The Genus and species to which all modern human beings (Homo-sapien-sapien), belong and to which are attributable fossil remains of humans in Africa, from 400,000 years ago or more. (In Qesem Cave near Rosh Haayin, in central Israel, human teeth were found indicating the existence of modern man (Homo sapiens) in Israel as early as about 400,000 years ago; thus proving that modern man is much older than 400,000 years). Homo sapiens are distinguished from other animals and from earlier humanoid species by characteristics and habits such as bipedal stance and gait, brain capacity averaging about 82 cubic inches, high forehead, small teeth and jaw, defined chin, construction and use of tools, and the ability to make use of symbols such as used in language and writing. Some of these features were possessed by the immediate ancestor, Homo erectus; but in the aggregate they are characteristic only of Homo sapiens.
Caucasian race From -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Among the earliest anatomically modern human settlements in Europe were established in Kostenki-Borshchevo, Voronezh Oblast in southwestern Russia. Ancient DNA sequencing of a 37,000-year-old male skeleton from the area, Kostenki XIV or Markina Gora, indicates that these early settlers possessed a similar genetic makeup as modern Europeans, but had dark skin and dark eyes. They also possessed slightly more Neanderthal genes than modern populations in Europe and Asia due to interbreeding with Neanderthals over 45,000 years ago. In a study of Cro-Magnon crania, Jantz and Owsley (2003) have noted that these "Upper Paleolithic crania are, for the most part, larger and more generalized versions of recent Europeans."
History rewritten: Europeans were “born” in the Bronze Age - The biggest DNA study on ancient people rewrites European history.
Modern Europeans were born in the Bronze Age after a large wave of immigration by a nomadic people known as Yamnaya who came from the Russian steppe. It happened in the third millennium BC. "This is where we begin. We see that a large part of the modern European, genetically start here, "says study leader Eske Willerslev, who is a professor at the Centre for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum of Denmark. The find probably marks the end of more than 100 years of archaeological debate over whether the great cultural upheaval seen in the Bronze Age (2700 BC. to 500 BC.) was driven by ideas or by immigration.
"It is completely ground breaking, and the entire history must now be rewritten into a story of mobility and human expansion," says archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen from Gothenburg University. He led the archaeological part of the study. By extracting and identifying genetic material from 101 Bronze Age people excavated in Europe and Asia, the scientists were able to see who Bronze Age people were and how they were related."This is the largest study ever -- more than double that of all previous studies combined -- and for the first time we can make population studies on fossil genetics," says Assistant Professor Morten E. Allentoft from the Centre for GeoGenetics. The study has just been published in Nature alongside a similar study, led by Professor David Reich from Harvard Medical School, which maps the DNA of 69 Bronze Age people and supports the same conclusions.
The last few years were an intense race between Willerslev and Reich to be the first to map and analyse the European’s ancient genetic material.
They have already shown that modern Europeans share the genetic components of the early hunters but with the arrival of farming culture about 8500 years ago, there was a mixing with new genetic components. This shows up as a genetic difference between southern and northern Europe. Neolithic people (4000-1700 BC) resemble us more but there is still something missing, and last year it became clear to scientists that there must have been a third wave of migration. This was a migration to northern Europe, which could explain the genetic differences between northern and southern Europeans today.
This is where the new study comes in. The final piece of the puzzle. It took a huge effort, but Willerslev and colleagues managed to collect bones from all over Central Europe; from Denmark, Germany, Poland, Romania and Italy, and east to Georgia, Russia, and Lake Baikal in Siberia. The age of the bones spanned five millennia, from 6,000 to 900 BC. "In order to get these 101 samples, we’ve gone through over 600 samples and tested for DNA. All of the samples that could be used have a well-documented archaeological context so we mapped the DNA and dated them," says Allentoft.
The researchers discovered that the early European Bronze Age skeletons had a new genetic component that was not inherited from the early farmers or hunters. "Whether the sample was taken in Germany, Poland, Denmark or Sweden, we see the same component, and we can show that it comes from the Caucasus," says Allentoft. The component matches that of the relatively unknown steppe people, the Yamnaya, who were nomads from thousands of kilometres north of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.Reichs and Willerslev's research groups agree that the Yamnaya tribe migrated west into northern Europe around 5,000 years ago. Previous archaeological findings have shown that changes occurred in northern Europe around the same time.
The Yamnaya brought a completely new social structure with them, says Kristiansen. "Pastoral people are more collective and live in villages, but with [the Yamnaya] there’s a much more individualistic culture, organised in nuclear families. You can see the change in the funeral rituals they introduce, such as the family burial mounds," he says. The Yamnaya were a nomadic people who brought livestock with them and used horses to pull wagons that carried all their belongings. They burned forests to create grazing land until about 2000 BC when they began to settle down."But we see individual households with family farms and not villages," says Kristiansen and points to a fundamental change of Europeans both culturally and genetically. "They are our main ancestor," he says.
Willerslev and colleagues also looked at developments in Asia, which proved to have been much more dramatic than those in Europe. Here, the first Yamnaya replaced the existing people, and then around 1,000 years later Yamnaya in Central Asia are abruptly replaced by a warlike people called Sintashta. The new study strongly supports the “steppe hypothesis”, which claims that the Indo-European languages spread with these steppe people as late as 3,700 to 2,000 BC.
With large pieces of the puzzle beginning to fall into place, new questions open up -- such as what triggered that Yamnaya culture to migrate in the first place. Kristiansen explains the current belief is that there was a decrease in farmers about 100 to 200 years before the Yamnaya migrated. One hypothesis is that these communities were hit by illness or crop failure and famine, which provided space for the Yamnaya. The new studies set the stage for further work, to map genetic material deeper back in time, as well as our more recent history."We can for example see the formation of the modern Dane is not quite complete 2,000 years ago," says Willerslev. "It could be really interesting to see what happens later in the Iron Age and Viking times."
New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. Scientists have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today. New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. A team at the University of Copenhagen have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6- 10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye colour of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.
What is the genetic mutation
"Originally, we all had brown eyes," said Professor Hans Eiberg from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. "But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a "switch," which literally "turned off" the ability to produce brown eyes." The OCA2 gene codes for the so-called P protein, which is involved in the production of melanin, the pigment that gives colour to our hair, eyes and skin. The "switch," which is located in the gene adjacent to OCA2 does not, however, turn off the gene entirely, but rather limits its action to reducing the production of melanin in the iris -- effectively "diluting" brown eyes to blue. The switch's effect on OCA2 is very specific therefore. If the OCA2 gene had been completely destroyed or turned off, human beings would be without melanin in their hair, eyes or skin colour - a condition known as albinism.
Variation in the colour of the eyes from brown to green can all be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes. "From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestor," says Professor Eiberg. "They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA." Brown-eyed individuals, by contrast, have considerable individual variation in the area of their DNA that controls melanin production.
Professor Eiberg and his team examined mitochondrial DNA and compared the eye colour of blue-eyed individuals in countries as diverse as Jordan, Denmark and Turkey. His findings are the latest in a decade of genetic research, which began in 1996, when Professor Eiberg first implicated the OCA2 gene as being responsible for eye colour.
Nature shuffles our genes:
The mutation of brown eyes to blue represents neither a positive nor a negative mutation. It is one of several mutations such as hair colour, baldness, freckles and beauty spots, which neither increases nor reduces a human's chance of survival. As Professor Eiberg says, "it simply shows that nature is constantly shuffling the human genome, creating a genetic cocktail of human chromosomes and trying out different changes as it does so."
By Ann GibbonsApr. 2, 2015 , 5:00 PM
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI—Most of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people. But a new study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently. The work, presented here last week at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offers dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago. The origins of Europeans have come into sharp focus in the past year as researchers have sequenced the genomes of ancient populations, rather than only a few individuals. By comparing key parts of the DNA across the genomes of 83 ancient individuals from archaeological sites throughout Europe, the international team of researchers reported earlier this year that Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers who moved into Europe in separate migrations over the past 8000 years. The study revealed that a massive migration of Yamnaya herders from the steppes north of the Black Sea may have brought Indo-European languages to Europe about 4500 years ago.
Now, a new study from the same team drills down further into that remarkable data to search for genes that were under strong natural selection—including traits so favorable that they spread rapidly throughout Europe in the past 8000 years. By comparing the ancient European genomes with those of recent ones from the 1000 Genomes Project, population geneticist Iain Mathieson, a postdoc in the Harvard University lab of population geneticist David Reich, found five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation that underwent strong natural selection.
First, the scientists confirmed an earlier report that the hunter-gatherers in Europe could not digest the sugars in milk 8000 years ago, according to a poster. They also noted an interesting twist: The first farmers also couldn’t digest milk. The farmers who came from the Near East about 7800 years ago and the Yamnaya pastoralists who came from the steppes 4800 years ago lacked the version of the LCT gene that allows adults to digest sugars in milk. It wasn’t until about 4300 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe. When it comes to skin color, the team found a patchwork of evolution in different places, and three separate genes that produce light skin, telling a complex story for how European’s skin evolved to be much lighter during the past 8000 years. The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years ago are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.
Ust'-Ishim man is the term given to the 45,000-year-old remains of one of the early modern humans to inhabit western Siberia. The fossil is notable in that it had intact DNA which permitted the complete sequencing of its genome, the oldest modern human genome to be so decoded. The remains consist of a single bone—left femur—of a male hunter-gatherer, which was discovered in 2008 protruding from the bank of the Irtysh River by Nikolai Peristov, a Russian sculptor who specialises in carving mammoth ivory. Peristov showed the fossil to a forensic investigator who suggested that it might be of human origin. The fossil was named after the Ust'-Ishim District of Siberia where it had been discovered.
Ust'-Ishim man belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup K2* (K-M256) and mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA) R*. Both of these haplogroups and descendant subclades are now found among populations throughout Eurasia, Oceania and The Americas. Y-DNA K2*, representing the patrilineal descent of Ust'-Ishim man, is believed to have originated with a man who lived in South East Asia, 47,000-55,000 years BP. The only people known to now carry K2* are Australian Aboriginal males.
DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Extracted DNA from a 40,000-y-old anatomically modern human from Tianyuan Cave outside Beijing, China showed mtDNA of haplogroup B4, which occurs in Native Americans, populations of the Russian Far East, Central Asia, Korea, Taiwan, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
An early modern human from Romania "Oase-1" and dates to 37,000–42,000-years-old. Oase-1 belongs to the Y-dna haplogroup F. The Mtdna = N. Study quote: We then find that the Oase 1 individual shares equally as many alleles with early Europeans, as with present-day East Asians and Native Americans.
Kostenki-14 (K14), an Upper Paleolithic European from Russia (37 thousand years old). K14 belonged to Mtdna U2, and Y-haplogroup C1b which is predominantly East Asian/Ocenian/Native American today.
Dna not disclosed!
Sungir (sometimes erroneously spelled Sunghir) is an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site in Russia and one of the earliest records of modern Homo sapiens in Europe. It is situated about two hundred kilometres east of Moscow, on the outskirts of Vladimir, near the Klyazma River. It is dated by calibrated carbon analysis to between 32,050 and 28,550 BC. The settlement area was found to have four burials: the remains of an older man and two adolescent children are particularly well-preserved, and the nature of the rich and extensive burial goods suggests they belonged to the same class. In addition, a skull and two fragments of human femur were also found at the settlement area, and two human skeletons outside the settlement area without cultural remains.
Graves 1 and 2 at Sungir are described as "the most spectacular" among European Gravettian burials. The adult male was buried in what is called Grave 1 and the two adolescent children in Grave 2, placed head-to-head, together with an adult femur filled with red ochre. The three people buried at Sungir were all adorned with elaborate grave goods that included ivory-beaded jewelry, clothing, and spears. More than 13,000 beads were found (which would have taken 10,000 hours to produce). Red ochre, an important ritual material associated with burials at this time, covered the burials.
The children are considered a twin burial, thought to have ritual purpose, likely sacrifice. The findings of such complete skeletons are rare in late Stone Age, and indicate the high status of the male adult and children. The children had the same mtDNA, which may indicate the same maternal lineage. The site is one of the earliest examples of ritual burials and constitutes important evidence of the antiquity of human religious practices. The extraordinary collection of grave goods, the position of the bodies, and other factors all indicate it was a burial of high importance. Two other remains at the site are partial skeletons. The remains are held by the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of R.A.S., Moscow.
The Mal'ta-Buret' culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. The type sites are named for the villages of Mal'ta, Usolsky District and Buret'. According to research published in 2013 and 2016 the Mal'ta people belonged to an extinct population closely related to a population who contributed substantially to the genetic ancestry of Siberians, Native Americans and Bronze Age Yamnaya people. The Mal'ta-Buret' population were also found to be genetically close to modern-day Native Americans, Kets, Nganasans and Yukaghirs.
Research published in 2014 suggests that a Mal'ta like people were important genetic contributors to the American Indians, Europeans, Central and South Asians but did not contribute to and was not related to East Eurasians. Mal'ta had a type of R* y-dna that diverged before the hg R1 and R2 split and an unresolved clade of haplogroup U mtdna.
Here is why these are the Dumbest Negroes in History: Our defective offspring, the minority Albinos (smallest population size), rule the world, and now presume to teach the world. The people directly responsible for this bizarre situation are the ignorant Persians and the ignorant Arabs. Ignorance being the main determinant - same with the Slave trading Negroes of Africa and Arabia.
Here is what happened: The Persians migrated into Elam from who knows where - some say Anatolia. As is typical with the low class (if you're wondering (homeless), you're low class: They seem to have nothing going for themselves except the same thing all people with nothing have - THE ABILITY TO FIGHT!
They soon conquered everyone around them and created a great Empire. Okay so far: but here were the great mistakes. They maintained almost constant war with the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium). This Empire was the protector of Europe from the Albino Hordes in Asia, the Persian wars weakened it. Then they couldn't leave Egypt alone, they kept picking at it until they finally conquered it. Egypt was the protector of North Africa, the middle East, and the gateway to lower Africa. So when the Mulatto Macedonians of Alexander conquered the Persians (Because they were really too stupid to run an Empire that large), they got everything the Persians had conquered. Thus All Black power of consequence in the SOUTH ENDED!
Just like the Persians, the ignorant Arabs had nothing going for them except the Ability to fight. As the say - people with nothing have nothing to lose. So it was with the Arabs, when they saw the second Persian Empire falling apart (the Sassanian), they decided to invade and conquer - which they did. Okay so far, but here is the stupidest thing any Negro has ever done: There just weren't enough Arabs to maintain a large conquering army, especially since all the average Arab wanted was some White Vagina, and a little piece of farmland. As in the case in Persia, once the Arabs got there, most of them just wanted to settle down and farm the land.
They go into Central Asia and TAKE/BUY "MAMLUKS" (Turkic Slave Soldiers). They bring them to the West, and go about their merry way conquering others. This of course opened the way for other Turks to enter the West. Not to mention one other little detail: A SLAVE WITH A WEAPON DOES NOT REMAIN A SLAVE FOR LONG! (Damn Arabs were NOT bright).
The Arabian Peninsula is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate. It is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi). The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as well as parts of southern Iraq and Jordan before the modern era, it was divided into four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd, Southern Arabia and Eastern Arabia. Hejaz and Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia. Southern Arabia consists of Yemen and some parts of Saudi Arabia and Oman (Dhofar). Eastern Arabia consists of the entire coastal strip of the Persian Gulf. The peninsula's constituent countries are Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the east, Oman on the southeast, Yemen on the south and Saudi Arabia at the center. The island nation of Bahrain lies off the east coast of the peninsula.
Though historically lightly populated political Arabia is noted for a high population growth rate - as the result of both very strong inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The population tends to be relatively young and heavily skewed gender ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians exceeds that of the local citizenry. The 4 smaller states (by area) having their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf exhibit the world's most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20 years.
ARABIAN HISTORY - Prehistoric to Iron Age
The Sumerian Ubaid period (5300 BCE) - could have originated in Eastern Arabia.
Umm an-Nar Culture (2600–2000 BCE)
Sabr culture (2000 BCE)
Magan, Midian, and ʿĀd
Magan is attested as the name of a trading partner of the Sumerians. It is often assumed to have been located in Oman. The A'adids established themselves in South Arabia (modern-day Yemen), settling to the east of the Qahtan tribe. They established the Kingdom of ʿĀd around the 10th century BCE to the 3rd century CE. The ʿĀd nation was known to the Greeks and Egyptians. Claudius Ptolemy's Geographos (2nd century CE) refers to the place by a Hellenized version of the inhabitants of the capital Ubar.
Also called Ishmaelite in the Old Testament, member of a group of nomadic tribes related to the Israelites and most likely living east of the Gulf of Aqaba in the northwestern regions of the Arabian Desert. They engaged in pastoral pursuits, caravan trading, and banditry, and their main contacts with the Israelites were from the period of the Exodus (13th century B.C.) through the period of the judges (12th–11th century B.C.). According to the Book of Judges, the Israelite chieftain Gideon drove the Midianites into western Palestine, after which they largely disappear from the biblical narrative. According to the Book of Genesis, the Midianites were descended from Midian, who was the son of the Hebrew patriarch Abraham by the latter's second wife, Keturah. Jethro, priest-leader of the Midianite subtribe known as the Kenites, and his daughter Zipporah (a wife of Moses), influenced early Hebrew thought: it was Yahweh, the lord of the Midianites, who was revealed to Moses as the God of the Hebrews. Circumcision was practiced by the Midianites before the Israelites.
Source - 2
Archaeological evidence suggests that the biblical Midianites were originally a tribe of nomads that came from NW Saudi Arabia before expanding into Jordan and parts of the Arabah valley in Southern Israel. Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s. Some of the settled communities developed into distinctive civilizations. Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia and Arab oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars. Among the most prominent civilizations were the Thamud which arose around 3000 BCE and lasted to about 300 CE and Dilmun which arose around the end of the fourth millennium and lasted to about 600 CE. Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms such as the Sabaeans and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia were controlled by the Iranian Parthians and Sassanians from 300 BCE.
Pre-Islamic religion in Arabia consisted of indigenous polytheistic beliefs, Ancient Arabian Christianity, Nestorian Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. Christianity existed in Arabian Peninsula, which was established first by the early Arab traders who heard the gospel from Peter the apostle at Jerusalem (Acts 2:11), as well as those evangelized by Paul's ministry in Arabia (Galatians 1:17) and the evangelistic ministry of St Thomas to the early Arabians. While Ancient Arabian Christianity was strong in areas of Southern Arabia, especially with Najran being an important center of Christianity, Nestorian Christianity was the dominant religion in Eastern Arabia prior to the advent of Islam. In the latter stages of the pre-Islamic era, Christianity gained converts with some unorthodox sects, such as the Gnostics, having a presence.
The period of Muhammad in Medina started with the Hijra (migration to Medina) in 622 and ended with the conquest of Mecca in December 629.
The Rashidun Caliphate was the Islamic caliphate in the earliest period of Islam, comprising the first four caliphs—the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun caliphs. It was founded after Muhammad's death in 632. At its height, the Caliphate controlled an empire from the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, to the Caucasus in the north, North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west, and the Iranian plateau to Central Asia in the east. from the 7th century, Mecca and Medina became the pilgrimage destinations for large numbers of Muslims from across the Muslim world.
Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon became a peripheral region of the Muslim world, in which the most important medieval Islamic states were based at various times in such far away cities as Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba. Most of what was to become Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule soon after the initial Muslim conquests, and remained a shifting patchwork of tribes and tribal emirates and confederations of varying durability.
Muawiyah I, the first Umayyad caliph, took an interest in his native Mecca, erecting buildings and digging wells. Under his Marwanids successors, Mecca became the abode of poets and musicians. Even then, Medina eclipsed Mecca in importance for much of the Umayyad period, as it was home to the new Muslim aristocracy. Under Yazid I, the revolt of Abd Allah bin al-Zubair brought Syrian troops to Mecca. An accident led to a fire that destroyed the Kaaba, which was rebuilt by Ibn al-Zubair. In 747, a Kharidjit rebel from Yemen seized Mecca unopposed, but he was soon defeated by Marwan II. In 750, Mecca, along with the rest of the caliphate, was passed to the Abbasids.
The Sharifate of Mecca or Emirate of Mecca was a state, non-sovereign for much of its existence, ruled by the Sharifs of Mecca. A sharif is a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, Muhammad's grandson. In Western sources, the prince of Mecca was known as Grand Sherif, but Arabs have always used the appellation "Emir". The Sharifate existed from about 968 to 1925. From 1201, the descendants of the Sharifian patriarch Qutada ruled over Mecca, Medina and the Hejaz in unbroken succession until 1925.
In the 16th century, the Ottoman Turks added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Hasa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. The main reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean. As early as 1578, the Sharifs of Mecca launched forays into the desert to punish the Najdi tribes who mounted raids on oases and tribes in the Hejaz.
The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. A much smaller second "Saudi state", located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers, with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz—later to be known as Ibn Saud—recaptured control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd. Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913.
In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state. Although the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia.
Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of the Hejaz. A year later, he added the title of King of Nejd. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units.
After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization and the increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country. As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after a two-year struggle, were defeated in 1929 at the Battle of Sabilla, where their leaders were massacred. In 1932 the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
At Aybut Al Auwal, in the Dhofar Governorate of Oman, a site was discovered in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools, belonging to a regionally specific African lithic industry –the late Nubian Complex– known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old. This supports the proposition that early human populations moved from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene.
Dereaze, located in the city of Ibri, is the oldest known human settlement in the area, dating back as many as 8,000 years to the Late Stone Age. Archaeological remains have been discovered here from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. Findings have included stone implements, animal bones, shells and fire hearths, with the latter dating back to 7615 BC as the oldest signs of human settlement in the area. Other discoveries include hand-molded pottery bearing distinguishing pre-Bronze Age marks, heavy flint implements, pointed tools and scrapers.
Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan or Makan, a name believed to refer to Oman's ancient copper mines. Mazoon, another name used for the region, is derived from the word muzn, which means heavy clouds which carry abundant water. The present-day name of the country, Oman, is believed to originate from the Arab tribes who migrated to its territory from the Uman region of Yemen. Many such tribes settled in Oman, making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding, and many present day Omani families are able to trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia.
From the 6th century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled and/or influenced by three Persian dynasties: the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids. A few scholars believe that in the 6th century BC, the Achaemenids exerted a strong degree of control over the Omani peninsula, most likely ruling from a coastal center such as Sohar. Central Oman has its own indigenous so-called Late Iron Age cultural assemblage, the Samad al-Shan.
By about 250 BC, the Parthian dynasty had brought the Persian Gulf under their control. They extended their influence as far as Oman, establishing garrisons there to exert control over the trade routes in the Persian Gulf. In the 3rd century AD, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam, four centuries later. Omanis were among the first people to come in contact with and accept Islam. The conversion of the Omanis is usually ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, who was sent by the prophet Muhammad during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma).
From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire, vying with Portugal and Britain for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean.
At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran and Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar (today part of Tanzania, also former capital). As its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom. Historically, Muscat was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was also among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean.
With its long sea border between eastern and western civilizations, Yemen has long existed at a crossroads of cultures with a strategic location in terms of trade on the west of the Arabian Peninsula. Large settlements for their era existed in the mountains of northern Yemen as early as 5000 BC. Little is known about ancient Yemen and how exactly it transitioned from nascent Bronze Age civilization to more commercial caravan kingdoms. This may be due to social or official discouragement of research into pre-Islamic civilizations in Arabia.
The Sabaean Kingdom came into existence from at least the 11th century BC. The four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia were: Saba, Hadramout, Qataban, and Ma'in. Saba is believed to be biblical Sheba and was the most prominent federation.
Note: these pictures are NOT representative of the population of Yemen. Like Saudi Arabia, Yemen has a very large (perhaps majority)
population of ethnic Turks, both Albino and Mulatto - these people are the current rulers of Arab and Arabized territories).
Socotra also spelled Soqotra, is an island and a small archipelago of four islands in the Arabian Sea. The territory is part of Yemen, and had long been a subdivision of the Aden Governorate. In 2004, it became attached to the Hadhramaut Governorate, which is much closer to the island than Aden (although the nearest governorate was the Al Mahrah Governorate). In 2013, the archipelago became its own governorate, the Soqatra Governorate.
The island of Socotra constitutes around 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some 240 kilometres (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa and 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula. The island is very isolated and a third of its plant life is found nowhere else on the planet. It has been described as "the most alien-looking place on Earth." The island measures 132 kilometres (82 mi) in length and 49.7 kilometres (30.9 mi) in width.
There was initially an Oldowan culture in Socotra. Oldowan stone tools were found in the area around Hadibo by V.A. Zhukov, a member of the Russian Complex Expedition in 2008. A local tradition holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. In the 10th century, the Arab geographer Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani stated that in his time most of the inhabitants were Christians.
In 1507, a Portuguese fleet commanded by Tristão da Cunha with Afonso de Albuquerque landed at the then capital of Suq and captured the port after a stiff battle. Their objective was to set a base in a strategic place on the route to India, and to liberate the presumed friendly Christians from Islamic rule. Tomás Fernandes started to build a fortress at Suq, the Forte de São Miguel de Socotorá. However, the infertility of the land led to famine and sickness in the garrison. Moreover, the lack of a proper harbour for wintering led to the loss of many moored Portuguese ships, the most important of which was the Santo António galleon under the command of Captain Manuel Pais da Veiga. Thus the Portuguese abandoned the island four years later, as it was not advantageous as a base. The islands passed under the control of the Mahra sultans in 1511, and its inhabitants were completely Islamized during their rule.
Most of the inhabitants are indigenous Soqotri people from Al-Mahrah tribe, who are of Southern Arabian descent from Al Mahrah Governorate, and are said to be especially closely related with the Qara and Mahra groups of Southern Arabia. There are also a small number of residents of Somali and Indian origin. In addition, the island is inhabited by various Black African peoples, who are believed to be descendants of runaway slaves.
That nonsense from Wiki above, was purposely left in to demonstrate the stupidity and degeneracy of the Albinos we all depend upon for information - and it's not just those at Wiki). By definition - the Purest Arabs, and probably the closest descendants of the original Arabs, are the people of the Island of Socotra also spelled Soqotra. They are the only people in the world carrying the Basal form of Y-dna haplogroup J. Almost everyone on Soqotri is Black, so clearly the Albino who wrote that piece was following the Albino tradition of writing Blacks out of history, and providing false information in support of the Albino peoples false history.
By that definition - the Purest Arabs and probably the closest descendants of the original Arabs, are the people on the Island of
Socotra also spelled Soqotra. They are the only people in the world carrying the Basal form of Y-dna haplogroup J.
The Oldowan, sometimes spelled Olduwan, is the archaeological term used to refer to the earliest stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory. Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominins across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry.
The term "Oldowan" is taken from the site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, where the first Oldowan lithics were discovered by the archaeologist Louis Leakey in the 1930s. See: "Out of Arabia—the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity" Černý, Viktor; et al. (2009).
A six-year effort to map the genetic patterns of humankind appears to confirm that early people first left Africa by crossing into Arabia. Ancestors of modern people in Europe, Asia and Oceania migrated along a southern route, not a northern route through Egypt as some had supposed. The results from the Genographic Project are published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.
It suggests an important role for South Asia in the peopling of the world. The ancestors of present-day non-African people left their ancestral homeland some 70,000 years ago. The researchers found that Indian populations had more genetic diversity - which gives an indication of the age of a population - than either Europeans or East Asians.
This supports the idea that pioneering settlers followed a southern coastal route as they populated east Asia and continued into Oceania. "This suggests that other fields of research such as archaeology and anthropology should look for additional evidence on the migration route of early humans," said co-author Ajay Royyuru, senior manager at IBM's Computational Biology Center, which was involved in analysing the study data.
A route out of Africa via the Arabian Peninsula, along the southern coast of Asia, explained the observed patterns in genetic diversity much better than a route through Egypt's Sinai desert. This agrees with other evidence showing that sea levels might have been low enough around 60-70,000 years ago for humans to cross from the horn of Africa into Arabia via the Bab-el-Mandeb straits in the Red Sea.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is in limited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or Near East), the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted as part of North Africa), and the inclusion of the Transcaucasia. The term is sometimes used for the purposes of grouping countries in statistics. The total population of Western Asia is estimated at about 300 million as of 2015. In an unrelated context, the term is also used in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent into the "Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to Ancient Egypt. As a geographic concept, "Western Asia" includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia, Iran, Armenian Highlands and South Caucasus. The Sinai Peninsula belongs to Western Asia, making Egypt a transcontinental country.
Haplogroup J-M304* (J*) is believed to have arisen roughly 48,000 years ago in Western Asia. It is most closely related to Haplogroup I-M170, as both lineages are haplogroup IJ subclades. Haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K derive from Haplogroup IJK, and only at this level of classification does haplogroup IJK join with Haplogroup G-M201 and Haplogroup H as immediate descendants of Haplogroup F-M89. J-M304 is defined by the M304 genetic marker, or the equivalent 12f2.1 marker. According to a genetic study in China by Shou et al., J*-M304 is found among the Sibe people, Kazakhs, Dongxiangs and Uzbeks in Northwest China. The main current subgroups J-M267 and J-M172, which now comprise between them almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago. Nonetheless, Y-chromosomes F-M89* and IJ-M429* were reported to have been observed in the Iranian plateau (Grugni et al. 2012).
(* indicates Basal haplogroup)
Basal (phylogenetics): Definition of basal: relating to, situated at, or forming the base.
On the other hand, it would seem to be that different episodes of populace movement had impacted southeast Europe, as well as the role of the Balkans as a long-standing corridor to Europe from the Near East is shown by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This proof of common ancestry suggests that ancestral Hgs IJ-M429* probably would have entered Europe through the Balkan track sometime before the LGM. They then subsequently split into Hg J and Hg I in Middle East and Europe in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern. Such a geographic hall is prone to have encountered extra consequent gene streams, including the horticultural settlers. Moreover, the unification of haplogroups IJK creates evolutionary distance from F–H delegates, as well as supporting the inference that both IJ-M429 and KT-M9 arose closer to the Middle East than central or eastern Asia.
Haplogroup J-M304 is found in its greatest concentration in the Arabian peninsula. Outside of this region, haplogroup J-M304 has a significant presence in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. It also has a moderate occurrence in Southern Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece and Albania. The J-M410 subclade is mostly distributed in Anatolia, Greece and southern Italy. Additionally, J-M304 is observed in Central Asia and South Asia, particularly in the form of its subclade J-M172. J-12f2 and J-P19 are also found among the Herero (8%). Basal J*(xJ1,J2) is found at its highest frequencies among the Socotri (71.4%).
Y-Dna haplogroup "J"
Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula embracing more than 50% of its Y-chromosomes. Its two main subclades (J1-M267 and J2-M172), show opposite latitudinal gradients in the Middle East. J1-M267 is more abundant in the southern areas, reaching a frequency around 73% in Yemen, whereas J2-M172 is more common in the Levant. J (L222.2) Accounts for the majority of (L147.1) in Saudi Arabia. It seems to be an exclusively Adnani marker. J1c3d2 (L222.2) is found in the majority of J1c3d in Saudi Arabia, an important element of J1c3d is in North Africa. Adnan is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtanite Arabs of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.
There are also some haplogroup J Y-chromosomes that belong to neither J1 nor J2, and are said to be in paragroup J*(xJ1,J2). This means that haplogroup J* includes all of J except for J1 and J2. However, Y-chromosomes that belong to paragroup J* are extremely rare among human populations of the present day.
Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. In human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, paragroups are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup. For example, the paragroup of human Y-DNA Haplogroup J is J*. A member of J* has the marker that defines J, but not the markers that define J's only known immediate subclades, haplogroups J1 and J2.
According to Arab genealogical tradition, the Adnanites are "Arabized Arabs", descended from Adnan, distinguished from the "pure" Qahtanite Arabs of southern Arabia. The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar (Himyartes) and Kahlan (Kahlanis).
In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. As a result of the loss of genetic variation, the new population may be distinctively different, both genotypically and phenotypically, from the parent population from which it is derived. In extreme cases, the founder effect is thought to lead to the speciation and subsequent evolution of new species.
The founder effect occurs when a small group of migrants that is not genetically representative of the population from which they came, establish in a new area. In addition to founder effects, the new population is often a very small population, so it shows increased sensitivity to genetic drift, an increase in inbreeding, and relatively low genetic variation. This can be observed in the limited gene pools of Icelanders, Ashkenazi Jews, Faroe Islanders, Easter Islanders, and those native to Pitcairn Island.
Possible time of origin 4,000-24,000 years before present (Di Giacomo 2004). Possible place of origin Western Asia
Y-DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y-DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2). (All these haplogroups have had other historical names listed below.[Phylogenetics 1][Phylogenetics 2])
Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in or near the Middle East, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and Ethiopia. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa, Southern Europe, and amongst Jewish groups, especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, throughout Europe and as far east as Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.
Nebel 2002 noted not only the presence of the Galilee modal of J-M267 in the Maghreb but also that J-M267 in this region had very little diversity generally. They concluded that J-M267 in this region "is derived not only from the early Neolithic dispersion but also from recent expansions from the Arabian peninsula" proposing that they might have been carried from the Middle East with the Arab expansion in the seventh century AD. Semino 2004 later agreed that this seemed consistent with the evidence and generalized from this that distribution of the entire YCAII=22-22 cluster of J-M267 in the Arabic speaking areas of the Middle East and North Africa might in fact mainly have an origin in historical times.
More recent studies have emphasized doubt that the Islamic expansions are old enough to completely explain the major patterns of J-M267 frequencies. Chiaroni 2009 rejected this for J-P58 as a whole, but accepted that "some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouins from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion in the Arabian Desert". They did not comment on the Maghreb.
Looking at the map of J1-P58, it is easy to assume that P58 is a marker of Arabic ancestry because it reaches its maximum frequency in and around the Arabian peninsula. That would be an oversimplification. It is important to make a clear distinction between people who speak Arabic and those who are genetically Arabic. These are two completely different things. For comparison, people who speak languages descended from Latin (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian) are not necessarily descended from the ancient Romans of the Latium. Even those who do may not have more than a tiny fraction of their genome which was inherited from actual Roman ancestors. This is why most Romance-language speakers today cannot be considered as genetically Roman.
Most present-day Arabic speakers outside the Arabian Peninsula are likewise only very partially or not at all Arabic genetically. In the northern half of the Middle East, most of the people who call themselves Arabs of today are in fact mainly "Central Asian Albino Mixed" descendants of other historic peoples, such as the Phoenicians, Assyrians, Babylonians, or even the Hurrians. Most of these peoples are predominantly J2, with many minority haplogroups (E1b1b, G, J1, L, Q, R1a, R1b, T) (Paragraph Edited].
The confusion comes from the fact that the Arabic language, which appeared a little more than 1,500 years ago, is much more recent than the haplogroup J1 (31,000 years old) or even the P58 subclade (14,000 years old). Even the J1-L858 subclade (5,000 years old), associated with Southwest Asian people, very clearly predates the Arabic language. The common ancestor of the J1-L858 men alive today dates back to approximately 4500 years ago, a time that corresponds to the development of the the oldest Semitic languages, like Akkadian and Amorite. In fact, L858 is not specific to the Arabian peninsula, but is also found among the Jews (especially Z640 subclade), Lebanese, Syrians and Iraqi, among others. In other words L858 cover all the region where ancient Semitic languages were spoken, well before Arabic even existed. That is why L858 should be seen as more widely Semitic and not just Arabic, even if the many Levantines and Mesopotamians were later Arabicized. The Jews are of the these Semitic people who were not Arabicized, and hardly anyone would argue that Jews are Arabs genetically, or vice versa.
The true lineage of the historic Arab people (so mainly from Jordan and Saudi Arabia) is J1-FGC12 (aka S21237). This subclade started expanding in the Arabian peninsula a bit over 3,000 years ago and did experience a tremendous expansion in the last 1,300 years, as can be seen in the completely phylogenetic tree on Yfull.com. Nowadays these more genuinely Arabic J1-FGC12 lineages are found throughout the Arabic-speaking world, but they only represent a small minority of lineages in any region but the Arabian peninsula.
The other subclades of J1 cannot be considered to be the paternal descendants of first speakers of Arabic. These other J1 lineages were arabicized alongside other haplogroups (J2, Q1b, etc.) during the Islamic expansion from the 7th century onward. More importantly, J1-FGC12 is not the only haplogroup that spread with the Arabic expansion linked to the diffusion of Islam. Nowadays only 40% of Saudis and 30% of Jordanians belong to J1 (most but not all to FGC12). E1b1b-M34 is another important Arabic lineage, being found in 25% of Jordanians and 10% of Saudis. Like J1-P58, E-M34 it is also shared with their Semitic cousins, the Jews. Haplogroup E1b1b is considered the prime candidate for the origin and dispersal of Afro-Asiatic languages across northern and eastern Africa and south-west Asia. The Semitic languages appear to have originated within a subclade of the M34 branch of E1b1b. One specific deeper subclade is surely associated with the development of Arabic language and with J1-FGC12, but it hasn't been identified yet. Note that E-M34 itself is many thousands of years old and is also found in non-Semitic countries, including Turkey, Greece, Italy, France and Spain.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209. Haplogroup J-M172 is found in Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Europe and North Africa, but it is usually associated with Northwest Asia. It is thought that J-M172 might have originated between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the Levant. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314).
The date of origin for haplogroup J-M172 was estimated by Batini et al in 2015 as between 19,000 and 24,000 Years Before Present (YBP). Samino et al in 2004 dated the origin of the parent haplogroup, J-P209, to between 18,900 and 44,500 YBP. It is likely that J2 men had settled over most of Anatolia, the South Caucasus and Iran by the end of the Last Glaciation 12,000 years ago.
Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan. (This is supported by conventional history which chronicales the migration of Amorites from Sumer to Canaan and Egypt after the fall of the Hammurabi dynasty in Sumer. In Egypt they were highly skilled workers imported to help with the great building projects of the 12th. Dynasty. As the 12. Dynasty ended Egypt entered a period of DISUNION called the Second Intermediate Period. In these times the Amorites became part of the Hyksos usurpers who ruled Egypt for the next approx. 200 years).
Sumerian and Akkadian inscriptions of the latter part of the 3rd millennium refer to a people called MAR.TU (Sumerian) or amurru (Akkadian). These seem to have been a desert people who moved systematically in from the west. From the early part of the second millennium they became more aggressive, and appear to have been instrumental in overthrowing the third Ur dynasty (which conventionally ended about 1800 B.C.). They set up their own rule in places including Larsa, and their best known assertion of power was in the Old Babylonian dynasty of Hammurabi (conventionally about 1900-1600 B.C. Both Assyria and Mari show signs of their occupation as well.
Ezekiel 16:3 - And say, Thus saith the Lord God unto Jerusalem; Thy birth and thy nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an Hittite.
In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula, so that Eastern Europeans from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabization" spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.
Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture. As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivitovksy method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.
The world's highest frequency of J2 is found among the Ingush (88% of the male lineages) and Chechen (56%) people in the Northeast Caucasus. Both belong to the Nakh ethnic group, who have inhabited that territory since at least 3000 BCE. Their language is distantly related to Dagestanian languages, but not to any other linguistic group. However, Dagestani peoples (Dargins, Lezgins, Avars) belong predominantly to haplogroup J1 (84% among the Dargins) and almost completely lack J2 lineages. Other high incidence of haplogroup J2 are found in many other Caucasian populations, including the Azeri (30%), the Georgians (27%), the Kumyks (25%), and the Armenians (22%). Nevertheless, it is very unlikely that haplogroups J2 originated in the Caucasus because of the low genetic diversity in the region. Most Caucasian people belong to the same J2a4b (M67) subclade. The high local frequencies observed would rather be the result of founder effects, for instance the proliferation of chieftains and kings's lineages through a long tradition of polygamy, a practice that the Russians have tried to suppress since their conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century.
Nakh peoples are a group of historical and modern ethnic groups speaking (or historically speaking) Nakh languages and sharing certain cultural traits. In modern days, they reside almost completely in the eastern parts of North Caucasus, but historically, certain areas of the South Caucasus may have also been Nakh.
The only healthy, living branch of the Nakh languages are now the Vainakh languages (spoken by the Vainakh peoples, namely Chechens, Ingush and Kist), due to the extinction of other peoples. The only non-Vainakh modern Nakh people are the Bats people in Northeast Georgia, but they are largely assimilated and their language is highly endangered.
Although the Vainakh are only a branch of Nakh peoples, due to the present-day situation, where the only well-known Nakh are Vainakh, the words Vainakh and Nakh are frequently confused. Hence the word Vainakh is frequently, but mistakenly applied to historical non-Vainakh peoples.
The Central Asian Albinos - todays White Europeans and unmixed Turks - are clearly loath to admit that they are Albinos. So to hide this truth, they utilize all manner of "Double-Speak": that is defining Albinism, but turning aside all inference to themselves.
They say things like: OCA2 is rare in Europe, but more common in Africa. That's such a silly lie: ALL White Europeans are ALREADY OCA2, so to hide that; they only count as Albino, those of their number who have genetic vision problems because of their OCA2 Albinism: (Another lie they tell is that ALL Albinos have vision problems).
So for a better understanding, lets DEFINE OCA2. OCA2 stands for Oculocutaneous Albinism type II. Oculocutaneous Albinism type II is a DISEASE!!!!!
These are the symptoms of OCA2.
Genetics Home Reference
The OCA2 gene (formerly called the P gene) provides instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein is located in melanocytes, which are specialized cells that produce a pigment called melanin. Melanin is the substance that gives skin, hair, and eyes their color. Melanin is also found in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), where it plays a role in normal vision.
NOAH (National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation).
A common myth is that people with albinism have red eyes. Although lighting conditions can allow the blood vessels at the back of the eye to be seen, which can cause the eyes to look reddish or violet, most people with albinism have blue eyes, and some have hazel or brown eyes. There are different types of albinism and the amount of pigment in the eyes varies; however, vision problems are associated with albinism.
Did you notice in the "Genetics Home Reference" definition where it said that "The OCA2 gene was formerly called the P gene"? Now why would White people RENAME a gene after a disease?
THE HUMAN BODY DOES NOT "NORMALLY" COME WITH DISEASE! So why did the Albinos RENAME the "P" gene, and give it the name of a DISEASE? They did that when they found out that the MUTATED form of the "P" gene was "NORMAL" in THEM! OCA2 "IS" the "MUTATED" FORM of the "P" gene.
To put it plainly: In a world without Albino lies: A Normal Black person’s gene would be called a "P" gene. And only the MUTATED form found in Europeans and African Albinos, would be called the OCA2 gene. Since ALL Europeans have the OCA2 gene, therefore they are all Albinos. And of course it's rare in Africa, most Africans are NOT Albinos.
In combating the Albino lies of today, it is often useful to read how they looked thousands of years ago.
In Herodotus's "History of the Persian Wars" of the dozens of peoples that he describes in the book; he chooses to describe only three peoples by racial type. The Colchians above; whom he describes as "black-skinned and have woolly hair". And the Budini of Gelonus (east-central Ukraine), whom he describes as (they have all deep blue eyes, and bright red hair)
The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) said this about them: For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves. Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.
From those passages we know for sure what White Europeans looked like when they first invaded Europe - they were Pure Albinos. But today, they rarely have the RED HAIR and BLUE EYES of their ancestors - What Happened?
"Since the turn of the century, people born with blue eyes in the United States have dramatically decreased, with only about 10 percent having blue eyes today.
According to Mark Grant, an epidemiologist from Loyola University in Chicago. During the turn of the last century, the percentage of people with blue eyes stood at 57.4% for those born between 1899 through 1905; and 33.8% for those born between 1936 through 1951. According to Grant, in a study titled "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye color among US whites." This decrease in the occurrence of blue eyes is due to many factors, with the majority pointing to the increase in brown-eyed immigrants, mainly Hispanics and Asians, as well as heightened interracial relationships: as the other determinant, (when a normal Black person and a European make a baby, the baby GAINS varied ability to make MELANIN). Blue eyes, next to green, are the rarest eye color in the world, as people of counties in Asia and Africa possess brown eyes."
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