tribe that founded a tribal league; the Kievan state, they affirm, was the creation of Slavs and was attacked and held only briefly by Varangians.
Russian scholars have rejected The Russian Primary Chronicle as unreliable and have insisted that the eastern Slavs, before the entry of the Varangians, had evolved a sophisticated feudal state comparable to the Carolingian empire in the West. The Rus were simply a southern Slavic tribe living on the Ros River.
Early East Slavs
The ancestors of the Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes (the southern part of Belarus and the north-west of Ukraine - Albino nonsense). Moving into the lands vacated by the migrating Germanic tribes, the Early East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finno-Ugric tribes, such as the Merya, the Muromians and the Meshchera.
A kurgan is a tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood. The Russian noun, which is already attested in Old East Slavic, is borrowed from an unidentified Turkic language, compare Modern Turkish kurgan, which means "fotress" or "burial mound". They are mounds of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Associated with its use in Soviet archaeology, the word is now widely used for tumuli in the context of Eastern European and Central Asian archaeology.
The earliest kurgans date to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus, and are associated with the Indo-Europeans. Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic, Bronze, Iron, Antiquity and Middle Ages, with ancient traditions still active in Southern Siberia and Central Asia. Kurgan cultures are divided archeologically into different sub-cultures, such as Timber Grave, Pit Grave, Scythian, Sarmatian, Hunnish and Kuman-Kipchak.
9th century - Founding of Kievan Rus, the first major East Slavic state. The traditional account, a matter of debate among historians, attributes its founding to the semi-legendary Viking (or Varangian) leader Oleg, ruler of Novgorod, who went on to seize Kiev, which owing to its strategic location on the Dnieper River, became the capital of Kievan Rus.
Scandinavian Norsemen (The people of ancient Norway, Sweden, Denmark, or Iceland: Finns consider themselves not Scandinavian), called "Vikings" in Western Europe and " Varangians" in the East, combined piracy and trade in their roamings over much of Northern Europe. In the mid-9th century, they began to venture along the waterways from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas. The Slavic settlers along the rivers often hired the Varangians as protectors. According to the earliest chronicle of Kievan Rus', a Varangian named Rurik was elected ruler ( konung or knyaz) of Novgorod in about 860 before his successors moved south and extended their authority to Kiev, which had been previously dominated by the Khazars.
Thus, the first East Slavic state, Kievan Rus', emerged in the 9th century along the Dnieper River valley. A coordinated group of princely states with a common interest in maintaining trade along the river routes, Kievan Rus' controlled the trade route for furs, wax, and slaves between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire along the Volkhov and Dnieper Rivers.
The name "Russia," together with the Finnish Ruotsi and Estonian Rootsi, are found by some scholars to be related to Roslagen. The meaning of Rus is debated, and other schools of thought connect the name with Slavic or Iranic roots.
The Khazars were semi-nomadic Turkic people who established one of the largest polities of medieval Eurasia, with the capital of Atil and territory comprising much of modern-day European Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, large portions of the northern Caucasus (Circassia, Dagestan), parts of Georgia, the Crimea, and northeastern Turkey. Khazar inscriptions are mainly in an Eastern Turkish runic script.
A successor state of the Western Turks, Khazaria was a polyethnic-multifaith state with a population of Turkic, Uralic, Slavic, and Paleo-Caucasian peoples. Khazaria was the first feudal state to be established in Eastern Europe. Khazaria was one of the major arteries of commerce between northern Europe and southwestern Asia, as well as a connection to the Silk Road. The name "Khazar" is found in numerous languages and seems to be tied to a Turkic verb form meaning "wandering" (Modern Turkish: Gezer). Pax Khazarica is a term used by historians to refer to the period during which the Khazaria dominated the Pontic steppe and the Caucasus Mountains.
The period when the Khazars had their most power corresponded with the European Dark Ages, and took place at a very important time for the creation of capitalism. Its strategic importance between China on one side and the Middle East and Europe on the other, temporarily gave all of Eurasia incredible riches. Khazaria was referred to as Eastern Tourkia, meanwhile Hungary was referred to as Western Tourkia (Greek: Τουρκία) in medieval (10th and 11th centuries) Byzantine sources.
Khazaria had an ongoing entente with Byzantium. Serving their partner in wars against the Abbasid Caliphate, Khazars aided the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (reigned 610–641) by sending an army of 40,000 soldiers in their campaign against the Persians in the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. In 775, Leo (son of Tzitzak) was crowned as the sole emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Sarkel (a Turkish word meaning White Fortress) was built in 830s by a joint team of Greek and Khazar architects to protect the north-western border of the Khazar state. The chief engineer during the construction of Sarkel was Petronas Kamateros (Πετρωνς Καματηρός) who later became the governor of Cherson.
Khazars played a role in the balance of powers and destiny of world civilization. After Kubrat's Great Bulgaria was destroyed by the Khazars, some of the Bulgars fled to the west and founded a new Bulgar state (present day Bulgaria) near the Danubian Plain, under the command of Khan Asparukh. The most of the rest of the Bulgars fled to the north of the Volga River region and founded another state there called Volga Bulgaria (present day Chuvashia). The eldest son of Kubrat, Bat-Bayan Bezmer allied his Kara-Bulgars (Black Bulgars) with the Khazars, and became the forefather of the Hungarian Royal House of Árpád via Almysh. Kara-Bulgars were descendent of the tribes from Attila's right wing state called Kutrigurs.
By serving as a buffer state between Christians and Muslims, the Khazars helped to block the western spread of Islam in Europe. Some scholars go to the extreme extent to posit that, in the unlikely scenario Arabs had occupied what is now Ukraine and Russia, the Rus might never have been able to push south and east from the Baltic to establish Russia. The Khazars had, for years, been venturing forth southward, in their marauding raids on the Muslim countries south of the Caucasus.
Islamic armies conquered part of Persia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Armenia, and what is now the modern-day post-Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan and surrounded the Byzantine heartland (present-day Turkey) in a pincer movement which extended from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus and the southern shores of the Caspian. This was the time when the long series of wars called the Khazar-Arab Wars began. These wars largely ended with Arab defeats, with a fairly well-known commander, Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah, perishing in one instance. The Arab armies' inability to traverse the Caucasus played a role in preventing them from succeeding in their siege of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Coupled with the military barrier presented by the Khazars themselves, this protected Europe from more direct and intensive assaults by the forces of Islam.
After fighting the Arabs to a standstill in the North Caucasus, Khazars became increasingly interested in replacing their Tengriism with a state religion that would give them equal religious standing with their Abrahamic neighbors. During the 8th century, the Khazars converted to a form of Judaism. Yitzhak ha-Sangari is said to be the name of the rabbi who converted the Khazars to Judaism according to Khazar Jewish sources.
By welcoming educated and worldly Jews from both Christian Europe and the Islamic Middle East, Khazars rapidly absorbed many of the arts and technologies of civilization. As a direct result of this cultural infusion, they became one of the very few Asian steppe tribal societies that successfully made the transition from nomad to urbanite. Settling in their newly created towns and cities between the Caspian Sea and the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea, they became literate and multi-lingual agriculturalists, manufacturers and international traders.
Between 965 and 969, Khazar sovereignty was broken by Kievan Rus. Sviatoslav I of Kiev defeated them in 965 by conquering the Khazar fortress of Sarkel. Two years later, Sviatoslav conquered Atil, after which he campaigned in the Balkans. Medieval Ruthenian epic poems mention Ruthenian warriors fighting the Jewish Giant (Богатырь Жидовин). The Rus and the Hungarians both adopted the dual-kingship system of the Khazars (The kingship is divided between the khagan and the Bek. The Khagan was purely a spiritual ruler or figurehead with limited powers, while the Bek was responsible for administration and military affairs). The Rus princes even borrowed Turkic words like Khagan and Bogatyr. Many artifacts from the Khazars, exhibiting their artistic and industrial talents, have survived to the present day.
With the destruction of Khazaria, Khazar Jews dispersed throughout the world. So that by 1933, approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe. This number represented more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population at that time, estimated at 15.3 million. The majority of Jews in prewar Europe resided in Eastern Europe. The largest Jewish communities in this area were in Poland, with about 3,000,000 Jews; the European part of the Soviet Union, with 2,525,000; Romania, with 756,000. The Jewish population in the three Baltic States totaled 255,000: 95,600 in Latvia, 155,000 in Lithuania, and 4,560 in Estonia. In prewar central Europe, the largest Jewish community was in Germany, with about 500,000 members. This was followed by Hungary with 445,000, Czechoslovakia with 357,000 and Austria with 191,000, most of who resided in the capital city of Vienna.
In Western Europe the largest Jewish communities were in Great Britain, with 300,000 Jews; France, with 250,000; and the Netherlands, with 156,000. Additionally, 60,000 Jews lived in Belgium, 4,000 in Spain, and 1,200 in Portugal (see below). Close to 16,000 Jews lived in Scandinavia, including 6,700 in Sweden, 5,700 in Denmark, 1,800 in Finland, and 1,400 in Norway. In southern Europe, Greece had the largest Jewish population, with about 73,000 Jews. There were also significant Jewish communities in Yugoslavia 68,000, Italy 48,000, and Bulgaria 48,500, 200 Jews lived in Albania.
The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It is estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 Jews lived in Spain before 1478 (protected there by Muslim Turks: Turks having taken control of Islam in 1055 by the Turkic chief Toghrïl Beg). But the Reconquista of Spain (Defeat of the Muslims), which was completed in 1492, changed all of that. The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. At that time - THE TURKIC SULTAN OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS: Bayezid II (1447–1512) he was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. He is most notable for evacuating Jews (Turkic Khazars) from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree, and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire.
In his book "Civilization and the Jews" author Abba Eban attributes the Khazar Jews accumulation of great wealth, to their ability to act as transcendent merchants, able to act as the sole mediums of trade between the warring Christian and Muslim worlds during the medieval period.
By the end of the 10th century, the Norse minority had merged with the Slavic population which also absorbed Greek Christian influences in the course of the multiple campaigns to loot Tsargrad, or Constantinople. One of such campaigns claimed the life of the foremost Slavic druzhina leader, Svyatoslav I, renowned for having crushed the power of the Khazars (modern Jews), on the Volga. While the fortunes of the Byzantine Empire had been ebbing, its culture was a continuous influence upon the development of Russia in its formative centuries.
Among the lasting achievements of Kievan Rus' are the introduction of a Slavic variant of the Eastern Orthodox religion, dramatically deepening a synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next thousand years. The region adopted Christianity in 988 by the official act of public baptism of Kiev inhabitants by Prince Vladimir I. Some years later the first code of laws, Russkaya Pravda, was introduced. From the onset the Kievan princes followed the Byzantine example and kept the Church dependent on them, even for its revenues, so that the Russian Church and state were always closely linked.
By the 11th century, particularly during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise, Kievan Rus' could boast an economy and achievements in architecture and literature superior to those that then existed in the western part of the continent. Compared with the languages of European Christendom, the Russian language was little influenced by the Greek and Latin of early Christian writings. This was due to the fact that Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead.
Nomadic Turkic people Kipchaks replaced the earlier Pechenegs as a dominant force in the south steppe regions neighboring to Rus' at the end of 11th century and founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea (Desht-e-Kipchak). Repelling their regular attacks, especially on Kiev, which was just one day riding away from the steppe, was a heavy burden for the southern areas of Rus'. The nomadic incursions caused a massive influx of Slavic population to the safer, heavily forested regions of the North, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.
Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated as a state because of the armed struggles among members of the princely family that collectively possessed it. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod in the north, and Halych-Volhynia in the south-west. Conquest by the Mongol Golden Horde in the 13th century was the final blow. Kiev was destroyed. Halych-Volhynia would eventually be absorbed into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and independent Novgorod Republic would establish the basis for the modern Russian nation.
The invading Mongols accelerated the fragmentation of the Ancient Rus'. In 1223, the disunited southern princes faced a Mongol raiding party at the Kalka River and were soundly defeated. In 1237 the Mongols sacked the city of Vladimir, routed the Russians at the Sit' River and then moved west into Poland and Hungary. By then they had conquered most of the Russian principalities. Only the Novgorod Republic escaped occupation and continued to flourish in the orbit of the Hanseatic League.
The impact of the Mongol invasion on the territories of Kievan Rus' was uneven. The advanced city culture was almost completely destroyed. As older centers such as Kiev and Vladimir never recovered from the devastation of the initial attack, the new cities of Moscow, Tver and Nizhny Novgorod began to compete for hegemony in the Mongol-dominated Russia. Although a Russian army defeated the Golden Horde at Kulikovo in 1380, Tatar domination of the Russian-inhabited territories, along with demands of tribute from Russian princes, continued until about 1480.
After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgaria, the last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centred at Phanagoria. In the 10th century the Turkic population of Volga Bulgaria converted to Islam, which facilitated its trade with the Middle East and Central Asia. In the wake of the Mongol invasions of the 1230s, Volga Bulgaria was absorbed by the Golden Horde and its population evolved into the modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars.
The Tatars are a Turkic people living in Asia and Europe who were one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian plateau in the 12th century CE. The name "Tatar" first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as (TaTaR). Historically, the term "Tatars" was applied to a variety of Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires who controlled the vast region known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages.
The Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, subjugated the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Russia. The "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols and Hazaras.
The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars", with their language known as the Tatar language. As of 2002 they had an estimated population close to 6 million.
The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai, one of the largest cities of the medieval world. The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars; but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans. In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished, while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh.
Sarai was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde. "Old Sarai", or "Sarai Batu" was established by Mongol ruler Batu Khan in the mid-1240s, on a site east of the Akhtuba river, near to the modern village of Selitrennoye.
"New Sarai" was at modern Kolobovka, formerly Tsarev, an archeological site also on the Akhtuba channel 85 km east of Volgograd, and about 180 km northwest of Old Sarai; or possibly on the site of Saqsin (which may itself have stood on the site of the Khazar capital, Atil).
Both cities were sacked several times. Timur sacked New Sarai around 1395, and Meñli I Giray of the Crimean Khanate sacked New Sarai around 1502. The forces of Ivan IV of Russia finally destroyed Sarai after conquering the Astrakhan Khanate in 1556.
(In 1623-1624, a Russian merchant, Fedot Kotov, travelled to Persia via the lower Volga. He described the site of Sarai: Here by the river Akhtuba stands the Golden Horde. The khan's court, palaces, and courts, and mosques are all made of stone. But now all these buildings are being dismantled and the stone is being taken to Astrakhan).
To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols. In the mid-13th century, Alexander Nevsky, elected prince of Novgorod, acquired heroic status as the result of major victories over the Teutonic Knights and the Swedes. Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians into Roman Catholicism.
The Mongols left their impact on the Russians in such areas as military tactics and transportation. Under Mongol occupation, Muscovite Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization. Eastern influence remained strong well until the 17th century, when Russian rulers made a conscious effort to Westernize their country.
Daniil Aleksandrovich, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, founded the principality of Moscow (known in the western tradition as Muscovy), which eventually expelled the Tatars from Russia. Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Muscovy was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state. A major factor in the ascendancy of Muscovy was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Russia and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities. The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. Its head, the metropolitan, fled from Kiev to Vladimir in 1299 and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow.
By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke. In 1380, at Kulikovo on the Don River, the khan was defeated, and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince. Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the fourteenth century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage.
In the 15th century, the grand princes of Muscovy went on gathering Russian lands to increase the population and wealth under their rule. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III, the Great (1462–1505), who laid the foundations for a Russian national state. Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, for control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins. Through the defections of some princes, border skirmishes, and a long war with the Novgorod Republic, Ivan III was able to annex Novgorod and Tver. As a result, Muscovy tripled in size under his rule. During his conflict with Pskov, monk Filofei composed a letter to Ivan III, with prophecy that the latter's kingdom will be the Third Rome. The Fall of Constantinople and the death of the last Greek Orthodox Christian emperor contributed to this new idea of Moscow as 'New Rome' and the seat of Orthodox Christianity.
|Ivan IV - from the late 16th century: housed in the National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.|
A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles. Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Horde, now divided into several khanates and hordes. Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes. To achieve this aim, they sponsored the construction of the Great Abatis Belt and granted manors to nobles, who were obliged to serve in the military. The manor system provided a basis for an emerging horse army.
In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories, but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Muscovy and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs. Gradually, the Muscovite ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. The first Muscovite ruler to use the title of " Tsar" was Ivan IV.
The development of the tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign (1547–1584) of Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible"), he strengthened the position of the monarch to an unprecedented degree, as he ruthlessly subordinated the nobles to his will, exiling or executing many on the slightest provocation. Nevertheless, Ivan was a farsighted statesman who promulgated a new code of laws, reformed the morals of the clergy, and established the diplomatic and trade relations with the Low Countries and England.
Although his long Livonian War for the control of the Baltic coast ultimately proved a costly failure, Ivan managed to annex the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia. Through these conquests, Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold at the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonize Siberia.
1682 Feodor abolished the mestnichestvo, an ancient, un-meritocratic system of making political appointments. On 14 April, Avvakum, the most prominent leader of the Old Believer movement, was burned at the stake. On 27 April Feodor died with no children. Peter I, The Great, Alexis's son by his second wife Natalia Naryshkina, was declared tsar. His mother became regent.
The Turco-Mongol or Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde. These elites adopted Turkic languages and different religions such as Buddhism and Islam, while retaining Mongol political and legal institutions. Many later Central Asian states drew heavily on this tradition, including the Timurid Empire, the Kazakh Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Nogai Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the Mughal Empire.
The Siberia (Russian as Sibir) Khanate had an ethnically diverse population of Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Selkup and Siberian Tatar people. The Siberia (Russian as Sibir) Khanate was the northernmost Muslim state in recorded history. Its conquest by Yermak Timofeyevich in 1582 was the beginning of the Russian conquest of Siberia.
The Khanate of Siberia (Russian as Sibir), also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turco-Mongol Khanate located in southwestern Siberia. Throughout its history, rule over the Khanate was often contested between members of the Shaybanid and Taibugid dynasties; both of these competing tribes were direct patrilineal descendants of Genghis Khan through his eldest son Jochi and his fifth son Shayban (Shiban). The Siberia (Russian as Sibir) Khanate was itself once an integral part of the Mongol Empire, and later the White Horde and the Golden Horde.
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine and in Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don, Terek, and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Russia and Ukraine. The origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin.
Death of Ivan's childless son Feodor was followed by a period of civil wars and foreign intervention known as the " Time of Troubles" (1606-13). The autocracy survived the "Time of Troubles" and the rule of weak or corrupt tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the faction controlling the throne. The succession disputes during the "Time of Troubles" caused the loss of much territory to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden in the conflicts such as the Dymitriads and the Ingrian War.
The Time of Troubles was brought to an end in 1612, when a patriotic volunteer army expelled the Poles from the Moscow Kremlin and a national assembly, composed of representatives from fifty cities and even some peasants, elected to the throne Michael Romanov, the young son of Patriarch Filaret. The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia until 1917.
The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore peace. Fortunately for Moscow, its major enemies, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Muscovy the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617 and to sign a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1619. Recovery of lost territories started in the mid-17th century, when the Khmelnitsky Uprising of the Ukrainian Cossacks triggered a prolonged Russo-Polish War. The resultant Treaty of Andrusovo (1667) brought substantial gains, including Smolensk, Kiev and the eastern half of Ukraine.
Rather than risk their estates in more civil war, the great nobles or boyars cooperated with the first Romanovs, enabling them to finish the work of bureaucratic centralization. Thus, the state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military. In return the tsars allowed the boyars to complete the process of enserfing the peasants.
In the preceding century, the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another. With the state now fully sanctioning serfdom, runaway peasants became state fugitives. Landlords had complete power over their peasants and could alienate and transfer them without the land to other landowners. Together the state and the nobles placed the overwhelming burden of taxation on the peasants, whose rate was 100 times greater in the mid-17th century than it had been a century earlier. In addition, middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes.
Under such circumstances, peasant disorders were endemic and even the citizens of Moscow revolted against the Romanovs during the Copper Riot, Salt Riot, and the Moscow Uprising of 1682. By far the greatest peasant uprising in 17th century Europe erupted in 1667. As the free settlers of South Russia, the Cossacks, reacted against the growing centralization of the state, serfs escaped from their landlords and joined the rebels. The Cossack leader Stenka Razin led his followers up the Volga River, inciting peasant uprisings and replacing local governments with Cossack rule. The tsar's army finally crushed his forces in 1670; a year later Stenka was captured and beheaded. Yet, less than half a century later, the strains of military expeditions produced another revolt in Astrakhan, ultimately subdued.
The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Siberia (Russian as Sibir) had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers. Although outnumbered, the Russians pressured the various family-based tribes into changing their loyalties and establishing distant forts from which they conducted raids. To counter this, Kuchum Khan attempted to centralize his rule by imposing Islam on his subjects and reforming his tax-collecting apparatus.
The Russian conquest of Siberia began in July 1580 when some 540 Cossacks under Yermak Timofeyevich invaded the territory of the Voguls, subjects to Küçüm, the Khan of Siberia. They were accompanied by 300 Lithuanian and German slave laborers, whom the Stroganovs had purchased from the tsar. Throughout 1581, this force traversed the territory known as Yugra and subdued Vogul and Ostyak towns. At this time, they also captured a tax collector of Küçüm.
Following a series of Tatar raids in retaliation against the Russian advance, Yermak's forces prepared for a campaign to take Qashliq, the Siberian capital. The force embarked in May 1582. After a three-day battle on the banks of the river Irtysh, Yermak was victorious against a combined force of Küçüm Khan and six allied Tatar princes. On 29 June, the Cossack forces were attacked by the Tatars but again repelled them.
Throughout September 1582, the Khan gathered his forces for a defence of Qashliq. A horde of Siberian Tatars, Voguls and Ostyaks massed at Mount Chyuvash to defend against invading Cossacks. On 1 October, a Cossack attempt to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash was held off. On 23 October, the Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash for a fourth time when the Tatars counterattacked. More than a hundred Cossacks were killed, but their gunfire forced a Tatar retreat and allowed the capture of two Tatar cannons. The forces of the Khan retreated, and Yermak entered Qashliq on 26 October.
Küçüm Khan retreated into the steppes and over the next few years regrouped his forces. He suddenly attacked Yermak on 6 August 1584 in the dead of night and defeated most of his army. The details are disputed with Russian sources claiming Yermak was wounded and tried to escape by swimming across the Wagay River which is a tributary of the Irtysh River, but drowned under the weight of his own chainmail. The remains of Yermak's forces under the command of Mescheryak retreated from Qashliq, destroying the city as they left. In 1586 the Russians returned, and after subduing the Khanty and Mansi people through the use of their artillery they established a fortress at Tyumen close to the ruins of Qashliq. The Tatar tribes that were submissive to Küçüm Khan suffered from several attacks by the Russians between 1584–1595; however, Küçüm Khan would not be caught. Finally, in August 1598 Küçüm Khan was defeated at the Battle of Urmin near the river Ob. In the course of the fight the Siberian royal family were captured by the Russians. However, Küçüm Khan escaped yet again. The Russians took the family members of Küçüm Khan to Moscow and there they remained as hostages. The descendants of the khan's family became known as the Princes Siberia (Russian as Sibir)sky and the family is known to have survived until at least the late 19th century.
Despite his personal escape, the capture of his family ended the political and military activities of Küçüm Khan and he retreated to the territories of the Nogay Horde in southern Siberia. He had been in contact with the tsar and had requested that a small region on the banks of the Irtysh River would be granted as his dominion. This was rejected by the tsar who proposed to Küçüm Khan that he come to Moscow and "comfort himself" in the service of the tsar. However, the old khan did not want to suffer from such contempt and preferred staying in his own lands to "comforting himself" in Moscow. Küçüm Khan then went to Bokhara and as an old man became blind, dying in exile with distant relatives sometime around 1605.
In order to subjugate the natives and collect yasak (fur tribute), a series of winter outposts (zimovie) and forts (ostrogs) were built at the confluences of major rivers and streams and important portages. The first among these were Tyumen and Tobolsk — the former built in 1586 by Vasilii Sukin and Ivan Miasnoi, and the latter the following year by Danilo Chulkov. Tobolsk would become the nerve center of the conquest. To the north Beryozovo (1593) and Mangazeya (1600-01) were built to bring the Nenets under tribute, while to the east Surgut (1594) and Tara (1594) were established to protect Tobolsk and subdue the ruler of the Narym Ostiaks. Of these, Mangazeya was the most prominent, becoming a base for further exploration eastward.
Advancing up the Ob and its tributaries, the ostrogs of Ketsk (1602) and Tomsk (1604) were built. Ketsk sluzhilye liudi ("servicemen") reached the Yenisei in 1605, descending it to the Sym; two years later Mangazeyan promyshlenniks and traders descended the Turukhan to its confluence with the Yenisei, where they established the zimovie Turukhansk. By 1610 men from Turukhansk had reached the mouth of the Yenisei and ascended it as far as the Sym, where they met rival tribute collectors from Ketsk. To ensure subjugation of the natives, the ostrogs of Yeniseysk (1619) and Krasnoyarsk (1628) were established.
Following the khan's death and the dissolution of any organised Siberian resistance, the Russians advanced first towards Lake Baikal and then the Sea of Okhotsk and the Amur River. However, when they first reached the Chinese border they encountered people that were equipped with artillery pieces and here they halted.
The Russians reached the Pacific Ocean in 1639. After the conquest of the Siberian Khanate (1598) the whole of northern Asia - an area much larger than the old khanate - became known as Siberia and by 1640 the eastern borders of Russia had expanded more than several million square kilometres. In a sense, the khanate lived on in the subsidiary title "Tsar of Siberia" which became part of the full imperial style of the Russian Autocrats.
The conquest of Siberia also resulted in the spread of diseases. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons. ... New diseases weakened and demoralized the indigenous peoples of Siberia. The worst of these was smallpox "because of its swift spread, the high death rates, and the permanent disfigurement of survivors." ... In the 1650s, it moved east of the Yenisey, where it carried away up to 80 percent of the Tungus and Yakut populations. In the 1690s, smallpox epidemics reduced Yukagir numbers by an estimated 44 percent. The disease moved rapidly from group to group across Siberia."
Upon arrival in an area occupied by a tribe of natives, the Cossacks entered into peace talks with a proposal to submit to the White Tsar and to pay yasak, but these negotiations did not always lead to successful results. When their entreaties were rejected, the Cossacks elected to respond with force. At the hands of people such as Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650 some peoples, including the Daur, were slaughtered by the Russians. 8,000 out of a previously population of 20,000 in Kamchatka remained after being subjected to half a century of Cossacks slaughter. The Daurs initially deserted their villages since they heard about the cruelty of the Russians the first time Khabarov came. The second time he came, the Daurs decided to do battle against the Russians instead but were slaughtered by Russian guns. In the 17th century, indigenous peoples of the Amur region were attacked by Russians who came to be known as "red-beards". The Russian Cossacks were named luocha (zh), after demons found in Buddhist mythology, by the Amur natives because of their cruelty towards them, who were subjects of the Qing dynasty during the Sino–Russian border conflicts.
In the 1640s the Yakuts were subjected to slaughters during the Russian advance into their land near the Lena river, and on Kamchatka in the 1690s the Koryak, Kamchadals, and Chukchi were also subjected to slaughters by the Russians. When the Russians did not obtain the demanded amount of yasak from the natives, the governor of Yakutsk, Piotr Golovin, who was a Cossack, used meat hooks to hang the native men. In the Lena basin, 70% of the Yakut population died within 40 years, and rape and enslavement were used against native women and children in order to force the natives to pay the Yasak.
In Kamchatka the Russians savagely crushed the Itelmens uprisings against their rule in 1706, 1731, and 1741, the first time the Itelmen were armed with stone weapons and were badly unprepared and equipped but they used gunpowder weapons the second time. The Russians faced tougher resistance when from 1745-56 they tried to exterminate the gun and bow equipped Koraks until their victory. The Russian Cossacks also faced fierce resistance and were forced to give up when trying unsuccessfully to wipe out the Chukchi through genocide in 1729, 1730-1, and 1744-7. After the Russian defeat in 1729 at Chukchi hands, the Russian commander Major Pavlutskiy was responsible for the Russian war against the Chukchi and the mass slaughters and enslavement of Chukchi women and children in 1730-31, but his cruelty only made the Chukchis fight more fiercely. A genocide of the Chukchis and Koraks was ordered by Empress Elizabeth in 1742 to totally expel them from their native lands and erase their culture through war. The command was that the natives be "totally extirpated" with Pavlutskiy leading again in this war from 1744-47 in which he led to the Cossacks "with the help of Almighty God and to the good fortune of Her Imperial Highness", to slaughter the Chukchi men and enslave their women and children as booty. However the Chukchi ended this campaign and forced them to give up by killing Pavlitskiy and decapitating him. The Russians were also launching wars and slaughters against the Koraks in 1744 and 1753-4. After the Russians tried to force the natives to convert to Christianity, the different native peoples like the Koraks, Chukchis, Itelmens, and Yukagirs all united to drive the Russians out of their land in the 1740s, culminating in the assault on Nizhnekamchatsk fort in 1746. Kamchatka today is European in demographics and culture with only 2.5% of it being native, around 10,000 from a previous number of 150,000, due to the mass slaughters by the Cossacks after its annexation in 1697 of the Itelmen and Koryaks throughout the first decades of Russian rule. The genocide by the Russian Cossacks devastated the native peoples of Kamchatka and exterminated much of their population. In addition to committing genocide the Cossacks also devastated the wildlife by slaughtering massive amounts of animals for fur. 90% of the Kamchadals and half of the Vogules were killed from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries and the rapid genocide of the indigenous population led to entire ethnic groups being entirely wiped out, with around 12 exterminated groups which could be named by Nikolai Iadrintsev as of 1882. Much of the slaughter was brought on by the fur trade.
The Aleuts in the Aleutians were subjected to genocide and slavery by the Russians for the first 20 years of Russian rule, with the Aleut women and children captured by the Russians and Aleut men slaughtered.
The regionalist oblastniki in the 19th century among the Russians in Siberia acknowledged that the natives were subjected to immense genocidal cruelty by the Russian colonization, and claimed that they would rectify the situation with their proposed regionalist polices. The Russians used "slaughter, alcoholism and disease" to bring the natives under their control, who were soon left in misery, and much of the evidence of their extermination has itself been destroyed by the Russians, with only a few artefacts documenting their presence remaining in Russian museums and collections.
The Russian colonization of Siberia and conquest of its indigenous peoples has been compared to European colonization in the United States and its natives, with similar negative impacts on the natives and the appropriation of their land. The Slavic Russians outnumber all of the native peoples in Siberia and its cities except in the Republic of Tuva, with the Slavic Russians making up the majority in the Buriat Republic, and Altai Republics, outnumbering the Buriat, and Altai natives. The Buriat make up only 29,51% of their own Republic, and the Altai only one-third; the Chukchi, Evenk, Khanti, Mansi, and Nenets are outnumbered by non-natives by 90% of the population. The natives were targeted by the tsars and Soviet policies to change their way of life, and ethnic Russians were given the natives' reindeer herds and wild game which were confiscated by the tsars and Soviets. The reindeer herds have been mismanaged to the point of extinction.
The Ainu have emphasized that they were the natives of the Kuril islands and that the Japanese and Russians were both invaders.
In 2004, the small Ainu community living in Kamchatka Krai wrote a letter to Vladimir Putin, urging him to reconsider any move to award the Southern Kuril islands to Japan. In the letter they blamed both the Japanese, the Tsarist Russians and the Soviets for crimes against the Ainu such as killings and assimilation, and also urged him to recognize the Japanese genocide against the Ainu people, which was turned down by Putin.
Wiki: Black Abkhazians are a small group in Abkhazia of who used to live mainly in the Abkhazian settlement Adzyubzha at the mouth of the Kodori River and the surrounding villages of Abkhazia (Chlou, Pokvesh, Agdarra, Merkulov, etc.) on the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
The ethnic origin of the Black Abkhazians — and how Blacks arrived in Abkhazia — is still a matter of dispute among experts. Some Historians believe that the settlement in a number of villages in Abkhazia (then part of the Ottoman Empire) is likely to have happened in the 17th century. According to one version, a few hundred slaves were bought and brought by Shervashidze princes (Chachba) to work on the citrus plantations. (Which is of course, the typical Albino historical nonsense, in answer to Blacks being outside of Africa).
[2.104] There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race. Before I heard any mention of the fact from others, I had remarked it myself. After the thought had struck me, I made inquiries on the subject both in Colchis and in Egypt, and I found that the Colchians had a more distinct recollection of the Egyptians, than the Egyptians had of them. Still the Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too; but further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians (Nubians), are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times.
The Eastern Black Sea region was home to the well-developed bronze age culture, known as the Colchian culture. In at least some parts of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the second millennium B.C, centuries before Greek settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th Centurys B.C.) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals, that began long before this skill was mastered in Europe. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and the fertile, well-watered lowlands with their mild climate, promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques.
Ancient Greek legends told of a fabulously wealthy land where Jason and the Argonauts stole the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes with the help of his daughter Medea. It was a distant land that was reached by the Black Sea and down the River Phasis. The actual site of this legendary kingdom has never been found but the Greeks must have been greatly impressed by the Colchis region of Georgia, through which the River Phasis (currently the Rioni River) runs, for such stories to have been born.
Geographically, ancient Colchis comprised the land bounded by the Black Sea to the west, the Caucasus Mountains to the north, the Surami Range to the east and the Meskhetian Mountains to the south. In this fertile, sheltered area, Colchian civilization flourished. Their Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th Century BC) saw the development of an expertise in the smelting and casting of metals that began long before this skill was mastered in Europe. Sophisticated farming implements were made and fertile, well-watered lowlands blessed with a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques.
It is likely that the Golden Fleece existed. Earlier in this century, remote mountain villagers in Svaneti (a part of ancient Colchis) were observed using sheepskins to trap the fine gold particles in the rivers that flowed from the Caucasus Mountains. The skins would then be dried and beaten to shake out their contents. However, it is debatable as to whether or not the legendary 'wealth' of Colchis referred only to gold. Archaeological evidence dates the earliest Greek imports of painted pottery and amphorae to the end of the 7th Century BC. In exchange, it is thought that Greeks sought the rich natural resources of Colchis including wood and metal ores as well as textiles. The Ancient Greek writer, Herodotus, referred to the superior quality of Colchian linen and today, the mountain slopes remain heavily forested.
Colchis was also the land where the mythological Prometheus was punished by being chained to a mountain while an eagle ate at his liver, for revealing to humanity the secret of fire. The Amazons also were said to be from Colchis. The main mythical characters from Colchis are Aeëtes, Medea, Absyrtus, Chalciope, Circe, Eidyia, Pasiphaë.
In about 730 B.C, Colchis was overrun by the White Kurgan tribes called Cimmerians and Scythians. But they appear to have done little permanent damage.
In about 600 B.C, the advanced economy of Colchis soon attracted the attention of the Milesian (White) Greeks in Anatolia (Turkey), who colonized the Colchian coast and established trading posts at Phasis, Gyenos, and Sukhumi.
In about 580 B.C, the kingdom came under the control of (probably by the dating); King Astyages of the Median Empire. Which would soon become part of the first Persian Empire under Cyrus II, the Great. (The Sassanian was the second Persian Empire).
Herodotus in Book 3 says: The tribes living in southern Colchis (the Tibareni, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschoi, and Marres) were incorporated in the 19th Satrapy of the Persian King Darius; while the northern tribes submitted “voluntarily” and had to send to the Persian court 100 girls and 100 boys in every 5 years. The Tibareni - Called Tubal by Josephus Flavius (see below) - He identifies them with the (Eastern) Iberians and Cappadocians. The Macrones (Makrones) were an original Colchian tribe.
The Moschoi - Josephus Flavius identified the Moschoi with the Biblical Meshech. Meshech is named with Tubal (and Rosh, in certain translations) as principalities of "Gog, prince of Magog" in Ezekiel 38:2 and 39:1, and is considered a Japhetite tribe, identified by Flavius Josephus with the Cappadocian Moschoi (Mushki, also associated with Phrygians or Bryges) and their capital Mazaca. Another Meshech is named as a son of Aram in 1 Chronicles 1:17 (corresponding to the form Mash in Genesis 10). In Hippolytus of Rome's chronicle (234 AD), the "Illyrians" were identified as Meshech's offspring. In addition, Georgians have traditions that they, and other Caucasus people including Armenians, share descent from Meshech. The Mossynoeci - (Greek word Mossynoikoi "dwellers in wooden towers"). The Greeks of the Black Sea area applied it to the peoples of Pontus, on the northern Anatolian coast.
Abkhazian writer Dmitry Gulia in the book "History of Abkhazia" compared the place names of Abkhazia and the corresponding names in Ethiopia and claimed that some of the geographical names are identical: Bagadi – Bagadi, Gunma – Gunma, Tabakur – Dabakur, etc.
860 Rus'–Byzantine War (860): The Rus' launched a successful raid on Constantinople.
862 Rurik came to rule in Novgorod, establishing the Rurikid Dynasty.
882 Oleg of Novgorod conquered Kiev and moved the capital there.
907 Rus'-Byzantine War (907): Oleg led an army to the walls of Constantinople.
Rus'-Byzantine War (907): A Rus'-Byzantine Treaty allowed Rus' merchants to enter the city under guard.
912 Oleg died and was succeeded by Igor, who was Rurik's son.
941 May Rus'-Byzantine War (941): A Rus' army landed at Bithynia.
September Rus'-Byzantine War (941): The Byzantines destroyed the Rus' fleet.
945 Rus'-Byzantine War (941): Another Rus'-Byzantine Treaty was signed. Rus' renounced some Byzantine territories.
Igor died; his wife Olga became regent of Kievan Rus' for their son, Sviatoslav I.
963 Olga's regency ended.
965 Sviatoslav conquered Khazaria.
968 Siege of Kiev (968): The Pechenegs besieged Kiev. A Rus' General Pretich Vasily Vasilievsky. Byzantium and the Pechenegs. St. Petersburg, 1872. created the illusion of a much larger army, and frightened them away.
969 8 July Sviatoslav moved the capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets in Bulgaria.
971 The Byzantine Empire captured Pereyaslavets. The capital moved back to Kiev.
972 Sviatoslav was killed by the Pechenegs during an expedition on their territory. His son Yaropolk I succeeded him.
980 Yaropolk was betrayed and murdered by his brother Vladimir I, The Great, who succeeded him as Prince of Kiev.
981 Vladimir conquered Red Ruthenia from the Poles.
988 Christianization of Kievan Rus': Vladimir destroyed the pagan idols of Kiev and urged the city's inhabitants to baptize themselves in the Dnieper River.
1015 Vladimir died. He was succeeded by Sviatopolk I, who may have been his biological son by the rape of Yaropolk's wife. Sviatopolk ordered the murder of three of Vladimir's younger sons.
1016 Yaroslav I, another of Sviatopolk's brothers, led an army against him and defeated him, forcing him to flee to Poland.
1017 Yaroslav issued the first Russian code of law, the Russkaya Pravda.
1018 Polish Expedition to Kiev: Sviatopolk led the Polish army into Rus'. Red Ruthenia returned to Polish possession.
14 August Polish Expedition to Kiev: The Polish army captured Kiev; Yaroslav fled to Novgorod.
1019 Yaroslav defeated Sviatopolk and returned to the princedom of Kiev. He granted autonomy to Novgorod as a reward for her prior loyalty. Sviatopolk died.
1030 Yaroslav reconquered Red Ruthenia from the Poles.
1043 Rus'-Byzantine War (1043): Yaroslav led an unsuccessful naval raid on Constantinople. According to the peace settlement, Yaroslav's son Vsevolod I married a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Constantine Monomachos.
1054 Yaroslav died. He was succeeded by his oldest son, Iziaslav I.
1068 Iziaslav was overthrown in a popular uprising and forced to flee to Poland.
1069 Iziaslav led the Polish army back into Kiev and reestablished himself on the throne.
1073 Two of Iziaslav's brothers, Sviatoslav II and Vsevolod I, overthrew him; the former became prince of Kiev.
1076 27 December Sviatoslav died. Vsevolod I succeeded him, but traded the princedom of Kiev to Iziaslav in exchange for Chernigov.
1078 Iziaslav died. The throne of Kiev went to Vsevolod.
1093 13 April Vsevolod died. Kiev and Chernigov went to Iziaslav's illegitimate son, Sviatopolk II.
26 May Battle of the Stugna River: Rus' forces attacked the Cumans at the Stugna River and were defeated.
1113 16 April Sviatopolk died. He was succeeded by Vsevolod's son, his cousin, Vladimir II Monomakh.
1125 19 May Vladimir died. His oldest son, Mstislav I, succeeded him.
1132 14 April Mstislav died. His brother Yaropolk II followed him as prince of Kiev.
1136 Novgorod expelled the prince appointed for them by Kiev and vastly circumscribed the authority of the office.
1139 18 February Yaropolk died. His younger brother Viacheslav followed him, but in March Viacheslav was overthrown by his cousin, prince of Chernigov, Vsevolod.
1146 1 August Vsevolod died. His brother Igor followed him as a ruler of Kiev. Citizens of Kiev required him to depose old boyars of Vsevolod. Igor swore to fulfill their request, but then reconsidered to do it. Citizens of Kiev considered that oath-breaker is not a legitimate ruler anymore and chose to summon prince Iziaslav of Pereyaslavl to be a new prince of Kiev.
1146 13 August Iziaslav overthrow Igor. A brother of Igor, Sviatoslav, prince of Novgorod-Seversk asked prince of Rostov-Suzdal Yuri Dolgorukiy for help in realising Igor from captivity.
1147 The first reference to Moscow when Yuri Dolgorukiy called upon Sviatoslav of Novgorod-Seversk to "come to me, brother, to Moscow".
1149 Yuri Dolgorukiy captured Kiev. Iziaslav escaped.
1150 With assistance of chorniye klobuky Iziaslav kicked away Yuri from Kiev. After some time, with help of Volodimirko of Galych, Yuri took Kiev again.
1151 Hungarian king Géza II helped Iziaslav to return Kiev. Yuri escaped
1154 13 November Iziaslav II died. His brother, prince of Smolensk Rostislav was summoned to become a new prince of Kiev.
1155 Yuri Dolgorukiy expelled Rostislav with assistance of prince of Chernigov.
1157 Yuri I of Kiev was intoxicated and died. Iziaslav of Chernigov became prince of Kiev.
1159 Iziaslav of Chernigov was overthrow by princes of Galych and Volyn. Allies called Rostislav to be prince of Kiev again.
1167 Rostislav died. His nephew, Mstislav of Volyn, became new ruler of Kiev.
1169 Andrey Bogolyubsky, the elder son of Yuri Dolgorukiy, prince of new strong principality of Vladimir-Suzdal attacked and plundered Kiev. A majority of Russian princes recognized him as a new grand prince. Unlike previous grand princes Andrey I remained in Vladimir and didn't move his residence to Kiev. Andrey appointed his brother Gleb as prince of Kiev. In fact, since this, Kiev stopped to be a center of Russian lands. Political and cultural center was moved to Vladimir. New princes of Kiev were depending on grand princes of Vladimir-Suzdal
1223 Battle of the Kalka River: The warriors of Rus' first encountered the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan.
1227 Boyar intrigues forced Mstislav, the prince of Novgorod, to give the throne to his son-in-law Andrew II of Hungary.
1236 Alexander Nevsky was summoned by the Novgorodians to become Grand Prince of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders.
1237 December Mongol invasion of Rus: Batu Khan set fire to Moscow and slaughtered and enslaved its civilian inhabitants.
1240 15 July Battle of the Neva: The Novgorodian army defeated a Swedish invasion force at the confluence of the Izhora and Neva Rivers.
1242 5 April Battle of the Ice: The army of Novgorod defeated the invading Teutonic Knights on the frozen surface of Lake Peipus.
1263 14 November Nevsky died. His appanages were divided within his family; his youngest son Daniel became the first Prince of Moscow. His younger brother Yaroslav of Tver had become the Grand Prince of Tver and of Vladimir and had appointed deputies to run the Principality of Moscow during Daniel's minority.
1303 5 March Daniel died. His oldest son Yury succeeded him as Prince of Moscow.
1317 Yury married the sister of Uzbeg Khan who was Mongolian prince. Uzbeg deposed the Grand Prince of Vladimir and appointed Yury to that office.
1322 Dmitriy the Terrible Eyes, the son of the last Grand Prince of Vladimir, convinced Uzbeg Khan that Yury had been stealing from the khan's tribute money. He was reappointed to the princedom of Vladimir.
1325 21 November Yury was murdered by Dmitriy. His younger brother Ivan I Kalita succeeded him.
1327 15 August The ambassador of the Golden Horde of Mongolian Empire was trapped and burned alive during an uprising in the Grand Duchy of Tver.
1328 Ivan led a Horde army against the Grand Prince of Tver, also the Grand Prince of Vladimir. Ivan was allowed to replace him in the latter office.
1340 31 March Ivan died. His son Simeon succeeded him both as Grand Prince of Moscow and as Grand Prince of Vladimir
1353 Simeon died. His younger brother Ivan II, The Fair, succeeded him as Grand Prince of Moscow.
1359 13 November Ivan died. His son, Dmitri Donskoi, succeeded him.
1380 8 September Battle of Kulikovo: A Muscovite force defeated a significantly larger Blue Horde army of Mongolia at Kulikovo Field.
1382 The Mongol khan Tokhtamysh reasserted his power by looting and burning Moscow.
1389 19 May Dmitri died. The throne fell to his son, Vasili I.
1425 February Vasili died. His son Vasili II, The Blind, succeeded him as Grand Prince of Moscow; his wife Sophia became regent. His younger brother, Yury Dmitrievich, also issued a claim to the throne.
1430 Dmitrievich appealed to the khan of the Golden Horde to support his claim to the throne. Vasili II retained the Duchy of Moscow, but Dmitrievich was given the Duchy of Dmitrov.
1432 Vasili II led an army to capture Dmitrov. His army was defeated and he was forced to flee to Kolomna. Dmitrievich arrived in Moscow and declared himself the Grand Prince. Vasili II was pardoned and made mayor of Kolomna.
1433 The exodus of Muscovite boyars to Vasili II's court in Kolomna persuaded Dmitrievich to return Moscow to his nephew and move to Galich.
1434 Vasily II burned Galich.
16 March The army of Yury Dmitrievich defeated the army of Vasily II. The latter fled to Nizhny Novgorod.
1 April Dmitrievich arrived in Moscow and again declared himself the Grand Prince.
5 July Dmitrievich died. His oldest son Vasili Kosoy, the Cross-Eyed, succeeded him as Grand Prince.
1435 Dmitrievich's second son, Dmitry Shemyaka, allied himself with Vasili II. Vasili the Cross-Eyed was expelled from the Kremlin and blinded. Vasili II returned to the throne of the Grand Prince.
1438 Russo-Kazan Wars: The khan of the recently established Khanate of Kazan led an army towards Moscow.
1445 7 July Battle of Suzdal: The Russian army suffered a great defeat at the hands of the Tatars of Kazan. Vasili II was taken prisoner; operation of the government fell to Dmitry Shemyaka.
December Vasili II was ransomed back to Muscovy.
1446 Shemyaka had Vasili II blinded and exiled to Uglich, and had himself declared the Grand Prince.
1450 The boyars of Moscow expelled Shemyaka from the Kremlin and recalled Vasili II to the throne.
1452 Shemyaka was forced to flee to the Novgorod Republic.
1453 Shemyaka was poisoned by Muscovite agents.
1462 27 March Vasili II died. His son Ivan III, The Great, succeeded him as Grand Prince.
1463 Russia annexed the Duchy of Yaroslavl.
1471 14 July Battle of Shelon: A Muscovite army defeated a numerically superior Novgorodian force.
1474 Russia annexed the Rostov Duchy.
1476 Ivan stopped paying tribute to the Great Horde.
1478 14 January The Novgorod Republic surrendered to the authority of Moscow.
1480 11 November Great stand on the Ugra river: Ivan's forces deterred Akhmat Khan of the Great Horde from invading Muscovy.
1485 Ivan annexed the Grand Duchy of Tver.
1497 Ivan issued a legal code, the Sudebnik, which standardized the Muscovite law, expanded the role of the criminal justice system, and limited the ability of the serfs to leave their masters.
1505 27 October Ivan died. He was succeeded as Grand Duke of Muscovy by his son, Vasili III.
1507 Russo-Crimean Wars: The Crimean Khanate raided the Muscovite towns of Belyov and Kozelsk.
1510 With the approval of most of the local nobility, Vasili arrived in the Pskov Republic and declared it dissolved.
1517 The last Grand Prince of the Ryazan Principality was captured and imprisoned in Moscow.
1533 3 December Vasili died; his son Ivan IV, The Terrible, succeeded him. His wife Elena Glinskaya became regent.
1538 4 April Glinskaya died. She was succeeded as regent by Prince Vasily Nemoy.
1547 16 January An elaborate ceremony crowned Ivan the first Czar of Muscovy.
1552 22 August Siege of Kazan (1552): Muscovite armed forces arrived at Kazan.
2 October Siege of Kazan (1552): The Muscovite army breached the walls of Kazan.
13 October Siege of Kazan (1552): The civilian population of Kazan was massacred, the city occupied.
1553–1554 First book printed in Russia, the Narrow-typed Gospel Book.
1556 Muscovy conquered and annexed the Astrakhan Khanate.
1558 Livonian War: Ivan demanded a back-breaking tribute from the Bishopric of Dorpat. The Bishop sent diplomats to Muscovy to renegotiate the amount; Ivan expelled them and invaded and occupied the Bishopric.
1560 2 August Battle of Ergeme: Ivan's army crushed the forces of the Livonian Order.
1561 28 November The Livonian Order agreed to the Union of Wilno, under which the Livonian Confederation was partitioned between Lithuania, Sweden and Denmark. Lithuania and Sweden sent troops to liberate their new territories from Russian possession.
1565 February Ivan established the Oprichnina, a Muscovite territory ruled directly by the tsar.
1569 1 July The Union of Lublin was signed. Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were merged into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; Poland began aiding Lithuania in its war against Muscovy.
1572 The Oprichnina was abolished.
1581 16 November Ivan killed his oldest son.
1582 15 January Livonian War: The Peace of Jam Zapolski ended Polish–Lithuanian participation in the war. Muscovy gave up its claims to Livonia and the city of Polatsk.
23 October Battle of Chuvash Cape: Muscovite soldiers dispersed the armed forces of the Siberia Khanate from its capital, Qashliq.
1583 Livonian War: The war was ended with the Treaty of Plussa. Narva and the Gulf of Finland coast went to Sweden.
1584 18 March Ivan died of mercury poisoning. The throne fell to his mentally retarded son Feodor I; his son-in-law Boris Godunov took de facto charge of government.
1590 18 January Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): The Treaty of Plussa expired. Muscovite troops laid siege to Narva.
25 February Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): A Swedish governor on the disputed territory surrendered to the Muscovites.
1591 15 May Dimitriy Ivanovich, Ivan the Terrible's third and youngest son, died in exile from a stab wound to the throat. Long-regarded as murdered by agents of Boris Godunov, more recently scholars have begun to defend the theory that Dimitriy's death was self-inflicted during an epileptic seizure.
1595 18 May Russo-Swedish War (1590–1595): The Treaty of Tyavzino was signed. Ingria went to Muscovy.
1598 7 January Feodor died with no children.
21 February A zemsky sobor elected Godunov the first non-Rurikid tsar of Muscovy.
1604 October False Dmitriy I, a man claiming to be the deceased Dmitriy Ivanovich, invaded Muscovy.
1605 13 April Boris died. His son Feodor II was pronounced tsar.
1 July A group of boyars defected in support of False Dmitriy, seized control of the Kremlin, and arrested Feodor.
20 June False Dmitriy and his army arrived in Moscow.
20 July Feodor and his mother were strangled.
21 July False Dmitriy was crowned tsar.
1606 8 May False Dmitriy married a Catholic, inflaming suspicions that he meant to convert Muscovy to Catholicism.
17 May Conservative boyars led by Vasili Shuisky stormed the Kremlin and shot False Dmitriy to death during his escape.
19 May Shuisky's allies declared him Tsar Vasili IV.
1607 False Dmitriy II, another claimant to the identity of Dmitriy Ivanovich, obtained financial and military support from a group of Polish magnates.
1609 28 February Vasili ceded border territory to Sweden in exchange for military aid against the government of False Dmitriy II.
September Polish–Muscovite War (1609–1618): The Polish king Sigismund III led an army into Muscovy.
1610 4 July Battle of Klushino: Seven thousand Polish cavalrymen defeated a vastly superior Muscovite force at Klushino.
19 July Vasili was overthrown. A group of nobles, the Seven Boyars, replaced him at the head of the government.
27 July Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): A truce was established. The boyars promised to recognize Sigismund's son and heir Władysław as tsar, conditional on severe limits to his power and his conversion to Orthodoxy.
August Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): Sigismund rejected the boyars' conditions.
December Hermogenes, the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, urged the Muscovite people to rise against the Poles.
11 December False Dmitriy II was shot and beheaded by one of his entourage.
1612 1 November Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): Muscovite populace rising against the Poles recaptured the Kremlin.
1613 Ingrian War: Sweden invaded Muscovy.
21 February A zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov, a grandson of Ivan the Terrible's brother-in-law, the tsar of Muscovy.
1617 27 February Ingrian War: The Treaty of Stolbovo ended the war. Kexholm, Ingria, Estonia and Livonia went to Sweden.
1618 11 December Polish–Russian War (1609–1618): The Truce of Deulino ended the war. Muscovy ceded the city of Smolensk and the Czernihów Voivodeship to Poland.
1619 13 February Feodor Romanov, Michael's father, was released from Polish prison and allowed to return to Muscovy.
1632 October Smolensk War: With the expiration of the Truce of Deulino, a Muscovite army was sent to lay siege to Smolensk.
1634 1 March Smolensk War: The Muscovite army, surrounded, was forced to surrender.
14 June Smolensk War: The Treaty of Polyanovka was signed, ending the war. Poland retained Smolensk, but Władysław renounced his claim to the Muscovite throne.
1645 13 July Michael died. His son, Alexis I, succeeded him.
1648 25 January Khmelnytsky Uprising: A Polish szlachta, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leads the Cossacks of the Zaporizhian Sich against the Polish Crown.
1 June Salt Riot: Upset over the introduction of a salt tax, the townspeople launched a rebellion in Moscow.
11 June Salt Riot: A group of nobles demanded a zemsky sobor on behalf of the rebellion.
3 July Salt Riot: Many of the rebellion's leaders were executed.
25 December Khmelnytsky Uprising: Khmelnytsky entered the Ukrainian capital, Kiev.
1649 January A zemsky sobor ratified a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozheniye.
1653 Raskol: Nikon, the Patriarch of Moscow, reformed Muscovite liturgy to align with the rituals of the Greek Church.
1654 Khmelnytsky Uprising: Under the Treaty of Pereyaslav, Left-bank Ukraine, the territory of the Zaporozhian Host, allies itself with Muscovy.
July Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Muscovite army invaded Poland.
1655 Deluge (history): Sweden invaded the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
3 July Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Muscovite army captured Vilnius.
25 July Deluge (history): The voivode of Poznań surrendered to the Swedish invaders.
2 November Muscovy negotiated a ceasefire with Poland.
1656 July Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): Muscovite reserves invaded Ingria.
1658 26 February Dano-Swedish War (1657–1658): The Treaty of Roskilde ended Sweden's war with Denmark, allowing her to shift her troops to the eastern conflicts.
16 September Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Treaty of Hadiach established a military alliance between Poland and the Zaporozhian Host, and promised the creation of a Commonwealth of three nations: Poland, Lithuania and Rus'.
28 December Russo–Swedish War (1656–1658): The Treaty of Valiesar established a peace. The conquered Ingrian territories were ceded to Muscovy for three years.
1660 23 April Deluge (history): The Treaty of Oliva ended the conflict between Poland and Sweden.
1661 Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): Polish forces recaptured Vilnius.
The Treaty of Valiesar expired. Muscovy returned Ingria to the Swedish Empire by the Treaty of Cardis.
1662 25 July Copper Riot: In the early morning, a group of Muscovites marched to Kolomenskoye and demanded punishment for the government ministers who had debased Muscovy's copper currency. On their arrival, they were countered by the military; a thousand were hanged or drowned. The rest were exiled.
1665 Lubomirski's Rokosz: A Polish nobleman launched a rokosz (rebellion) against the king.
The pro-Turkish Cossack noble Petro Doroshenko defeated his pro-Muscovite adversaries in the Right-bank Ukraine.
1667 Raskol: A church council anathematized the Old Believers, who rejected Nikon's reforms.
30 January Russo-Polish War (1654–1667): The Treaty of Andrusovo ended the war between the Commonwealth and Muscovy without Cossack representation. Poland agreed to cede the Smoleńsk and Czernihów Voivodships and acknowledged Muscovite control over the Left-bank Ukraine.
1669 Doroshenko signed a treaty that recognized his state as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
1670 The Cossack Stenka Razin began a rebellion against the Muscovite government.
1671 Razin was captured, tortured, and quartered in Red Square on the Lobnoye Mesto.
1674 The Cossacks of the Right-bank Ukraine elected the pro-Muscovite Ivan Samoylovych, Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine, to replace Doroshenko and become the Hetman of a unified Ukraine.
1676 Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681): The Ottoman army joined Doroshenko's forces in an attack on the Left-bank city of Chyhyryn.
29 January Alexis died. His son Feodor III became tsar.
1680 Russo-Crimean Wars: The Crimean invasions of Muscovy ended.
1681 3 January Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681): The war ended with the Treaty of Bakhchisarai. The Russo-Turkish border was settled at the Dnieper River.
1682 Feodor abolished the mestnichestvo, an ancient, un-meritocratic system of making political appointments.
14 April Avvakum, the most prominent leader of the Old Believer movement, was burned at the stake.
27 April Feodor died with no children. Peter I, The Great, Alexis's son by his second wife Natalia Naryshkina, was declared tsar. His mother became regent.
17 May Moscow Uprising of 1682: Streltsy regiments belonging to the faction of Alexis's first wife, Maria Miloslavskaya, took over the Kremlin, executed Naryshkina's brothers, and declared Miloslavskaya's invalid son Ivan V the "senior tsar," with Peter remaining on the throne as the junior. Miloslavkaya's oldest daughter Sophia Alekseyevna became regent.
1687 May Crimean campaigns: The Muscovite army launched an invasion against an Ottoman vassal, the Crimean Khanate.
17 June Crimean campaigns: Faced with a burned steppe incapable of feeding their horses, the Muscovites turned back.
1689 June Fyodor Shaklovity, the head of the Streltsy Department, persuaded Alekseyevna to proclaim herself tsarina and attempted to ignite a new rebellion in her support. The streltsy instead defected in support of Peter.
11 October Shaklovity was executed.
1696 29 January Ivan died.
23 April Second Azov campaign: The Muscovite army began its deployment to an important Ottoman fortress, Azov.
27 May Second Azov campaign: The Muscovite navy arrived at the sea and blockaded Azov.
19 July Second Azov campaign: The Ottoman garrison surrendered.
1698 6 June Streltsy Uprising: Approximately four thousand streltsy overthrew their commanders and headed to Moscow, where they meant to demand the enthroning of the exiled Sophia Alekseyevna.
18 June Streltsy Uprising: The rebels were defeated.
1700 19 August Great Northern War: Muscovy declared war on Sweden.
16 October Adrian, the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, died. Peter prevented the election of a successor.
1707 8 October Bulavin Rebellion: A small band of Don Cossacks killed a Muscovite noble searching their territory for tax fugitives.
1708 7 July Bulavin Rebellion: After a series of devastating military reversals, Bulavin was shot by his former followers.
18 December An imperial decree divided Muscovy into eight guberniyas (governorates).
1709 28 June Battle of Poltava: A decisive Muscovite military victory over the Swedes at Poltava marked the turning point of the war, the end of Cossack independence and the dawn of the Russian Empire.
1710 14 October The Russian guberniyas were divided into lots according to noble population.
20 November Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Charles XII of Sweden persuaded the Ottoman sultan to declare war on Russia.
1711 22 February Government reform of Peter I: Peter established the Governing Senate to pass laws in his absence.
21 July Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711): Peace was concluded with the Treaty of the Pruth. Russia returned Azov to the Ottoman Empire and demolished the town of Taganrog.
1713 8 May The Russian capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg.
17 July The Riga Governorate was established on the conquered territory of Livonia.
The territory of the Smolensk Governorate was divided between the Moscow and Riga Governorates.
1714 15 January The northwestern territory of the Kazan Governorate was transferred to the newly established Nizhny Novgorod Governorate.
1715 11 October Peter demanded that his son, the tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, endorse his reforms or renounce his right to the throne.
1716 Alexei fled to Vienna to avoid military service.
1717 22 November The Astrakhan Governorate was formed on the southern lands of Kazan Governorate.
The territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Governorate was reincorporated into the Kazan Governorate.
12 December Government reform of Peter I: Peter established collegia, government ministries that superseded the prikazy.
1718 31 January Alexei returned to Moscow under a promise he would not be harmed.
18 February After torture, Alexei publicly renounced the throne and implicated a number of reactionaries in a conspiracy to overthrow his father.
13 June Alexei was put on trial for treason.
26 June Alexei died after torture in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
1719 29 May Lots were abolished; the guberniyas were divided instead into provinces, each governed and taxed under a preexisting elected office (the Voyevoda). Provinces were further divided into districts, replacing the old uyezds. The district commissars were to be elected by local gentry.
The Nizhny Novgorod Governorate was reestablished.
The Reval Governorate was established on the conquered territory of Estonia.
1721 25 January Peter established the Holy Synod, a body of ten clergymen chaired by a secular official, that was to head the Russian Orthodox Church in lieu of the Patriarch of Moscow.
30 August Great Northern War: The Treaty of Nystad ended the war. Sweden ceded Estonia, Livonia and Ingria to Russia.
22 October Peter was declared Emperor.
1722 Peter introduced the Table of Ranks, which granted the privileges of nobility based on state service.
July Russo-Persian War (1722–1723): A Russian military expedition sailed in support of the independence of two Christian kingdoms, Kartli and Armenia.
1723 12 September Russo-Persian War (1722–1723): The Persian shah signed a peace treaty ceding the cities of Derbent and Baku and the provinces of Shirvan, Guilan, Mazandaran and Astrabad to the Russian Empire.
1725 28 January Peter died of urinary problems. He failed to name a successor; one of Peter's closest advisers, Aleksandr Menshikov, convinced the Imperial Guard to declare in favor of Peter's wife Catherine I.
1726 The Smolensk Governorate was reestablished.
8 February Catherine established an advisory body, the Supreme Privy Council.
1727 Catherine established the Belgorod and Novgorod Governorates and adjusted the borders of several others. Districts were abolished; uyezds were reestablished.
17 May Catherine died.
18 May According to Catherine's wishes the eleven-year-old Peter II, the son of Alexei Petrovich and grandson of Peter the Great, became tsar. The Supreme Privy Council was to hold power during his minority.
9 September The conservative members of the Supreme Privy Council expelled its most powerful member, the liberal Menshikov.
1730 30 January Peter died of smallpox.
1 February The Supreme Privy Council offered the throne to Anna Ivanovna, the daughter of Ivan V, on the conditions that the Council retain the powers of war and peace and taxation, among others, and that she never marry or appoint an heir.
4 March Anna tore up the terms of her accession and dissolved the Supreme Privy Council.
1736 20 May Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Russian army captured the Ottoman fortifications at Perekop.
19 June Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Russians captured Azov.
1737 July Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): Austria joined the war on the Russian side.
1739 21 August Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): Austria agreed by the Treaty of Belgrade to end its participation in the war.
18 September Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739): The Treaty of Nissa ended the war. Russia gave up its claims on Crimea and Moldavia and its navy was barred from the Black Sea.
1740 17 October Anna died of kidney disease. She left the throne to her adopted infant son, Ivan VI.
18 October Anna's lover, Ernst Johann von Biron, was declared regent.
8 November Biron was arrested on the orders of his rival, the Count Burkhard Christoph von Munnich. Ivan's biological mother, Anna Leopoldovna, replaced Biron as regent.
1741 8 August Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): Sweden declared war on Russia.
25 November Elizabeth, the youngest daughter of Peter the Great, led the Preobrazhensky to the Winter Palace to overthrow the regency of Anna Leopoldovna and install herself as empress.
2 December Ivan was imprisoned in the Daugavgriva fortress.
1742 4 September Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): Encircled by the Russians at Helsinki, the Swedish army surrendered.
1743 7 August Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743): The Treaty of Åbo was signed, ending the war. Russia relinquished most of the conquered territory, keeping only the lands east of the Kymi River. In exchange Adolf Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, the uncle of the Russian heir to the throne, was to become King of Sweden.
1744 The Vyborg Governorate was established on conquered Swedish territories.
1755 Mikhail Lomonosov and Count Ivan Shuvalov founded the University of Moscow.
1756 29 August Seven Years' War: The Kingdom of Prussia invaded the Austrian protectorate of Saxony.
1757 1 May Diplomatic Revolution: Under the Second Treaty of Versailles, Russia joined the Franco-Austrian military alliance.
17 May Seven Years' War: Russian troops entered the war.
1761 25 December Miracle of the House of Brandenburg: Elizabeth died. Her nephew, Peter III, became tsar.
1762 5 May Seven Years' War: The Treaty of Saint Petersburg ended Russian participation in the war at no territorial gain.
17 July Peter was overthrown by the Imperial Guard and replaced with his wife, Catherine II, The Great, on her orders.
1764 5 July A group of soldiers attempted to release the imprisoned Ivan VI; he was murdered.
1767 13 October Repnin Sejm: Four Polish senators who opposed the policies of the Russian ambassador Nicholas Repnin were arrested by Russian troops and imprisoned in Kaluga.
1768 27 February Repnin Sejm: Delegates of the Sejm adopted a treaty ensuring future Russian influence in Polish internal politics.
29 February Polish nobles established the Bar Confederation in order to end Russian influence in their country.
25 September Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Ottoman sultan declared war on Russia.
1771 15 September Plague Riot: A crowd of rioters entered Red Square, broke into the Kremlin and destroyed the Chudov Monastery.
17 September Plague Riot: The army suppressed the riot.
1772 5 August The first partition of Poland was announced. Poland lost thirty percent of its territory, which was divided between Prussia, Austria, and Russia.
1773 Pugachev's Rebellion: The army of the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev attacked and occupied Samara.
18 September A confederated sejm was forced to ratify the first partition of Poland.
1774 21 July Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774): The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed. The portion of the Yedisan region east of the Southern Bug river, the Kabarda region in the Caucasus, and several Crimean ports, went to Russia. The Crimean Khanate received independence from the Ottoman Empire, which also declared Russia the protector of Christians on its territory.
14 September Pugachev's Rebellion: Upset with the rebellion's bleak outlook, Pugachev's officers delivered him to the Russians.
1783 8 April The Crimean Khanate was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
24 July Threatened by the Persian and Ottoman Empires, the kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk under which it became a Russian protectorate.
1788 Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia and imprisoned her ambassador.
27 June Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): The Swedish army playacted a skirmish between themselves and the Russians.
6 July Battle of Hogland: The Russian navy dispersed a Swedish invasion fleet near Hogland in the Gulf of Finland.
6 October Great Sejm: A confederated sejm was called to restore the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1790 14 August Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790): The Treaty of Värälä ended the war, with no changes in territory.
1791 3 May Great Sejm: Poland's Constitution of 3 May was ratified in secret. The new constitution abolished the liberum veto, reducing the power of the nobles and limiting Russia's ability to influence Polish internal politics.
23 December Catherine established the Pale of Settlement, an area in European Russia into which Russian Jews were transported.
1792 9 January Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792): The Treaty of Jassy was signed, ending the war. The Russian border in Yedisan was extended to the Dniester river.
18 May Polish–Russian War of 1792: The army of the Targowica Confederation, which opposed the liberal Polish Constitution of 3 May, invaded Poland.
1793 23 January Polish–Russian War of 1792: The second partition of Poland left the country with one-third of its 1772 population.
23 November Grodno Sejm: The last sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ratified the second partition.
1794 24 March Kościuszko Uprising: An announcement by Tadeusz Kościuszko sparked a nationalist uprising in Poland.
4 November Battle of Praga: Russian troops captured the Praga borough of Warsaw and massacred its civilian population.
5 November Kościuszko Uprising: The uprising ended with the Russian occupation of Warsaw.
1795 11 September Battle of Krtsanisi: The Persian army demolished the armed forces of Kartl-Kakheti.
24 October The third partition of Poland divided up the remainder of its territory.
1796 April Persian Expedition of 1796: Catherine launched a military expedition to punish Persia for its incursion into the Russian protectorate of Kartl-Kakheti.
5 November Catherine suffered a stroke in the bathtub.
6 November Catherine died. The throne fell to her son, Paul I.
1801 8 January Paul authorized the incorporation of Kartl-Kakheti into the Russian empire.
11 March Paul was killed in his bed.
23 March Paul's son, Alexander I, ascended to the throne.
1802 Alexander established the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD).
1804 Russo-Persian War (1804–1813): Russian forces attacked the Persian settlement of Üçkilise.
1805 The Ottoman Empire dismissed the pro-Russian hospodars of its vassal states, Wallachia and Moldavia.
26 December War of the Third Coalition: The Treaty of Pressburg ceded Austrian possessions in Dalmatia to France.
1806 October To counter the French presence in Dalmatia, Russia invaded Wallachia and Moldavia.
27 December Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
1807 14 June Battle of Friedland: The Russian army suffered a defeat against the French, suffering twenty thousand dead.
7 July The Treaty of Tilsit was signed. Alexander agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia and ceded the Ionian Islands and Cattaro to the French. The treaty ended Russia's conflict with France; Napoleon promised to aid Russia in conflicts with the Ottoman Empire.
16 November Alexander demanded that Sweden close the Baltic Sea to British warships.
1808 21 February Finnish War: Russian troops crossed the Swedish border and captured Hämeenlinna.
1809 29 March Diet of Porvoo: The four Estates of Finland swore allegiance to the Russian crown.
17 September Finnish War: The Treaty of Fredrikshamn was signed, ending the war and ceding Finland to the Russian Empire.
1810 The first military settlement was established near Klimovichi.
1 January Alexander established the State Council, which received the executive powers of the Governing Senate.
20 February The Russian government proclaimed the deposition of Solomon II from the throne of Imereti.
1811 27 March Regional military companies were merged into the Internal Guard.
1812 28 May Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812): The Treaty of Bucharest ended the war and transferred Bessarabia to Russia.
24 June French invasion of Russia (1812): The French army crossed the Neman River into Russia.
14 September French invasion of Russia (1812): The French army entered a deserted Moscow, the high-water mark of their invasion.
14 December French invasion of Russia (1812): The last French troops were forced off of Russian territory.
1813 24 October Russo-Persian War (1804–1813): According to the Treaty of Gulistan, the Persian Empire ceded its Transcaucasian territories to Russia.
1815 9 June Congress of Vienna: The territory of the Duchy of Warsaw was divided between Prussia, Russia, and three newly established states: the Grand Duchy of Posen, the Free City of Kraków and Congress Poland. The latter was a constitutional monarchy with Alexander as its king.
1825 19 November Alexander died of typhus. The army swore allegiance to his oldest brother, the Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich. Constantine, however, following Alexander's choice of successor, swore allegiance to his younger brother, Nicholas I.
12 December Under pressure from Constantine, Nicholas published Alexander's succession manifesto.
14 December Decembrist revolt: Three thousand soldiers gathered at the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg, and declared their loyalty to Constantine and to the idea of a Russian constitution. When talk failed, the tsarist army dispersed the demonstrators with artillery, killing at least sixty.
1826 An imperial decree established the Second Section of His Majesty's Own Chancery, concerned with codifying and publishing the law, and the Third Section, which operated as the Empire's secret police.
July Nicholas established the office of Chief of Gendarmes, in charge of the Gendarmerie units of the Internal Guard.
16 July Russo-Persian War (1826–1828): The Persian army invaded the Russian-owned Talysh Khanate.
1828 21 February Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) Facing the possibility of a Russian conquest of Tehran, Persia signed the Treaty of Turkmenchay.
May The Russian army occupied Wallachia.
June Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Russian armed forces crossed into Dobruja, an Ottoman territory.
1829 14 September Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829): The Treaty of Adrianople was signed, ceding the eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube to the Russians.
1830 29 November November Uprising: A group of Polish nationalists attacked Belweder Palace, the seat of the Governor-General.
1831 25 January November Uprising: An act of the Sejm dethroned Nicholas from the Polish crown.
29 January November Uprising: A new government took office in Poland.
4 February November Uprising: Russian troops crossed the Polish border.
September Battle of Warsaw (1831): The Russian army captured Warsaw, ending the November Uprising.
1836 The Gendarmerie of the Internal Guard was spun off as the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
1852 December The Ottoman sultan confirmed the supremacy of France and the Catholic Church over Christians in the Holy Land.
1853 3 July Russia invaded the Ottoman provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia.
4 October Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.
1854 28 March Crimean War: Britain and France declared war on Russia.
August Crimean War: In order to prevent the Austrian Empire entering the war, Russia evacuated Wallachia and Moldavia.
1855 18 February Nicholas died. His son, Alexander II, became tsar.
1856 30 March Crimean War: The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war. The Black Sea was demilitarized. Russia lost territory it had been granted at the mouth of the Danube, abandoned claims to protect Turkish Christians, and lost its influence over the Danubian Principalities.
1857 The last military settlements were disbanded.
1858 28 May The Treaty of Aigun was signed, pushing the Russo-Chinese border east to the Amur river; Tariff Act reduces import tax.
1860 18 October The Convention of Peking transferred the Ussuri krai from China to Russia.
1861 3 March Emancipation reform of 1861: Alexander issued a manifesto emancipating the serfs; Student Protests against the Tsar.
1863 22 January January Uprising: An anti-Russian uprising began in Poland; girls allowed into secondary schools and standard curriculum set.
1864 1 January Zemstva were established for the local self-government of Russian citizens.
1 May The Russian army began an incursion into the Khanate of Kokand.
21 May Caucasian War: Alexander declared the war over.
5 August January Uprising: Romuald Traugutt, the dictator of the rebellion, was hanged.
20 November Judicial reform of Alexander II: A royal decree introduced new laws unifying and liberalizing the Russian judiciary.
1865 17 June The Russian army captured Tashkent
1867 The conquered territories of Central Asia became a separate Guberniya, the Russian Turkestan.
30 March Alaska purchase: Russia agreed to the sale of Alaska to the United States of America.
1868 The Khanate of Kokand became a Russian vassal state.
1870 More vocational subjects taught to girls in schools
1873 The Narodnik rebellion began.
The Emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate.
18 May Khiva was captured by Russian troops.
12 August A peace treaty was signed that established the Khanate of Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate.
1876 March The Khanate of Kokand was incorporated into the Russian Empire.
20 April April Uprising: Bulgarian nationalists attacked the Ottoman police headquarters in Oborishte.
May Alexander signed the Ems Ukaz, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print.
8 July A secret treaty prepared for the division of the Balkans between Russia and Austria-Hungary, depending on the outcome of local revolutionary movements.
6 December Kazan demonstration: A political demonstration in front of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg marked the appearance of the revolutionary group Land and Liberty.
1877 February The Trial of the 193 occurred, punishing the participants of the Narodnik rebellion.
24 April Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
1878 3 March Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stephano was signed, concluding the war and transferring Northern Dobruja and some Caucasian territories into Russian hands. Several Slavic states, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria, received independence or autonomy.
13 July Congress of Berlin: The Treaty of Berlin, imposed on Russia by the West, divided Bulgaria into Eastern Rumelia and the Principality of Bulgaria.
1879 August Land and Liberty split into the moderate Black Repartition and the radical terrorist group People's Will.
1880 6 August The Special Corps of Gendarmes and the Third Section were disbanded; their functions and most capable officers were transferred to the new Department of State Police under the MVD.
1881 Constitution proposed, Alexander II agrees to it but doesn't get a chance to sign it
10 March Alexander was assassinated by Ignacy Hryniewiecki of the People's Will. His son, Alexander III, becomes tsar.
21 September Persia officially recognized Russia's annexation of Khwarazm in the Treaty of Akhal.
1882 Alexander III introduces factory inspections and restricts working hours for women and children
3 May Alexander III introduced the May Laws, which expelled Russian Jews from rural areas and small towns and severely restricted their access to education
1883 Peasant Land Bank set up
1890 12 June An imperial decree subordinated the zemstva to the authority of the appointed regional governors.
1891 Severe famine affects almost half of Russia's provinces
1892 Witte's Great Spurt increases industrial growth; women banned from mines and children under 12 banned from working in factories
1894 1 November Alexander III dies. His son Nicholas II succeeds him as tsar.
1898 1 March The Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) held its first Party Congress.
1900 16 July onward In response to a local trade blockade, Russia invades and occupies the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River. All 30,000 Qing Dynasty citizens are expelled from their homes and driven across the Amur River, where most drown.
6 February As part of the Russification of Finland, Nicholas issues the Language Manifesto of 1900, making Russian the official language of Finnish administration.
1901 The Socialist-Revolutionary Party was founded.
30 June Russification of Finland: The Military Service Act incorporated the Finnish and Russian armies.
1902 Russification of Finland: Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov, the Governor-General of Finland, was given the power to dismiss opponents of Russification from the Finnish government.
1903 20 March Russification of Finland: The office of the Governor-General was given dictatorial powers.
6 April Kishinev pogrom: A three-day pogrom began, which would leave forty-seven Jews dead.
17 November At the second congress of the RSDLP, the party split into two factions: the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, and the less radical Mensheviks.
1904 8 February Russo-Japanese War: Japan launched a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian navy at Port Arthur.
1905 3 January Russian Revolution of 1905: A strike began at the Putilov Works in St. Petersburg.
22 January Bloody Sunday (1905): Peaceful demonstrators arrived at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar, leading was a priest named Georgi Gapon. The Imperial Guard fired on the crowd, killing around 200 and wounding 800.
27–28 May Russo-Japanese War: The Russian Baltic Fleet was practically destroyed in the Battle of Tsushima, effectively ending the Russo-Japanese War in Japan's favour.
28 May Russian Revolution of 1905: The first soviet was formed in the midst of a textile strike in Ivanovo-Voznesensk.
14 June Russian Revolution of 1905: A mutiny occurred aboard the battleship Potemkin.
25 June Russian Revolution of 1905: The Potemkin sailors defected to Romania.
5 September Russo-Japanese War: The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed, ceding some Russian property and territory to Japan and ending the war.
17 October Russian Revolution of 1905: Nicholas signed the October Manifesto, expanding civil liberties and establishing and empowering the first State Duma of the Russian Empire.
1906 March Russian legislative election, 1906: The first free elections to the Duma gave majorities to liberal and socialist parties.
23 April The Fundamental Laws were issued, reaffirming the autocratic supremacy of the tsar.
The First Duma was called.
21 July The First Duma was dissolved.
23 July The Constitutional Democratic party (Kadets) issued the Vyborg Manifesto , calling on the Russian people to evade taxes and the draft. All signatories to the Manifesto lost their right to hold office in the Duma.
9 November A decree by Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin signaled the start of the Stolypin reform, intended to replace the obshchina with a more progressive, capitalist form of agriculture.
1907 9 February The secret police units of the MVD Department of State Police were unified under the authority of the new Okhrana.
20 February The Second Duma began. The Kadets dropped seats, benefiting the RSDLP and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
3 June The Second Duma was dissolved.
Nicholas changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral value to the votes of nobility and landowners.
1 November The Third Duma began.
1912 4 April Lena goldfields massacre: The Russian army fired on a crowd of striking miners, killing 150.
9 June The Third Duma ended.
15 November The Fourth Duma was called.
1914 28 June Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Bosnian separatist group Young Bosnia.
23 July World War I: Austria-Hungary issued the July Ultimatum to Serbia, demanding, among other things, the right to participate in the investigation into the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which Serbia refused.
28 July World War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
30 July World War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.
1 August World War I: Germany declared war on Russia in defense of Austria-Hungary.
1915 2 May Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: The German army launched an offensive across the length of the Eastern Front.
4 August Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: Germany conquered Warsaw.
19 September Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive: German forces captured Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.
1916 25 June Basmachi Revolt: Nicholas issued a decree ordering the conscription of Central Asians.
5 November By the Act of 5 November, the German government established the nominally independent Kingdom of Poland.
16 December Royal adviser Grigori Rasputin was murdered by a group of nobles in the house of Prince Felix Yussupov.
1917 22 February February Revolution: The workers at the Putilov Plant in Petrograd went on strike.
23 February February Revolution: A series of demonstrations were held, demanding the end of the Russian autocracy and the end of Russian participation in World War I.
25 February February Revolution: A battalion of soldiers was sent to Petrograd to end the uprising.
26 February February Revolution: Nicholas ordered the dissolution of the Fourth Duma. The Duma ignored his order and decreed the establishment of a Provisional Government with Georgy L'vov as Prime Minister.
27 February February Revolution: The soldiers sent to suppress the protestors defected and joined them. It started off as the "National Women's day" then, after two days, the women convinced the soldiers to join their revolution due to the fact that they were women and the soldiers did not want to kill them. On top of this, the Cossacks did not try to stop the protestors. Menshevik leaders were freed from the Peter and Paul Fortress and founded the Petrograd Soviet.
2 March February Revolution: Nicholas abdicated.
17 March A legislative council, the Tsentralna Rada, was founded in Ukraine.
30 March The Provisional Government established the autonomous province of Estonia and scheduled elections to an Estonian legislative body, the Maapäev.
10 May The Rumcherod, the Soviet government of southwestern Ukraine and Bessarabia, was established.
23 June The Tsentralna Rada ratified Ukrainian autonomy.
3 July July Days: A spontaneous pro-soviet demonstration occurred on the streets of Petrograd.
6 July July Days: The rebellion was put down. The Provisional Government ordered the arrest of Bolshevik leaders.
14 July The Maapäev took office.
21 July Alexander Kerensky succeeded L'vov as Prime Minister.
27 August Kornilov Affair: General Lavr Kornilov ordered an army corps to Petrograd to destroy the soviets.
29 August Kornilov Affair: The Provisional Government armed tens of thousands of Red Guards to defend Petrograd.
31 August Kornilov Affair: Kornilov was arrested.
4 September Under public pressure, Bolshevik leaders were released from prison.
23 October Estonian Bolsheviks under Jaan Anvelt captured the capital, Tallinn.
25 October October Revolution: Soldiers directed by the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet captured the Winter Palace, ending the power of the Russian Provisional Government.
The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets convened. Menshevik and moderate SR representatives walked out to protest the October Revolution. The Congress established and elected the Sovnarkom, and Lenin its first chairman, to run the country between sessions.
26 October The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets issued the Decree on Peace, promising an end to Russian participation in World War I, and the Decree on Land, approving the expropriation of land from the nobility.
21 November The Moldavian legislature, the Sfatul Ţării, held its first meeting.
5 December A local nationalist group, the Alash Orda, established an autonomous government in Kazakhstan.
6 December The Finnish parliament issued a declaration of independence.
7 December The Cheka was established.
12 December A Muslim republic, the Idel-Ural State, was established in central Russia.
25 December Ukrainian Bolsheviks established the Soviet Ukrainian Republic in Kharkiv.
27 December Russian Civil War: The counterrevolutionary Volunteer Army was established.
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people has been determined primarily by the area's climate and geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppe dominated the area for millennia.
Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, due to the devastating techniques and ability of their horse archers. Periodically, tribal leaders or changing conditions would organise several tribes into a single military force, which would then often launch campaigns of conquest, especially into more 'civilised' areas. A few of these types of tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, various Turkic migrations into Transoxiana, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia.
The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century as firearms allowed settled people to gain control of the region. The Russian Empire, the Qing Dynasty of China, and other powers expanded into the area and seized the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union incorporated most of Central Asia; only Mongolia and Afghanistan remained nominally independent, although Mongolia existed as a Soviet satellite state and Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in the late 20th century. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialisation and construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, five Central Asian countries gained independence — Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. In all of the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen.
1918 12 January The Tsentralna Rada declared the independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
14 January The Rumcherod declared itself the supreme power in Bessarabia.
15 January A decree of the Sovnarkom established the Red Army.
16 January The Romanian army occupied Kishinev and evicted the Rumcherod.
24 January The Moldavian Democratic Republic declared its independence from Russia.
28 January The Transcaucasian parliament held its first meeting.
After 31 January (O.S.), the Bolsheviks adopted the Gregorian calendar. All dates hereafter are given in the New Style.
18 February The Red Army conquered Kiev.
23 February Mass conscription to the Red Army began in Moscow and Petrograd.
24 February The Red Army retreated from Estonia in the face of the German armed forces.
The Transcaucasian parliament announced the independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR).
3 March Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending its participation in World War I, relinquishing Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine, and ceding to the Ottoman Empire all territory captured in the Russo-Turkish War.
6 March Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War: Two hundred British marines arrived at Murmansk.
25 March The Belarusian National Republic was established by its German occupiers.
April The Idel-Ural State was occupied and dissolved by the Red Army.
30 April The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was established on the territory of the defunct Russian Turkestan.
26 May Russian Civil War: The Czecho-Slovak Legions began its revolt against the Bolshevik government.
Georgia seceded from the TDFR.
28 May Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their mutual independence.
8 June Russian Civil War: An anti-Bolshevik government, the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, was established in Samara under the protection of the Czecho-Slovak Legions
28 June A decree by the Central Executive Committee made war communism, under which all industry and food distribution was nationalized, the economic policy of the Soviet state.
29 June Russian Civil War: The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia was established in Vladivostok.
July The Idel-Ural State was restored by the Czecho-Slovak Legions.
July Makhno declared his opposition to the Hetmanate regime by some operations in the southeastern Ukraine.
10 July The Russian Constitution of 1918 was adopted by the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets. The legislative power was transferred from the Sovnarkom to the Central Executive Committee, which also received the power to pass constitutional amendments.
17 July Nicholas and the rest of the royal family were executed on direct orders from Lenin.
30 August After giving a speech at a Moscow factory, Lenin was shot twice by SR Fanny Kaplan, but survived.
3 September Red Terror: Izvestia called on the Russian people to "crush the hydra of counterrevolution with massive terror."
23 September Russian Civil War: A meeting in Ufa established a unified anti-Bolshevik government, the Ufa Directorate.
November Makhnovists established an anarchist society run by peasants and workers in Ukraine, in the territory of Berdyansk, Donetsk, Alexandrovsk and Yekaterinoslav.
11 November World War I: An armistice treaty was signed, ending the war.
17 November Two Latvian political parties founded a provisional legislature, the Tautas Padome.
18 November A military coup overthrew the Ufa Directorate and established its war minister, Aleksandr Kolchak, as dictator.
19 November The Maapäev returned to power in Estonia.
22 November Estonian War of Independence: The Russian Red Army invaded Estonia.
24 November Béla Kun, a friend of Lenin, founded the Hungarian Communist Party.
29 November Estonian War of Independence: The Red Army captured the Estonian town of Narva. Local Bolsheviks reestablished the Anvelt government as the Commune of the Working People of Estonia.
December The Idel-Ural State was again occupied and dissolved by the Red Army.
8 December The Communist Party of Lithuania established a revolutionary government in Vilnius.
1919 1 January Local Bolsheviks established the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR).
3 January Latvian War of Independence: The Red Army invaded Latvia.
5 January The Red Army occupied Vilnius, the Lithuanian capital, in support of the local Communist government.
The Red Army captured Minsk and pronounced it the capital of the Byelorussian SSR.
16 January The Orgburo was established to oversee the membership and organization of the Communist Party.
14 February Polish–Soviet War: The Polish army attacked Soviet forces occupying the town of Biaroza.
27 February Lithuania was absorbed into the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
4 March The First Congress of the Comintern began in Moscow.
21 March Seeking a military alliance with Russia against the French, the Hungarian Social Democrats merged with the Communist Party, released Kun from prison and appointed him Commissar for Foreign Affairs. Kun dismissed the president and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
25 March The Eighth Party Congress reinstituted the Politburo as the central governing body of the Communist Party.
16 April The Romanian army invaded Hungary.
21 April Polish–Soviet War: The Polish army consolidated its control of Vilnius.
30 May An anti-Communist Hungarian government headed by Gyula Károlyi was established in Szeged.
16 June Hungarian occupiers established the Slovak Soviet Republic.
7 July The Czechoslovak army reoccupied its territory and dissolved the Slovak Soviet Republic.
1 August Threatened by the approach of the Romanian army, Kun fled to Austria.
14 August The Romanian army left the Hungarian capital, Budapest. Admiral Miklós Horthy stepped into the power vacuum with the army of the Károlyi government.
25 August Polish–Soviet War: After its total occupation by Polish forces, the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR was dissolved.
1920 2 February Estonian War of Independence: Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Tartu, renouncing all claims on Estonian territory.
An insurgency in the Khanate of Khiva forced the abdication of the Khan.
7 February Russian Civil War: Kolchak was executed by a Bolshevik military tribunal.
February the Free Territory was inundated with Red troops, including the 42nd Rifle Division and the Latvian & Estonian Red Division – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. The insurgents disarmed the 10,000-strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole.
26 March Russian Civil War: The Volunteer Army evacuated to the Crimea to join the army of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel.
25 April The Russian Eleventh Army invaded the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
26 April The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic was established on the territory of the defunct Khanate of Khiva.
28 April With the Azerbaijani capital Baku under Eleventh Army occupation, the parliament agreed to transfer power to the Communist government of the Azerbaijan SSR.
12 June The Soviet Union recognized Lithuanian independence.
8 July Polish–Soviet War: The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was established in Ternopil.
11 August Latvian War of Independence: The Treaty of Riga was signed. Soviet Russia renounced all claims on Latvian territory.
13 August Battle of Warsaw: The battle began with a Russian attack across the Vistula.
26 August The Bolsheviks defeated the government of the Alash Orda and established the Kyrgyz ASSR† (1).
31 August Battle of Warsaw: The total defeat of the Russian Fourth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Armies marked the end of the battle.
2 September The Red Army attacked Bukhara, the capital of the Emirate of Bukhara.
21 September Polish–Soviet War: The Polish army occupied Galicia and ended the rule of the Galician SSR.
25 September Makhno's Black Army suddenly turned from south to east, attacking the main forces of General Denikin's army.
26 September Makhnovists routed elements of the white Volunteer Army in the Battle of Peregonovka, Uman (Ukraine).
8 October The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was established.
14 November Russian Civil War: Wrangel fled Russia.
29 November The Eleventh Army entered Armenia.
1 December The Armenian Prime Minister ceded control of the country to the invading Communists.
1921 16 February Red Army invasion of Georgia: The Eleventh Army crossed into Georgia.
22 February Gosplan, the economic planning committee of the Soviet Union, was created by a decree of the Sovnarkom.
25 February Red Army invasion of Georgia: The Eleventh Army captured Tbilisi and announced the formation of the Georgian SSR.
28 February Kronstadt rebellion: The crews of the battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol, harbored at Kronstadt, published a list of demands on the government.
17 March Kronstadt rebellion: After over a week of fighting, government troops pacified Kronstadt.
21 March A decree of the Tenth Party Congress replaced war communism with the more liberal New Economic Policy.
18 March Polish–Soviet War: Poland and Soviet Russia signed the Peace of Riga, ending the war. The disputed territories were divided between Poland, Russia and the newly reestablished Ukrainian and Byelorussian SSRs.
July The Red Army captured Ulan Bator, the Mongolian capital.
13 July Russian famine of 1921: The writer Maxim Gorky brought world attention to the looming famine.
August Nestor Makhno's headquarters staff and several Black Army subordinate commanders were arrested and executed on the spot by a Red Army firing squad: the Makhnovist treaty delegation, still in Kharkiv, was also arrested and liquidated. Makhno's Black Army forces were defeated and dispersed by Red Army.
1922 23 February Russian famine of 1921: A decree published in Izvestia authorized the seizure of church valuables for famine relief.
12 March The Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani SSRs were merged into the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (SFSR).
3 April The Eleventh Communist Party Congress established the office of the General Secretary of the Communist Party and appointed Joseph Stalin to fill it.
16 May Tikhon, the Patriarch of Moscow, was put under house arrest.
4 August Basmachi Revolt: Enver Pasha was killed in Turkestan.
29 December The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR united its signatories, the Russian and Transcaucasian SFSRs and the Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs, under the power of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
1923 3 May A council of the pro-government Living Church declared Tikhon an apostate and abolished the Patriarchate.
15 October The Declaration of 46 was written. The Declaration echoed earlier concerns expressed by Leon Trotsky, the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council, that the Communist Party was insufficiently democratic.
1924 21 January Lenin died.
31 January The 1924 Soviet Constitution came into effect.
18 February The Thirteenth Party Congress, led by Stalin, Comintern chairman Grigory Zinoviev and Politburo chairman Lev Kamenev, denounced Trotsky and his faction, the Left Opposition.
10 October The territory of the Khorezm SSR was incorporated into the Turkestan ASSR.
12 October The Moldavian ASSR was established in the Ukrainian SSR.
14 October The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was spun off of the Turkestan ASSR and incorporated into the Russian SFSR.
27 October The Uzbek SSR was spun out of the Turkestan ASSR.
25 November The Mongolian People's Republic was established.
27 November The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was incorporated into the Uzbek SSR.
1925 6 January Trotsky was forced to resign his military offices.
19 February The lands of the Karakalpaks became the Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast, an oblast of the Kyrgyz ASSR (1).
7 April Tikhon died. The Communist government would not allow elections to the patriarchate to be held; Metropolitan Peter of Krutitsy became the Patriarchal locum tenens according to his will.
19 April The Kyrgyz ASSR (1) was renamed the Kazakh ASSR.
13 May The Uzbek SSR joined the Soviet Union.
The remainder of the Turkestan ASSR became the Turkmen SSR.
10 December Peter of Krutitsy was arrested. Sergius of Nizhny Novgorod, whom he had named to succeed him, took the title of Deputy Patriarchal locum tenens.
23 December The Fourteenth Party Congress endorsed the leadership of Stalin and his rightist ally Nikolai Bukharin, soundly defeating the New Opposition faction of Kamenev and Zinoviev.
1926 11 February The Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was reorganized into the Kyrgyz ASSR (2).
23 October Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo.
1927 25 February Article 58 of the RFSR Penal Code revised the penalties for counterrevolutionary activity.
29 July Sergius affirmed the loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet government.
12 November Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party.
2 December The Fifteenth Party Congress expelled the remainder of the United Opposition from the Party.
1928 7 March Shakhty Trial: Police arrested a group of engineers in the town of Shakhty and accused them of conspiring to sabotage the Soviet economy.
1 October First Five Year Plan: Stalin announced the beginning of state industrialisation of the Soviet economy.
1929 17 November Bukharin was expelled from the Politburo.
Collectivisation in the USSR: A Central Committee resolution began the collectivisation of Soviet agriculture.
5 December The Tajik ASSR of the Uzbek SSR became the Tajik SSR.
1930 15 April The Gulag was officially established.
20 July The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast was transferred to the Russian SFSR.
1932 20 March The Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast became the Karakalpak ASSR.
7 August Collectivisation in the USSR: The Central Executive Committee and the Sovnarkom issued the Decree about the Protection of Socialist Property, under which any theft of public property was punishable by death.
11 September Holodomor: Stalin sent a letter to a Politburo ally, Lazar Kaganovich, demanding the subjection of the Ukrainian SSR.
27 December A decree by the Central Executive Committee and the Sovnarkom established a passport system in the Soviet Union.
31 December First Five-Year Plan: It was announced that the plan had been fulfilled.
1933 22 January Holodomor: Police were instructed to prevent Ukrainian peasants from leaving their homes in search of food.
1934 8 February Elections to the Central Committee at the Seventeenth Party Congress revealed Sergey Kirov, the chief of the Leningrad Party, to be the most popular member.
10 July The Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB) was established under the NKVD as a successor to the OGPU.
1 December Kirov was murdered by Leonid Nikolaev, possibly at the behest of Stalin.
1935 31 August Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov was reported to have mined over one hundred tons of coal in a single shift, sowing the seeds of the Stakhanovite movement.
1936 19 August Moscow Trials: The Trial of the Sixteen, in which Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev were the primary defendants, began.
25 August Moscow Trials: The defendants in the Trial of the Sixteen were executed.
5 December The Stalin Constitution came into effect. The Central Executive Committee was renamed the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
The Kyrgyz ASSR (2) became a Union-level republic, the Kyrgyz SSR.
The Kazakh ASSR became the Kazakh SSR.
The territory of the Karakalpak ASSR was incorporated into the Uzbek SSR.
1937 23 January Moscow Trials: The Second Trial began.
30 January Moscow Trials: The Second Trial ended. Of seventeen defendants, all but four were sentenced to death.
22 May Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization: Mikhail Tukhachevsky, a Marshal of the Soviet Union and hero of the Russian Civil War, was arrested.
12 June Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization: Tukhachevsky was executed, with eight other military leaders.
30 July Great Purge: NKVD Order № 00447 was issued. The order established a new judicial method, the NKVD troika, and set nationwide quotas for the execution and enslavement of "anti-Soviet elements."
11 August Polish operation of the NKVD: The NKVD chief signed Order № 00485, classifying all potential Polish nationalists as enemies of the state.
15 August Great Purge: NKVD Order № 00486 made relatives of accused traitors subject to imprisonment in labor camps.
10 October Peter of Krutitsy was executed in solitary confinement.
1938 A new decree required the teaching of Russian in all non-Russian schools.
2 March Trial of the Twenty One: The third Moscow Trial, at which Bukharin was the primary defendant, began.
15 March Trial of the Twenty One: The defendants were executed.
29 July Battle of Lake Khasan: The armed forces of Japanese Manchukuo attacked the Soviet military at Lake Khasan.
31 August Battle of Lake Khasan: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat.
1939 23 August The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed, promising mutual non-aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and agreeing to a division of much of Europe between those two countries.
17 September Soviet invasion of Poland (1939): The Red Army invaded Poland.
22 October Elections were held to the Supreme Soviets of the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.
26 November Shelling of Mainila: The Red Army shelled the Russian village of Mainila and blamed the Finns for invented casualties.
30 November Winter War: The Soviet army attacked Finland.
1 December Winter War: The Soviet Union established the Finnish Democratic Republic in the border town of Terijoki.
1940 5 March Katyn massacre: The Politburo signed an order to execute 27,500 imprisoned Polish nationals.
12 March Winter War: The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed, ending the war at great cost to Finland and anticipating the evacuation of Finnish Karelia.
31 March The Karelian ASSR merged with the Finnish Democratic Republic into the Karelo-Finnish SSR.
15 June The Red Army occupied Lithuania.
17 June The Red Army occupied Estonia and Latvia.
28 June Soviet occupation of Bessarabia: Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Union.
21 July Lithuania became the Lithuanian SSR; Latvia became the Latvian SSR.
2 August The Moldavian ASSR became the Moldavian SSR, with much of its territory on the former Bessarabia and Bukovina. The old territory of the Moldavian ASSR remained in the Ukrainian SSR.
3 August The Lithuanian SSR was accepted into the Soviet Union.
5 August The Latvian SSR was annexed by the Soviet Union.
6 August Estonia became the Estonian SSR and was incorporated into the Soviet Union.
21 August Trotsky is assassinated by Ramon Mercador on Stalin's orders.
1941 13 April Soviet-Japanese Border Wars: A Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact was signed.
22 June Operation Barbarossa: Three million Axis soldiers invaded the Soviet Union.
Lithuanian 1941 independence: The Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF) began an uprising against the Soviet government.
24 June Lithuanian 1941 independence: The LAF government took power in Lithuania.
25 June Continuation War: The Soviet Union launched a major air offensive against Finnish targets.
28 June Operation Barbarossa: The Germans captured Minsk.
27 July Operation Barbarossa: The German and Romanian armies entered Kishinev.
21 August Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: Three Soviet armies invaded Iran from the north.
8 September Siege of Leningrad: The German army cut the last land tie to Leningrad.
17 September Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran: The Soviet and British armed forces met in Tehran.
19 September Operation Barbarossa: Kiev fell to the Germans.
2 October Battle of Moscow: Three German armies began an advance on Moscow.
20 November Siege of Leningrad: The first food was carried into Leningrad across the Road of Life on the frozen Lake Ladoga.
5 December Battle of Moscow: The Soviet army launched a counterattack from Kalinin.
1942 7 January Battle of Moscow: The Soviet counteroffensive ended between sixty and one-hundred fifty miles from Moscow.
21 August Battle of Stalingrad: The German Luftwaffe began a bombing raid against Stalingrad.
19 November Operation Uranus: The Soviet army began a pincer movement against the German forces besieging Stalingrad.
22 November Operation Uranus: The German Sixth Army was surrounded.
1943 12 January Operation Spark (1943): The Soviet army launched a military offensive to break the Siege of Leningrad.
18 January Operation Spark (1943): The meeting of the Leningrad and Volkhov Front units opened a land corridor to Leningrad.
2 February Battle of Stalingrad: The German Sixth Army surrendered.
15 May The Comintern was dissolved.
8 September Stalin allowed a church council, which unanimously elected Sergius to the Patriarchate of Moscow.
6 November The Russians recaptured Kiev.
1944 6 January The Red Army crossed into Poland.
27 January Siege of Leningrad: The last German forces were expelled from the city.
15 May Sergius died.
21 July The Communist Lublin Government of Poland was established.
1 August Warsaw Uprising: The Polish Home Army began an attack on German forces in Warsaw.
22 August Warsaw Uprising: Stalin denied the Allies use of his landing strips to supply aid to the insurgents.
23 August Michael I of Romania led a coup against the military dictatorship of Ion Antonescu.
31 August Soviet occupation of Romania: The Red Army captured Bucharest.
12 September Romania signed an armistice with the Allies, placing itself under the command of an Allied Commission led by Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky.
19 September Continuation War: The Moscow Armistice was signed, ending the war at roughly the prewar borders.
21 September Soviet and Czechoslovak partisan armed forces entered German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
2 October Warsaw Uprising: The leader of the Uprising signed a surrender agreement.
14 November The Committee for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia was established in Prague.
31 December The Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland (RTRP), which incorporated token non-Communists into the preexisting Lublin Government, was established.
1945 17 January The Soviet Union captured Warsaw.
18 January The Soviet Union captured Budapest.
2 February Alexius I was elected Patriarch of Moscow.
11 February The Soviet Union gained the right to Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands at the Yalta Conference
6 March Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Rădescu was forced to resign his office to Petru Groza of the Ploughmen's Front.
4 April The government of the Third Czechoslovakian Republic was established in Košice.
20 April Battle of Berlin: The Soviet army began shelling Berlin.
21 April The RTRP ceded control of Poland's internal security apparatus to the Soviet government for forty years.
2 May Battle of Berlin: The defenders of Berlin surrendered to the Soviet Union.
9 May The Soviet army captured Prague.
18 June Trial of the Sixteen: Leaders of the Polish Secret State were tried in the Soviet Union for collaboration.
21 June Trial of the Sixteen: The defendants were sentenced.
28 June The coalition Provisional Government of National Unity (TRJN) was established in Poland.
5 July The United States recognized the TRJN.
2 August The Potsdam Agreement moved Poland's borders to the west and established the shape of occupied Germany.
16 August Invasion of Manchuria: Soviet armed forces landed on Sakhalin.
18 August Invasion of Manchuria: Soviet amphibious forces landed in Korea.
20 August Invasion of Manchuria: The Soviet Union captured Changchun, the capital of Manchukuo.
25 August Invasion of Manchuria: The Soviet Union captured Sakhalin's capital.
November The Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan People's Government in Iranian Azerbaijan.
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