Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods
Study quote: By directly studying ancient DNA from ancient Egyptians, we can test previous hypotheses drawn from analysing modern Egyptian DNA, such as recent admixture from populations with sub-Saharan and non-African ancestries, attributed to trans-Saharan slave trade and the Islamic expansion, respectively. On a more local scale, we aim to study changes and continuities in the genetic makeup of the ancient inhabitants of the Abusir el-Meleq community (Fig. 1), since all sampled remains derive from this community in Middle Egypt and have been radiocarbon dated to the late New Kingdom to the Roman Period (cal. 1388BCE–426CE, Supplementary Data 1). In particular, we seek to determine if the inhabitants of this settlement were affected at the genetic level by foreign conquest and domination, especially during the Ptolemaic (332–30BCE) and Roman (30BCE–395CE) Periods.
1) MODERN Egyptians have a lot of SUB-SAHARAN genes.
2) ANCIENT Egyptians had a lot of ANATOLIAN and EUROPEAN genes.
NOTE: (Anatolia, Byzantium, Eastern Roman Empire, Home country of the Ottoman Empire - all refer to the peninsula that is now called Turkey (since 1923).
3) ANCIENT Egyptians had a lot of TURKISH genes.
Study quote: To test for genetic differentiation and homogeneity we compared haplogroup composition, calculated FST-statistics28 and applied a test for population continuity29 (Supplementary Table 2, Supplementary Data 3,4) on mitochondrial genome data from the three ancient and two modern-day populations from Egypt and Ethiopia, published by Pagani and colleagues17, including 100 modern Egyptian and 125 modern Ethiopian samples (Fig. 3a). We furthermore included data from the El-Hayez oasis published by Kujanová and colleagues30. We observe highly similar haplogroup profiles between the three ancient groups (Fig. 3a), supported by low FST values (<0.05) and P values >0.1 for the continuity test.
Modern Egyptians share this profile but in addition show a marked increase of African mtDNA lineages L0–L4 up to 20% (consistent with nuclear estimates of 80% non-African ancestry reported in Pagani et al.17). Genetic continuity between ancient and modern Egyptians cannot be ruled out by our formal test despite this sub-Saharan African influx, while continuity with modern Ethiopians 17, who carry >60% African L lineages, is not supported (Supplementary Data 5).
To further test genetic affinities and shared ancestry with modern-day African and West Eurasian populations we performed a principal component analysis (PCA) based on haplogroup frequencies and Multidimensional Scaling of pairwise genetic distances. We find that all three ancient Egyptian groups cluster together (Fig. 3b), supporting genetic continuity across our 1,300-year transect. Both analyses reveal higher affinities with modern populations from the Near East and the Levant compared to modern Egyptians (Fig. 3b,c).
The affinity to the Middle East finds further support by the Y-chromosome haplogroups of the three individuals for which genome-wide data was obtained, two of which could be assigned to the Middle-Eastern haplogroup J, and one to haplogroup E1b1b1 common in North Africa (Supplementary Table 3).
Wikipedia (E1b1b): E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is a division of the macro-haplogroup E-M96, which is defined by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation M215. In other words, it is one of the major patrilineages of humanity, linking from father-to-son back to a common male-line ancestor ("Y-chromosomal Adam"). It is a subject of discussion and study in genetics as well as genetic genealogy, archaeology, and historical linguistics.
The E-M215 haplogroup has two ancient branches that contain all the known modern E-M215, E-M35 and E-M281 subclades. Of the latter two, the only branch that has been confirmed in a native population outside of Ethiopia is E-M35. E-M35 in turn has two known branches, haplogroup E-V68 and haplogroup E-Z827, which contain by far the majority of all modern E-M215 carrying men. E-V68 and E-V257 have been found in highest numbers in North Africa and the Horn of Africa, but also in lower numbers in parts of the Middle East and Europe, and in isolated populations of Southern Africa.
Wikipedia quote: Haplogroup L3 descendants notwithstanding, the designation "haplogroup L" is typically used to designate the family of mtDNA clades that are most frequently found in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, all non-African haplogroups coalesce onto either haplogroup M or haplogroup N, and both these macrohaplogroups are simply sub-branches of haplogroup L3. Consequently, L in its broadest definition is really a paragroup containing all of modern humanity, and all human mitochondrial DNA from around the world are subclades of haplogroup L.
Wikipedia quote: Haplogroup J-M304 is found in its greatest concentration in the Arabian peninsula. Outside of this region, haplogroup J-M304 has a significant presence in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. It also has a moderate occurrence in Southern Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece and Albania. The J-M410 subclade is mostly distributed in Anatolia, Greece and southern Italy. Additionally, J-M304 is observed in Central Asia and South Asia, particularly in the form of its subclade J-M172. J-12f2 and J-P19 are also found among the Herero (8%). Basal J*(xJ1,J2) is found at its highest frequencies among the Soqotri (71.4%).
In Ethiopia, haplogroup J has been found to be strongly associated with elite endurance. J sublineages are the most common paternal clades borne by such athletes (30% of 5K-10K runners; 43% of marathon runners), with a lower frequency in the general population (25%).
Map of Egypt, showing the archaeological site of Abusir-el Meleq (orange X), and the location of the modern Egyptian samples used in the study (orange circles).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The people of the oasis, or the Waātī people (meaning "of the oasis" in Arabic), are the descendants of the ancient people who inhabited the oasis, Bedouin tribes from Libya and the north coast, and other people from the Nile Valley who came to settle in the oasis.
The majority of Waātī people in Bahariya are Muslims. There are some mosques in Bahariya. The nature of social settings in the oasis is highly influenced by Islam.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Banha is the capital of the Qalyubia Governorate in north-eastern Egypt. Located between the capital of Cairo and Alexandria, Banha is an important transport hub in the Nile Delta, as rail lines from Cairo to various cities in the Nile Delta pass through Banha.
El Mahalla El Kubra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
El Mahalla El Kubra – commonly shortened to El Maalla – is a large industrial and agricultural city in Egypt, located in the middle of the Nile Delta on the western bank of the Damietta Branch tributary. The city is known for its textile industry. It is the largest city of the Gharbia Governorate and the second largest in the Nile Delta, with a population of 535,278 as of 2012.
|TRANSLATED FROM GERMAN WIKI:
Abu Sir al-Malaq (also Abusir el-Meleq, Abusir el-Melek ) is a place on the west bank of the lower Nile near the entrance to the Fayyum Basin.
The site served as the burial site of the late Negade Culture (IId2-IIIB) and was re-occupied in the Hyksos period, the Saitian and Roman periods.
The prehistoric cemetery was liberated from 1905 to 1906 by the German Orient Society under the direction of Georg Möller. The dead lay without coffin in squatting on the left in oval pits. As a supplement , clay vessels and fire-brigades were found. A special feature is a vessel in the form of a camel.
The graves of the Hyksos period were dated by scarabs with royal names and contained skeletal skeletons which were determined anthropologically as belonging to the Semitic family of peoples.
From the 25th dynasty comes the untroubled tomb of Tadja, which is now in Berlin . Systematic excavations took place on the spot only at the beginning of the 20th century. Otherwise, the necropolis has been systematically plundered and destroyed since then, and burials (especially coffins), which are stolen there, always appear in the art trade.
Quote from the Study: Modern Egyptians share this profile but in addition show a marked increase of African mtDNA lineages L0–L4 up to 20% (consistent with nuclear estimates of 80% non-African ancestry reported in Pagani et al.17).
That 80% NON-AFRICAN ancestry, is due to the fact that MOST MODERN North Africans and Middle-Easterners, are the Mulattoes of TURKS and native Blacks the Turks conquered or controlled, leading to, and during, the Ottoman Empire.
History of Turkey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from History of the Turkish people)
See History of the Republic of Turkey for the history of the modern state. The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey). For times predating the Ottoman period, a distinction must be made between the history of the Turkic peoples, and the history of the territories now forming the Republic of Turkey, essentially the histories of ancient Anatolia and Thrace. The name Turkey is derived from Middle Latin Turchia, i.e. the "land of the Turks", historically referring to an entirely different territory of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which fell under the control of Turkic peoples in the early medieval period. From the time when parts of what is now Turkey was conquered by Turks, the history of Turkey spans the medieval history of the Seljuk Empire, the medieval to modern history of the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Republic of Turkey since the 1920s.
Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Turkestan and what is now Mongolia towards Eastern Europe, Iranian plateau and Anatolia and modern Turkey in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, they established their own state and later created the Ottoman Empire. The main migration occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East. They also participated in the Crusades.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling the Muslim, as opposed to shamanist or Christian, Oghuz the Turkmens. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim.
The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area (Central Asia) after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes. Today the residents of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Khorezm, Turkmens of Afghanistan, Balkans, Iraq and Syria are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (also known as southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family. Comment - why this Albino source fails to include the residents of Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel (Jews are Khazar Turks), Palestine, etc. as being Turk is unknown and incorrect.
In the 9th century, the Oghuzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west. In the 10th century, they inhabited the steppe of the rivers Sari-su, Turgai, and Emba to the north of Lake Balkhash of modern-day Kazakhstan. A clan of this nation, the Seljuks, embraced Islam and in the 11th century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire. Similarly in the 11th century, a Tengriist Oghuz clan—referred to as Uzes or Torks in the Russian chronicles—overthrew Pecheneg supremacy in the Russian steppe. Harried by another Turkic people, the Kipchaks, these Oghuz penetrated as far as the lower Danube, crossed it and invaded the Balkans, where they were either crushed or struck down by an outbreak of plague, causing the survivors either to flee or to join the Byzantine imperial forces as mercenaries (1065).
"The Ottoman dynasty, which gradually took over Anatolia after the fall of the Seljuks, toward the end of the 13th century, led an army that was also predominantly Oghuz."
Mass migrations of the Oghuz into Western Eurasia occurred from the early part of the 9th Century CE onwards. For example, during the period of the Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun (813–833), the name Oghuz starts to appear in the works of Islamic writers. The Book of Dede Korkut, a historical epic of the Oghuz, contains historical echoes of the 9th and 10th centuries but was likely written several centuries later.
At the beginning of the "MODERN ERA" (the transition from year 1 B.C. (Before Christ) to year 1 A.D. (anno Domini), a Latin phrase meaning “in the year of our Lord.” Egypt was still ruled by Romans and most parts East were ruled by the Sassanian Persians.
Meanwhile - Arabia was not a densely populated place, so when the Prophet Muhammad began his wars of conquest in 627 A.D, there were not enough Arabs to man his Army. Consequently he mustered-up whomever agreed to take part, and divide the booty - these soldiers were called "Mawali" (non-Arab Muslims). From very early on, these Black Arabs were very fond of the Turkish Slave Soldiers (Mamluks) they IMPORTED from the home of the Turks - Central Asia:
Over the following centuries Turks abandoned Asia, and migrated to the West. In 1055 The Arab caliph al-Qa'im was REPLACED as the leader of Islam by the Turk chieftain Toghril Beg; and after protracted negotiation ensuring restoration of the caliph's dignity after Shi'ite subjugation, Toghril entered Baghdad in December 1055. The Arab caliph enthroned him and married a Seljuq princess. In 1250 A.D. The Mamluks rebelled and established their own dynasty in Egypt. In about 1299 A.D. the Turks created the Ottoman Empire, it lasted until the end of World War I (1922/1923).
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
2) Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
3) Integrative Transcriptomics, Center for Bioinformatics, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
4) Department for Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
5) Division of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, UK.
6) Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-679 Warsaw, Poland.
7) Berlin Society of Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, 10997 Berlin, Germany.
8) DFG Centre for Advanced Studies 'Words, Bones, Genes, Tools: Tracking Linguistic, Cultural and Biological Trajectories of the Human Past', University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
9) School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.
Archaeologists in Egypt say they’ve discovered not one, but two beautifully decorated ancient tombs near the historic city of Luxor.
By Macrina Cooper-White - 03/12/2015 01:29 pm ET | Updated Mar 13, 2015
The tombs, found earlier this month in the Sheikh Abd el-Qurna (‘Tombs of the Nobles’) archaeological site, are believed to date back to the 18th Dynasty of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1543-1292 B.C.), according to a written statement from The American Research Center in Egypt. Both were covered in hieroglyphics and colorful murals on plaster depicting the tomb’s owners, who are believed to be father and son.
Both tombs contain debris and evidence of ancient looting and vandalism, according to the statement. The tombs share a courtyard with the Tomb of Djehuty, which was commissioned by a royal cupbearer for the pharaohs Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III, Discovery reported.
A god’s doorkeeper and his wife. The first tomb, discovered on Mar. 2, belongs to an Amenhotep (doorkeeper to the Egyptian god Amun) surnamed Rabiu, and his wife, Satamen.
Amenhotep’s son and his wife. The second tomb, discovered Mar. 10, belongs to Sa-mut, the son of Amenhotep and Satamen, and his wife, Ta-Khaeet.
Note that the (Pure-Blood) Egyptian examining this tomb, looks just like the people depicted in the tomb from over 3,000 years ago. Clearly there IS genetic continuity with "Real" (Black) Egyptians.
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