Human evolution is obvious in certain Andes mountains tribes-people, rarely much over five feet tall, who are possessing of square powerful torsos with short arms and legs. Perfect build for carrying heavy loads up and down steep mountainsides.
It studies the Calchaquíes (who live at 2300 mt. high) and neighboring Collas (who live at 3500 mt. high).
Albinos of course, want us to think that they are Inca's, which is certainly false: By picture and artifact we know that the Inca, and the Peruvian civilizations before them, were normal phenotype Black people.
What is surprising about the Andean's is that the Sherpa's, (load bearers of Tibet/Nepal - Himalayas), do NOT appear to have developed this same phenotype.
That may be because Himalayan people have not lived the Terraced farming lifestyle for very long - comparatively
Terraced farming was developed by the Wari' and other peoples of the south-central Andes before 1000 AD, centuries before they were used by the Inca, who adopted them. The terraces were built to make the most efficient use of shallow soil and to enable irrigation of crops.
The Inca built on these, developing a system of canals, aqueducts, and puquios to direct water through dry land and increase fertility levels and growth. These terraced farms are found wherever mountain villages have existed in the Andes. They provided the food necessary to support the populations of great Inca cities and religious centres such as Machu Picchu.
With our current understanding of Pre-Columbian Americas history, it is not unthinkable that these Andeans were part of the Worker/Slave class in American society: in Spanish times - Mitayos - which were a Spanish continuation of Inca practice.
There are two distinct genetically determined types of earwax: the wet type, which is dominant, and the dry type, which is recessive. While Asians and (some) Native Americans are more likely to have the dry type of cerumen (gray and flaky), African and European people are more likely to have the wet type (honey-brown to dark-brown and moist). Cerumen type has been used by anthropologists to track human migratory patterns, such as those of the Eskimos. In Japan, wet-type earwax is more prevalent among the Ainu, in contrast to that country's Yamato majority. The consistency of wet type earwax is due to the higher concentration of lipid and pigment granules (50% lipid) in the substance than the dry type (30% lipid).
ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC11 gene. This ABC full transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The product of this gene participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids, and cyclic nucleotides. In addition, an SNP in this gene is responsible for determination of human earwax type and presence of underarm odour.
The history of the migration of humans can be traced back using the ABCC11 gene alleles. The variation between ear wax and body odor in ethnicities around the world are specifically due to the ABCC11 gene alleles. . Dominant inheritance of the GG or GA genotype is observed while the AA genotype is recessive. The phenotypes expressed by the genotypes include cerumen type (wet or dry ear wax), osmidrosis (odor associated with sweat caused by excessive apocrine secretion), and breast cancer risk, although there is ongoing debate on whether if there is a real correlation of the wet ear wax phenotype to breast cancer susceptibility. The GG or GA genotype produces the wet ear wax phenotype (sticky and brown colored) and acrid sweat odor and is the dominant allele.
Note this phenotype requires only the presence of one guanine. The homozygous recessive AA genotype produces the dry ear wax phenotype (dry and flaky) and mildly odored sweat. It is hypothesized that 40,000 years ago, an ancient northern Mongoloid tribe evolved the dry ear wax phenotype that followed a spread of the dry ear wax allele to other regions of Asia via migration of the ancient tribe. The gene spread as a result of it being a beneficial adaption or through an evolutionary neutral mutation mechanism that went through genetic drift events.
The frequency of alleles for dry ear wax and odorless sweat is most concentrated in Northeast Asia, most notably China, Korea, Mongolia, and mainland Japan. Conversely the frequency of the allele for wet ear wax and odored sweat are highest in African-American and sub-saharan populations. A downward gradient of dry ear wax allele phenotypes can be drawn from northern China to southern Asia and a downward gradient can also be drawn from eastern Siberia to western Europe. The allele frequencies within ethnicities continued to be maintained because the ABCC11 gene is inherited as a haplotype, a group of genes or alleles that tend to be inherited as a single unit.
Sinodonty and Sundadonty are two patterns of features widely found in the dentitions of different populations in East Asia. These two patterns were identified by anthropologist Christy G. Turner II as being within the greater "Mongoloid dental complex" (first Albino lie - Papuans and Australians are NOT Mongol). Sundadonty is regarded as having a more generalised, Australoid morphology and having a longer ancestry than its offspring, Sinodonty.
The combining forms Sino- and Sunda- refer to China and Sundaland, respectively, while -dont refers to teeth.
Distribution of sinodonts and sundadonts in Asia, shown by yellow and red. Also shown are australoids, indicated by A, and negritos, indicated by N.
Turner found the Sundadont pattern in the skeletal remains of Jōmon people of Japan - (the original Black settlers of Japan) and in living populations of Taiwanese aborigines, Filipinos, Indonesians, Thais, Borneans, Laotians, and Malaysians (modern mulatto populations).
By contrast, he found the Sinodont pattern in the Han Chinese, in the inhabitants of Mongolia and eastern Siberia, in the Native Americans (which native Americans?), and in the Yayoi people of Japan: (it is well known that the Yayoi were a Chinese people who invaded the Black Japan of the Jomon and Ainu in 350 B.C. - yet these Albinos are acting dumb?).
Sinodonty is a particular pattern of teeth characterized by the following features:
The upper first two incisors are not aligned with the other teeth, but are rotated a few degrees inward and are shovel-shaped.
The upper first premolar has one root (whereas the upper first premolar in Caucasians normally has two roots), and the lower first molar in Sinodonts has three roots (whereas it has two roots in Caucasoid teeth).
Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EDAR gene. EDAR is a cell surface receptor for ectodysplasin A, which plays an important role in the development of ectodermal tissues such as the skin. It is structurally related to members of the TNF receptor superfamily.
EDAR and other genes provide instructions for making proteins that work together during embryonic development. These proteins form part of a signaling pathway that is critical for the interaction between two cell layers, the ectoderm and the mesoderm. In the early embryo, these cell layers form the basis for many of the body's organs and tissues. Ectoderm-mesoderm interactions are essential for the proper formation of several structures that arise from the ectoderm, including the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands.
A point mutation in EDAR, 370A, found in most East Asians but not common in African or European populations, is thought to be responsible for a number of differences between these populations, including the thicker hair, more numerous sweat glands, smaller breasts, and dentition characteristic of East Asians. The 370A mutation arose in humans approximately 30,000 years ago, and now is found in 93% of Han Chinese and in the majority of people in nearby Asian populations.
East Asians to the north of Sunda (i.e. Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Mongolians) all have Sinodonty (dental shoveling). In general people belonging to Mongoloid groups (North Eastern Asians and, also (some) American Indians) have the highest frequency of shoveled incisors while the rest of the world has chiseled ones. Shoveling is caused by the Ectodysplasin receptor gene (EDAR), also associated with hair thickness and the size and quantity of sweat and mammary glands. It is frequent in Asian populations and absent in Europeans, Africans, Denisovans and the Mal'ta remains from Siberia who carry the ancestral allele.
Male Sinodont Mongoloid (Japanese) and female Sinodont Mongoloid (Kalmyk - The Kalmyk are a branch of the Oirats, Mongols whose ancient grazing-lands spanned present-day parts of Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and China.)
Male Sundadont Mongoloid (Filipino) and female Sundadont Mongoloid (Indonesian)
|Click for Realhistoryww Home Page|