Black Britain

(2)

 

After several hundred years of falsified racist history: As we have all been taught; there were no Blacks in Europe, and those that were there, were African Slaves, Servants, or African Charity cases. Black research, like our own - has forced the lying European Albinos to make some grudging minor admissions like this...

Click here for the News Story.

 

While Europe's lying Albinos foolishly ponder "just how much truth they can afford to admit", we continue on with our research, and sharing of same.

 

 

THE BLACK AND BROWN ROYALTY AND NOBILITY OF GREAT BRITAIN

 

This Wiki of John Macky is excerpted from:

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 35
Macky, John
by Thomas Finlayson Henderson

MACKY, JOHN (d. 1726), was a government agent or spy, author of ‘Memoirs of Secret Services,’ was a Scotsman of good education, but of his parentage or birth nothing is known. According to his own account he ‘came early into the measures of the revolution,’ and being, on the return of King James from Ireland to France, sent to Paris to find out the further purposes of the Jacobites, he discovered that the French government intended to send an expedition against England in 1692. He arrived in London with the information before James reached his army encamped at La Hogue, and thus gave the government ample time for preparations against it. On the return of King William to England in October 1693, he was appointed inspector of the coast from Harwich to Dover in order to prevent treasonable correspondence between the two countries by passengers or letters. He discovered the proposed descent on England in 1696 in connection with the assassination plot of Sir George Barclay [q. v.]; and after its disclosure published ‘A View of the Court of St. Germains from the year 1690 to 1695, with an Account of the Entertainment Protestants meet with there, directed to the malcontent Protestants of England,’ 1696. Of this pamphlet he states that no fewer than thirty thousand copies were sold. After the peace of Ryswick, 20 Sept. 1697, he had the direction of the packet-boats from Dover to France and Flanders, and he states that during the negotiations connected with the Partition treaty in 1698 he had the charge of transmitting all the private expresses that passed between King William and Lord Portland.

The packet-boat service was discontinued after the death of King William in 1702, and Macky went to look after an estate possessed by him and others in the island of Zante, in the dominion of Venice. After the battle of Ramillies in May 1706 he had the direction of the packet-boats to Ostend, with instructions to watch narrowly all naval preparations at Ostend and other sea-coast towns; and in 1708 he discovered the preparations for an armament at Dunkirk. Subsequently he came under the suspicion of the government and was thrown into prison, where he remained till the accession of George I. On obtaining his liberty he endeavoured at his own expense to establish a service of packetboats to Dublin, but the undertaking involved him in heavy expenses, and was soon dropped. Ultimately he went abroad, and he died at Rotterdam in 1726.

He is the author of a somewhat important contribution to contemporary history: 'Memoirs of the Secret Services of John Macky, Esq., during the Reign of King William, Queen Anne, and King George I. Including also the true Secret History of the Rise, Promotions, &c., of the English and Scots Nobility; Officers, Civil, Military, Naval, and other Persons of distinction from the Revolution. In their respective Characters at large: drawn up by Mr. Macky pursuant to the direction of Her Royal Highness the Princess Sophia. Published from his original Manuscript, as attested by his son. Spring Macky, Esq.,' London, 1733. An edition in French, translated by 'A. R.,' was published at the Hague in the same year. The chief value of the 'Memoirs' consists in its descriptions of the leading personages of the period, which evidence both keen powers of observation and great impartiality of judgment. Swift has appended notes, generally of an acrid character, to many of the descriptions. Macky was also the author of 'Journey through England,' 1714; 2nd edition, 1722, with additional volume; 3rd edition, 1723, with a third volume; reprinted, with large additions, 1724 and 1732; 'Journey through Scotland,' 1723; and 'Journey through the Austrian Netherlands,' 1725.

 

 

Pages from the Memoirs of the Secret Services of John Macky, Esq.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles I (1600–1649) was King of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to a Spanish Habsburg princess culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.

After his succession, Charles quarreled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of reformed groups such as the Puritans and Calvinists, who thought his views too Catholic. He supported high church ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to successfully aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments and helped precipitate his own downfall.

From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. In 1660, the English Interregnum ended when the monarchy was restored to Charles's son, Charles II.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debunking White lies

 

We Black people, and truth seeking people of all colors, must of course always have our wits about us when considering information offered by the Albino people. But even the most cautious among us, often find themselves totally at the mercy of the Albino people to tell them "what is what". Take the case of the often used facial complexion term: "SANGUINE". WEBSTERS defines it as: 1) bloodred, 2) consisting of or relating to blood, 3) bloodthirsty, 4) of the complexion "Ruddy." Following those definitions, Ruddy and Sanguine would seem to be terms used to describe White people.

But Macky describes John, Duke of Newcastle (Page 35), as "He is a Black, Ruddy complexioned Man". And he describes the Earl of Middleton (page 238) as "He is a Black man of middle stature with a Sanguine complexion". Obviously then, we cannot even trust the Albino people to tell us what certain words mean.

But one thing that we can depend upon the Albino people for, is the most outrageous lies possible. It has come to our attention that in order to explain away this material, some Albino people have taken to saying things like this: “In old Britain everyone who was tanned was called, Black, swarthy, dark, or brown.” How sad that they fell the need to lower themselves to such depths. But that particular lie is easily debunked by this article in the on-line U.K. paper "The Telegraph".

 

Headline: Sunbathing can be good for you, say health charities

By Richard Alleyne, Science Correspondent - 6:00PM GMT 16 Dec 2010

Experts have overturned decades of advice by urging people to go out in the midday sun without sunblock – because the dangers of missing out on Vitamin D can outweigh the risk of cancer. After years of ordering us to cover up to avoid skin cancer, a leading group of charities are now telling us to go out in the midday sun unprotected – at least for the first few minutes. The change of heart comes as it emerges a large proportion of Britons are at risk from vitamin D deficiency which can lead to a host of health problems.

Paranoia about sun exposure has become so great among some parents that doctors are even seeing a return of rickets in children – the bone disease that it was thought died out 80 years ago. The "definitive statement" by seven leading health groups and charities, including Cancer Research UK, the National Osteoporosis Society and Multiple Sclerosis Society, is designed to clarify conflicting messages.

It concluded that surrendering your body to the sun for 10 minutes should take place at midday during the summer months because that is when the sun is strong enough to trigger the body into making vitamin D. For the whole of winter, and before 10am and after 4pm in summer, the rays are too weak in the UK, to stimulate vitamin D synthesis in the skin.

From that article we are able to debunk two Albino lies: the first is the old Albino lie that their skin is the result of an evolutionary change which allows them to better absorb the Suns UV Rays for vitamin D production. If that were true they wouldn’t be getting the disease “Rickets”.

And also, you can clearly see from the article that it would be next to “IMPOSSIBLE” for a White Britain to be deeply tanned.

(AS a reminder, the max. UV strength is 11 or 12 depending on the scale used. As you can see below, Britain barely reaches half way).

 

 

 

 

THEN THERE IS THIS!

 

 

 

 


MORE BLACK BRITAIN'S

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

For those who may have stumbled onto this page via a web search, and wonder as to its meaning and context, here is your answer.

 

Those who research history know that the “Thirty Years” Wars in continental Europe (1618–1648), and the English “Civil Wars” (1642–1651) were really “Race Wars” having to do with removing Black rule and hegemony in Europe. Though of course, the Albinos did not frame it like that at the time, (Blacks were naively on both sides).

But regardless of what the Albinos called it, the ultimate result was the fall of the Black “Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)” in Europe. And the fall of the last purely Black dynasty in Britain, the House of Stuart (the Jacobites). Those Blacks that were not killed were expelled, and scattered throughout the Americas: mostly as Slaves, but sometimes as Indentures, and mostly in the Caribbean and North America.

Since that time, the Albino people have busied themselves erasing all evidences of their murderous atrocities, and all evidences of Blacks in Europe, and the entire world for that matter. While at the same time, creating FAKE paintings, engravings, statues, etc. of Albinos, which they falsely identify as those now erased Black people. Note: FAKE White paintings of probably all of the Black British People revealed here, can be found at the on-line site of the National Portrait Gallery of Britain. Click here for link to the National Portrait Gallery of Britain


But trying to erase the history of an entire population is not easy, and can never be complete. Every day Black researchers find new evidences of their atrocities, and the Albino peoples efforts to cover them up - such as the materials shown here.


For those who find it hard to believe that the Albino people are actually capable of such Horrors: Just remember that they tried to repeat it with the Khazar Jews just about 70 years ago.

 

The Countries most responsible for the Genocide of Blacks in Europe are the British and the Germans: It may be of interest to some, that they are both the same people.

As everywhere else on the Planet Earth, the original people of the British Isles were Black People. The Romans invaded Britain in 43 A.D. Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain from 43 A.D. until ca. 410 A.D. The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia.

After the Romans left, Britain was invaded by Anglo-Saxon's, a general term referring to the Germanic peoples who came to Britain during the 5th and 6th centuries, including Angles, Saxons, Frisii and Jutes (pay no special attention to tribal names as to ethnicity). Genetic evidence indicates that they were responsible for the first Black Genocide in Britain, (many of the original Blacks of England vanished). As an indication of the very Bogus nature of the Albino peoples history: they have hundreds of versions of this singular event. The Anglo-Saxons established kingdoms in the 5th century, which lasted until the Norman conquest of England in 1066 by William the Conqueror.

The current British monarchy is of the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty, the senior line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies, including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Founded by Ernst Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it is also the royal house of several European monarchies, and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V of the United Kingdom changed the name of his branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same happened in Belgium where it was changed to "van België" (Dutch) or "de Belgique" (French).

 

MORE OF THE SAME FOLLOWS BELOW, BUT FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES.

 

 

 

Biographies of Blacks of note in ancient Britain

Biographies in these pages are taken from:

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) by Stephen Leslie 1832-1904: A standard work of reference with articles on more than 29,000 notable figures from British history. It was originally published in 63 volumes between 1885 and 1900.

http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/metabook?id=dnb

AND

The Scottish nation; or, The surnames, families, literature, honours, and biographical history of the people of Scotland (1877) by William Anderson, 1805-1866

http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=The%20Scottish%20nation%20or%20the%20surnames

 

GLOSSERY

Duke (male) or duchess (female) is a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch, and historically controlling a duchy.

Marquess or marquis is a nobleman of hereditary rank. In the British Isles the title ranks below a Duke and above an Earl.

Earl is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, and meant "chieftain", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced with duke. In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to duke; in Scotland it assimilated the concept of mormaer).

Count (male) or countess (female) is an aristocratic nobleman in European countries. The British equivalent is an Earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term).

Chancellor is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.

Baron is a title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin (liber) baro meaning "(free) man, (free) warrior"; it merged with cognate Old English beorn meaning "nobleman". The mediaeval Latin word baro, baronis, was used originally to denote a tenant-in-chief of the early Norman kings, which class developed into feudal barons who held their lands from the king by the feudal tenure per baroniam and were entitled to attend parliament.

Lord is a deferential appellation, in the majority of cases non-official, meaning in general "one with power and authority, a master or ruler". The king is frequently referred to in mediaeval documents as "The Lord King". The official peerage titles of Baron, Viscount and Earl may be replaced with the unofficial generic appellation of "Lord", either in written or spoken use.

Sir: as a knight, which was a member of a class of lower nobility in the High Middle Ages.

SWARTHY - Of a dark color, complexion; Synonyms: black, brunet (or brunette), swart, dark.

SANGUINE - Bloodred: consisting of or relating to blood. Sanguinary of the complexion: Ruddy.

RUDDY - (Also called florid) is a reddish crimson colour, closer to red than to rose.

 

Having come to the realization that the Albinos were degenerate liars who would lie even in official matters: the American declared that the White Man spoke with a "Forked-tongue". Realizing that the Albinos will invariably create Fake Paintings and Drawings of White people, to depict those who were really Black People - the proof is below: should we say that the White Man "Paints with a Forked Palette"?

 

Queen Charlotte's description may serve as a benchmark for the descriptive terms below.

 

(Uncorrected from the scanned page).

CHARLOTTE SOPHIA (1744-1818), Queen of George III, king of England, was Wie youngest daughter of Charles Lewis, brother of Frederic, third duke of Mecklen-burg-Strelitz. When a young girl she was so distressed ac the ravages of tne IVussian troops on a relative's territory, that she wrote a letter to their king begbing him to restrain them. This letter found its way to England, and is said to have done something to direct the attention of the English court to her as a suitable consort for George (Mahon, History of EngUiJid, iv. 331, 1846).

The inquiries made resulted in a formal proposal, which was accepted, and the princess set off for England. The voyage from Cuxhaven to Harwich took ten days, for the ship was delayed by contrary winds. Charlotte beguiled the time by practising English tunes on the harpsichord. On 7 Sept. 1761 she landed in England. The next day she saw George for the first time at St. James's. From that moment till the king's illness she said that she never knew real sorrow. They were married late that same evening.

Their coronation took place on 22 Sept. of that year. The minute description is given in Richard Thomson's Faithful Account y &c., 1820). Iler appearance at this time is briefly described by Horace Walpole: *She is not tall nor a beauty. Pale and very thin; but looks sensible and ffenteel. Her hair is darkish and fine ; her forehead low, her nose very well, except the nofitrik spreading too wide. The mouth has the same fault, but her teeth are good.

 

Note: of the people whose physical appearance is described in the above books - the overwhelming majority are NON-WHITE!

 

BELOW: FAKE WHITE PAINTINGS, FALSELY DEPICTING BLACK PEOPLE, AS WHITE PEOPLE.

Read the description from (DNB):

Then look at the picture.

 

KING CHARLES I (1600-1049), king of Great Britain and Ireland, the second son of
James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark. He was entrusted to the care of Lord and Lady Fyvie. The following year given into the charge of Lady Cary, many ladies having refused the responsibility of bringing him up on account of his physical weakness

Volume: 10

 

KING GEORGE IV (1762-1830), king of England, eldest son of George III and of Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg- Strelitz, was born at St. James's Palace about half-past seven on the morning of 12 Aug. 1762. He was stout, of a florid complexion.

Volume 21

 
DUKE OF HAMILTON (Scotland), fourth Duke JAMES DOUGLAS (1658-1712), the eldest son of Lord William Douglas, created Earl of Selkirk and Duke of Hamilton for life by his marriage with Anne, daughter of James, first Duke of Hamilton, and Duchess of Hamilton in her own right. Macky describes him as of middle stature, well made, of a Black coarse complexion.

Volume 15

 
EARL OF PERTH, (Scotland) JAMES DRUMMOND, fourth EARL and first titular DUKE OF PERTH (1648-1716), was elder son of James, third earl, prisoner at the battle of Philiphaugh, 13 Sept. 1645, who died 2 June 1675. His mother, who died 9 Jan. 1656,was Lady Anne Gordon, eldest daughter of George, second Marquis of Huntly .

He is described as very proud, of middle stature, with a quick look and a brown complexion.

Volume 16

 

EARL OF MORAY, (Scotland) Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (died 20 July 1332) (Father of BLACK AGNES), was Regent of Scotland, an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Arbroath.

He is usually described as a nephew of Robert the Bruce although their exact relationship is uncertain. The traditional view is that it was through a daughter of the first marriage of Countess Marjorie of Carrick, who was mother of King Robert by her second marriage.

Volume 16

 
COUNTESS OF DUNBAR (Scotland), AGNES, COUNTESS OF DUNBAR and MARCH (1312 P-1369). Known from her swarthy complexion as BLACK AGNES. Is celebrated for her spirited defense of Dunbar Castle in January 1337-8. The countess was the daughter of Randolph, earl of Moray, and Isabel, the only daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, and, through her father, grand niece to Robert Bruce.

She married PATRICK DUNBAR, tenth earl of Dunbar and March (1285-1369), who first came into prominence as an adherent of the English.

Volume 16

 

EARL OF MORAY (Scotland), Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray (died August 11, 1332), a Scottish military commander, held his title for just 23 days. The son of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of King Robert I of Scotland, he succeeded his father on July 20, 1332. Thomas, 2nd Earl of Moray had a chief command under the Earl of Mar ranged against the army of Edward Balliol at the Battle of Dupplin Moor, where he was killed.

Volume 16

 

EARL OF MORAY, (Scotland) John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (1306 17 October 1346) was an important figure in the reign of David II of Scotland, and was for a time joint Regent of Scotland. He was son of the famous Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of Robert the Bruce. Upon the death of his elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332, John succeeded to the earldom. He at once took up arms on behalf of his sovereign and cousin King David II and surprised and defeated Edward Balliol at the Battle of Annan in December 1332. At the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, he commanded the first division of the Scots' Army, supported by Lord Andrew Fraser and his two brothers, Simon and James. Escaping from the carnage there he retired to France. John returned to Scotland the following year, when he and the High Steward of Scotland (the future King Robert II of Scotland) were appointed joint Regents, and set about trying to restore order to the nation.

He was successful in taking prisoner the Comyn Earl of Atholl, commander of the English forces in Scotland, but, on his swearing allegiance to the Scottish Crown he was set free. Comyn, however, disregarded his oath, returned to the English camp, and resumed his hostilities. In August 1335 led an attack on the Burgh Muir near Edinburgh against a body of Flemish auxiliaries in the English service, under Count Guy de Namur, and forced them to surrender. But escorting the Count to the Borders he fell into an ambush and was made prisoner by William de Pressen, (English) Warden of Jedburgh.

He was confined first at Nottingham Castle, and afterwards in the Tower of London. On 25 July 1340, he was removed to Windsor Castle. In 1341 he was exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury, a prisoner with the French, and Moray then returned to Scotland. In February 1342 he invaded England with David II of Scotland. At the fatal Battle of Neville's Cross, outside Durham, on 17 October 1346 John, with Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale, commanded the right wing of the Scottish army, and he was killed during the first English attack. He was married to Euphemia de Ross but the marriage was childless. The Earl's sister, Black Agnes, assumed the honours as Countess of Moray.

Volume 16

 

BARON THURLOW, (east central England) EDWARD, first BARON THURLOW (1731-1806), lord chancellor, eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Thurlow (d. 1762), incumbent successively of Little Ashfield, Suffolk, and of Thurston, Long Stratton, and Knapton, Norfolk, by Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Smith, a descendant of Sir Richard Hovell, esquire of the body to Henry V.

Thurlow was tall, well built, and singularly majestic in appearance. His features, though stern, were regular, and a swarthy complexion matched well with his keen black sparkling eyes and bushy eyebrows.

Volume: 56

 

BARON OF LEXINGTON, (middle east England) SUTTON, ROBERT, second BARON LEXINGTON (1661-1723), born at Averham Park, Nottinghamshire, the only son of Robert, first baron Lexington by his third wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Anthony St. Leger. he succeeded his father as second Baron Lexington in October 1668.


Macky describes Lexington as being of a brown complexion.

Volume: 55

 

SIR WILLIAM DOUGLAS, (d. 1392) LORD OF NITHSDALE (Scotland), was the illegitimate son of Archibald, third earl of Douglas himself the illegitimate son of the l Good' Sir James. For comeliness and bravery he was a worthy descendant of such ancestors, and the historians of the period describe him as inheriting several of the personal features of his grandfather, being large-boned, of great strength, tall and erect, bearing himself with a majestic mien, yet courteous and affable, and in company even hearty and merry.

He Inherited the swarthy complexion of the Good Sir James, and was also called the Black Douglas.
Volume 15

 

SIR STEPHEN FOX, (1627-1716), Statesman, born on 27 March 1627, was the youngest son of William Fox of Farley, Wiltshire. In his seventy seventh year, Fox, unwilling that so plentiful an estate should go out of the name, and being of a hale constitution,' married as his second wife, 11 July 1703, Christian, daughter and coheiress of Francis Hopes, rector, first of Haceby and afterwards of Aswar by, both in Lincolnshire. By this lady, who was then in her twentysixth year, Fox became the father of four more children: Stephen (ft. 1704), afterwards Earl of Ilchester; Henry (b.1705), first Lord Holland; a daughter, Christian, twin with Henry (d. 1708); and another daughter, Charlotte, married in July 1729 to Edward, third son of William, fifth lord Digby. The second Lady Fox dying at Bath, 17 Feb. 1718 1719, was buried at Farley. In the picture at Holland House Sir Godfrey Kneller endows her with small and pretty features, and hair and complexion as dark as her grandson's.

Volume 20

 

This piece for historical interest only.

CONSTANTINE I (d. 879)

Son of Kenneth Macalpine, king of Scotland
or Alba, the country north of the Forth and
Clyde, whose chief seat was Scone, succeeded his uncle Donald in 863. His reign was one of the first when the attacks of the Normans attained a formidable height, threatening the destruction of the Celtic and Saxon kingdoms. Two years after his accession Olaf the White, king of Dublin, wanted the country of the Picts, and occupied it from the Kalends of January to the feast of St. Patrick, i.e. 17 March.

According to the Pictish Chronicle, Olaf was slain by Constantine when on a raid in the following year, but the ' Annals of Ulster relate that he destroyed Alrhyth (Dumbarton), after a four months' siege, in 870, and retired in 871 to Dublin with two hundred ships and a great body of men, Anglo Britons and Picts. After this he disappears from the Irish annals, so that his death may possibly have been antedated by some years in the account of the Pictish Chronicle. Ivar, another of the Norse Vikings of Dublin, who had fought along with Olaf, died about the same time, but Scotland was still exposed to incursions from other leaders of the same race. Thorstein the Red, a son of Olaf, by Audur, the wealthy daughter of Ketill Flatnore, attacked the northern districts, and, according to the Icelandic Landnamabok/conquered ( Katanes and Suderland, Ross and Norway, and more than half Scotland. But his kingdom, which, perhaps, was acquiesced in by Constantine, who had slight hold of the northern parts, was brief, and he was slain by the men of Alba by a stratagem or treachery in 875. In the South Halfdane the Danish leader who led the northern of the two bands (Guthrum, Alfred's opponent commanded the other), into which the formerly united host of .that people was divided, ravaged the east coast of Britain, laid waste Northumbria, and destroyed the Picts of
Galloway?) and the people of Strathclyde.

Two years later another band of Danes, the Irish Dubhgall, or Black Strangers, having been driven from Ireland by the Fingall, or White Strangers, made a sudden descent on Scotland by way of the Clyde and, penetrating into the interior, defeated the Scots at Dollar, from which they passed to Inverdovat, in the parish of Forgan in Fife, where Con stantine was slain (877). Tradition points to the long black cave, near Crail, as the scene of his death.

[Robertson's Scotland under her Early Kings; Skene's Celtic Scotland.] M. M.

 

QUEEN ANNE OF BOHEMIA (1366-l394) (Bohemia the western two-thirds of the Czech Republic), first Queen of Richard II, was the eldest daughter of the Emperor Charles IV by his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania. She was born at prague on II May 1866. Her father was the son of that blind king, John of Bohemia, who was killed at the battle of Creasy, and was king of Bohemia himself as well as Emperor. Anne, says one writer, is not the handsomest women in the world, is of middling stature, swarthy complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised, and in fact has nothing but the king.
Volume 1

 
Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, (north east England) John Holles, (1662–1711) was the son of the 3rd Earl of Clare and his wife Grace Pierrepont.

In person Holles is described as a black,
ruddy-complexioned man.
Letters of Holles will be found in British Museum Additional MSS. 29.5G4 and :i30*4. His portrait bv Kneller has been engraved by K. White.

Volume 27

 

DUKE OF KINGSTON, (East Midlands of England, were High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests). PIERREPONT, EVELYN, first DUKE OF KINGSTON (1665 P-1726), was third son of Robert Pierrepont of Thoresby, Nottinghamshire, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Sir John Evelyn, of West Dean,Wiltshire.

Kingston, is thus described by Macky in 1705: He hath a very good estate, is a very fine gentleman, of good sense, well-bred, and a lover of the ladies ; entirely in the interest of his country; makes a good figure, is of a Black complexion, well made, not forty years old.
Volume: 45

 
EARL OF WARWICK, (Central England) GUY DE BEAUCHAMP. (d. 1315), a lord ordainer, succeeded his father, William, earl of Warwick, the grandson of BEAUCHAMP, WALTER DE, d. 1236]. In 1298. He distinguished himself at once by his bravery at Falkirk (22 July 1298), for which he received grants of estates in Scotland, and he did homage for his lands. He was one of the seven Earls who signed the famous letter to the pope (12 Feb. 1301), rejecting his authority in the Scottish question.

King Edward was present at his death
(7 July 1307), when he was warned by him
against Piers Gaveston. On the accession of
Edward II, Gaveston returned to England,
and dubbed Warwick, in insult, from his
swarthy complexion, 'the black cur of Arden'

Volume 4

 

LORD BELHAVEN, (Scotland) JOHN HAMILTON, second LORD BELHAVEN (1656-1708), born 5 July 1656, was eldest son of Robert Hamilton (d.1696), lord Presmennan, one of the judges of the court of session, by Marion Denholm, and elder brother of James Hamilton of Pencaitland, who was appointed a lord of justiciary in 1712

Macky (Memoirs, p. 236) caricatures him as
a rough, fat, black, noisy man, more like a butcher than a lord.' In the obituary notice of him in Boyer he is described as of 'a good stature, well set, of a healthy constitution, Black complexion and graceful manly presence.

Volume 24

 
EARL OF ORMONDE, (Ireland) tenth Earl THOMAS BUTLER (1532-1614), Thomas, who was called, from his dark complexion, the 'Black Earl' succeeded his father in the earldom and estates at the age of fourteen. He was brought up at the English court with a view to alienating his sympathies from Ireland, and was the first of his family to adopt Protestantism. He was knighted on Edward VI's accession in 1547. After Edward's death in 1553, the priests spread a false report that the young earl had been murdered in England, and the Irish on his estates, which were then managed by English officials, rose in revolt.

Volume 8
 

DUKE OF NEWCASTLE, (north east England) WILLIAM CAVENDISH, (1592-1676), son of Sir Charles. Newcastle was buried in St. Michael's Chapel, Westminster. Abbey. His wife, in the life of her husband, Describes his stature as a middle size, and his complexion sanguine.

Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is a title which has been created three times in British history while the title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been created once. The title was created for the first time in the Peerage of England in 1664 when William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne was made Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was a prominent Royalist commander in the Civil War.

Volume 9

 

LORD THOMAS FAIRFAX, first Lord Fairfax of
Cameron, (Scotland).


The best portrait of Fairfax is a miniature by
HoaInitii. In complexion he was so dark that He was nicknamed 'Black Tool.

Volume 18
 

LORD LAURENCE ESMONDE (d.1770) (northern Ireland). He is said to have been a man of 'sanguine Complexion.

Volume: 18

 
DRAYTON, MICHAEL (1563-1631), poet, was born at Hartshill, near Atherstone, Warwickshire, in 1563.

In person he was small, and his complexion was swarthy.

Volume 16

 

BLACKADER, CUTHBERT (d. 1485), A chieftain of the Scottish border, received
his surname and estate from James II in 1452 for his success in repelling the English marauders on the Scottish frontier. By his prowess he earned for himself the title of the ( chieftain of the south.' He and his seven sons who accompanied him on his expeditions were also named, from the darkness of their complexions, the ' Black band of the Blackaders.'
Volume 5

 
JOHN FELTON, (d. 1570), catholic layman, was descended from an ancient family in Norfolk. He was a gentleman of large property, and resided at Bermondsey Abbey, near Southwark, Surrey. His wife had been maid of honour to Queen Mary, who just before her death recommended her to Queen Elizabeth. Indeed, Elizabeth held her in great respect, for they had been friends and companions in childhood, and on this account Mrs, Felton was favoured with a special grant to keep a priest in her house.

Felton was low of stature, and of a black
complexion;
naturally of a warm temper, and almost ungovernable where the interest of his religion was concerned.

Volume 18

 

MAJOR GENERAL O'NEILL, HUGH (H, 1642-660), Irish general, nephew of the celebrated Owen Roe O’Neill. He was a major Irish commander against the English parliamentary forces of Oliver Cromwell. Borm in the Spanish Netherlands, was son of Art, who was elder brother of Owen Roe O'Neill (d. 1649), and nephew of Hugh O'Neill the great Earl of Tyrone. Hugh gained distinction as an officer in the army of Spain, and accompanied Owen O'Neill in 1642 to Ireland, where, from his father, he was known as 'MacArt,' and styled in Irish ' buidhe,' or the swarthy, from his complexion.

Volume 42

Owen Roe O'Neill
 

PARSONS or PERSONS, ROBERT
(1546-1610), Jesuit missionary and contro-
versialist, was born at Nether Stowey, near
Bridgwater, Somerset, on 24 June 1546. His
father, Henry Parsons, said to have been a
blacksmith, had by his wife Christiana eleven
children, of whom Robert was the sixth.

Dodd in describing his personal appearance, says 'he was of middle size, his complexion rather swarthy, which, with strong features, made his countenance somewhat forbidding.

Volume 43

 

BISHOP SQUIRE, SAMUEL (1713-1766), bishop of St. Davids, baptised at Warminster, Wiltshire, in 1713, was son of Thomas Squire (d. 30 Nov. 1761, aged 74), druggist and apothe cary of that town,

Squire's dark complexion gave him the nickname of The Man of Algola (Angola?).

Volume 53

 

CAMERON, Sik Ewen, or Evan, of Locliie, (Scotland highlands) a chief of the clan Cameron, distinguished for his chivalrous character, was boru in February 1629. He was called by his followers Mac'onnuill Dhu, or the son of Black Donald, according to the custom of their race, after his father Donald, the chief who preceded him ;also Ewen Dhu, or Black Evan, from his own dark complexion. He was brought up at Inverary castle, under the guardianship of his kinsman the marquis of Argyle, under whose charge he was placed in his tenth year, being regarded as a hostage for the peaceable behaviour of his clan. Argyle endeavoured to instil into his mind the political principles of the covenanters, but it is said that he was converted to the side of the king by the exhortations of Sit Robert Spottiswood, formerly president of the Court of Session, who had been taken at the battle of Pliiliphaugh in September 1645, and was afterwards executed. At the age of eighteen ho quitted Inverary castle, with the declared intention of joining the marquis of Montrose, who, however, had previously disbanded his forces, and retired to the Continent. Although the royal cause seemed lost, Lochiel kept his clan in arms, and was able to protect his estate from the incursions of Cromwell's troops.

Excerpt from The Scottish nation

 
COLONEL FREDERICK, (1725-1797),
also known as FREDERICK DE NEXJHOFF,
author of 'Description of Corsica,' was, by
his own account, the only son of Theodore
Etienne, Baron de Neuhoff, king of Corsica,
by his wife, an Irish lady named Sarsfield,
daughter of Lord Kilmallock, and one of the
suite of Queen Elizabeth Farnese of Spain.
The date of his birth was supposed by his
family to be about 1725.

In person Frederick was spare, of middle
freight, with an erect military gait, which he
never lost, a pleasing countenance, and a dark olive complexion, bespeaking a southern origin.

Volume 20

 

SIR EDWARD MASSEY (1619-1674), Major-general, was the fifth son of John Massey of Coddington, Cheshire, and Anne, daughter of Richard Grosvenor of Eaton.

In person he was of a 'middle stature with brown hair ' and ' sanguine complexion.

Volume 37

 

KING CHARLES II (1630–1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland in Edinburgh on 6 February 1649, the English Parliament instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if Charles had succeeded his father as king in 1649. A tall man, above two yards high, his hair a was indescribably coarse, struck the critical as deep brown, near to black. Evelyn speaks of his swarthy complexion.
Volume 10

 
DUKE OF MONTAGU, (Oxfordshire south central England) RALPH (1638-1709), Was the second son of Edward Montagu, second lord Montagu of Boughton. Two engraved portraits of Montagu are among the Sutherland collection in the Bodleian Library (Catalogue, i. 648). Macky describes him as of a middle stature, inclining to fat, of a coarse, dark complexion.

Volume 38

 
EARL OF MIDDLETON, (Scotland) CHARLES, second EARL Of MIDDLETON and titular EARL OF MONMOUTH (1640P-1719), secretary of state to James II, born about 1640, was eldest son of John, first earl of Middleton, by his wife Grizel. daughter of Sir James Durham of Pitkerrow, and widow first of Sir Alexander Fotheringham of Ballindrone, and secondly of Sir Gilbert Ramsay of Balmain. Macky describes Middleton as 'a black man, of a middle stature, with a sanguine complexion, and one of the pleasantest companions in the world.' He also states that he was ' one of the politest gentlemen in Europe
Volume 37
 

BARON NORRIS OF RYCOTE, (south central England) SIR HENRY NORRIS, (1525-1601). Was son and heir of Henry Norris (d. 1536) who was executed and attainted as the alleged lover of Anne Boleyn. He seems to have been born about 1525. His age was officially declared in 1564 to be only thirty (DUGDALE), but this statement is irreconcilable with the records of his early years. Henry VIII restored to him much of his father's confiscated estate, 'with some strict conditions respecting the estate of his grandmother, who was one of the heirs of Viscount Lovell.

1554. During Mary's reign Norris resided at Wytham, Berkshire, one of the manors of his father-in-law.

Williams had shared with Sir Henry Bedingfield the duty of guarding Elizabeth while she was imprisoned at Woodstock during Queen Mary's reign. He had treated the princess leniently, had invited her occasionally to Rycote, and his kindness was gratefully remembered by Elizabeth. She Consequently showed, after her accession to the throne, exceptional favour to Norris and his wife. The latter she playfully nicknamed her 'black crow' in reference to her Dark complexion.

Volume: 41

 

EARL OF BEDFORD, (south central England) RUSSELL, EDWARD, (1653-1727), admiral of the fleet, born in Was the son of Edward Russell, a younger brother of William Russell, first duke of Bedford.

Bedford is described in 1704 as ' of a sanguine complexion, inclining to fat ; of a middle stature.' His portrait, by R. Bockman, is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich ; another, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, has been engraved.

Volume: 49

 
LORD CHANCELLOR OF IRELAND METHUEN, JOHN (1650 P-1706), was the eldest son of Paul Methuen of Bradford, Wiltshire, clothier, by his wife Grace (d. 1676), daughter of John Ashe of Freshford, Somerset. He is described by Macky as a man of intrigue, but very muddy in his conceptions, and not quickly understood in anything. In his complexion and manners much of a Spaniard: a tall black man.

Volume 37

 
Hugh Hyacinth O'Rorke MacDermot, Prince of Coolavin (west central ireland). The MacDermot (1834-1904), attorney-general for Ireland, born on 1 July 1834 at Coolavin, co. Sligo, was eldest of the twelve children of Charles Joseph MacDermot, titular ' Prince of Coolavin,' by his wife Arabella O'Rorke, the last lineal descendant of the Breffny family. The family, which was Roman catholic, lost most of their lands in the civil wars in Ireland in the seventeenth century, and they lived for generations in great retirement at Coolavin, where the head,  despite his narrow means, maintained much personal state A brother, John MacDermot (known locally from his swarthy complexion as “The Black Prince”) became a canon of Achonry and was a notable rider to hounds.
Volume S-2
 

TISDALL, PHILIP (1707-1777), Irish politician, was born at Finglas, near Dublin, in 1707. He was the son of Richard Tisdal (registrar of the Irish court of chancerv, and member for the borough of Dundul'k, 1707-13, and county of Louth, 1713-27, in the Irish parliament), by his wife Marian, daughter of Richard Boyle, M.P.forLeighlin, a descendant of the great Earl of Cork.

As a leading member of the Irish cabinet Tisdal is satirised in ' Baratariana 'under the name of 'Don Philip the Moor,' and also in ' Pranceriana,' and Irish periodical literature testifies abundantly to the importance of 'Black Phil,' as Tisdal, from his dark complexion, grave demeanour, and sardonic temper, was commonly known.

Volume: 56

 
DAYROLLES, SOLOMON (d. 1786), Diplomatist, nephew and heir of James Dayrolles, king's resident for some time at Geneva, and from 1717 to 1739 at the Hague, who died on 2 Jan. 1739, was the godson of Lord Chesterfield, the wit and politician, through whose friendship the young official obtained speedy advancement in his profession. He was secretary to Lord Chesterfield and was nominated by him gentleman usher of the black rod, a sinecure to which he was entitled, as the donor ingeniously said, by the excessive darkness of his complexion.

Volume 14

 

BISHOP DEE, FRANCIS, D.D. (d. 1638), bishop of Peterborough, 1634-8, was the son of the Rev. David Dee of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, a member of an old Shropshire family, who held the rectory of St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield. He had a very fair, clear, sanguine complexion, a long beard as white as milk.

Volume 14

 
ARCHBISHOP DOLBEN, JOHN (1625-1686), archbishop of York (1683-6), was the eldest son of Dr. William Dolben prebendary of Lincoln and rector of Stanwick, Northamptonshire, where he was born 20 March 1625. His person was commanding, but overcorpulent; his complexion dark.
Volume 15
 
DOUGLAS, SIR JAMES, of Douglas, 'the Good, LORD OF DOUGLAS (1286- 1330), (Scotland) Was the eldest son of Sir William Douglas of Douglas, the hardy by his first wife, Elizabeth Stewart; for Barbour calls James, high steward of Scotland. When his father was seized and imprisoned by Edward I, he was sent to France, whence, after a three years' sojourn in Paris, he returned to find his father dead and himself stripped of his inheritance, which had been given by Edward to Sir Robert Clifford. He was dreaded throughout the north of England. He was called ‘the Black Douglas' from his complexion.

Volume 15

 
BISHOP HORSLEY, SAMUEL (1733-180l),
Son of John Horsley, principal of Edinburgh
University.

Description of him at the age of seventeen;
his eyes and his complexion dark as a raven.

Volume 27

 
MURPHY, MICHAEL (1767-1798), Irish rebel, the son of a peasant, was born at Kilnew, co. Wexford, about 1767. Having acquired some learning at a hedge-school at Oulart, he was ordained a priest at "Whitsuntide 1785, and sent to complete his education at the Irish College at Bordeaux. On his return to Ireland he was appointed officiating priest of the parish of Ballycanew in the diocese of Ferns.

In 1798 he was still a young man, strongly built, and of a dark complexion.

Volume 39

 
BISHOP WALCHER (d. 1080), bishop of Durham, was a native of Lorraine, of noble birth, who became a secular priest, and one of the clergy of the church of Liege. In 1071 he was appointed by the Conqueror to succeed Ethelwine as bishop of Durham, and was consecrated at Winchester by Thomas, archbishop of York.

He was very tall, and had snow-white hair and a ruddy complexion is said to have prophesied his martyrdom.

Volume: 59

 
MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900), Unitarian divine, youngest son and seventh child of Thomas Martineau

His colleague's son, describes him at that period as ' benevolently ugly, if ugly at all, with his rough-cast features, wild upstanding black hair, low broad forehead, and swarthy complexion'

Volume S-3

 
BLACKWOOD, WILLIAM (1776-1834), publisher, of 'Blackwood Magazine' was born at Edinburgh.

He was described him in his prime among the literary loungers in his shop as ' nimble, active looking, with a complexion very sanguineous.

Volume S-2

 
DAUBUZ, CHARLES (1673-1717) Was born in the province of Guienne in France, in July 1673, being son of Isaie d'Aubus, protestant pastor at Nerac. On the revocation of the edict of Nantes, the father obtained from Louis XIV a document, still preserved in the family archives, authorising him to leave France with his wife, Julie, and four children. He started for England, but on reaching Calais he died at an inn, and was privately buried in the garden, the innkeeper helping his widow, during the night, to dig the grave. She was afterwards joined at Calais by her husband's brother, who held some ecclesiastical preferment in the north of England, and he succeeded in bringing
the widow and her children over to this country, and settling them in Yorkshire. Charles Daubuz was admitted into Merchant Taylors' School, London, on 11 Sept. 1686 (Robinson, Register of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 317). He was admitted a sizar of Queens' College, Cambridge, 10 Jan. 1689. He graduated B.A. 13 Jan. 1693, was appointed librarian of his college on 21 March in the same year, and continued in that employment tiU 10 Aug. 1695. In the following year he succeeded Thomas Balguy in the mastership of the grammar school of Sheffield, and he was the early tutor of his predecessor's son, John Balguy [q. v.] He commenced M.A. at Cambridge in 1697 {Cantabrigienses Graduatied. 1787, p. 110). He left Sheffield in 1699, on being presented by the dean and chapter of York to the vicarage of Brotherton, a small viUage near Ferrybridge in the West Riding of Yorkshire. This vicarage, of the annual value of 60/. or 70/., was all the preferment he ever enjoyed, and in order to support a numerous family he was obliged to undertake the education of the sons of several gentlemen in the neighbourhood. He devoted his leisure to the composition of his bulky commentary on the * Apocalypse,' which was eventually published by his widow. It is stated in a manuscript note by the Rev.

John Law, who afterwards became vicar of Brotherton, that * when he had finished his book he went to consult Dr. Bentley (the then great critic of the age) ; but the doctor (as is supposed), thinking Mr. Daubuz would outshine him in learning, and eclipse his glory, did not encourage him to publish it. Upon which poor Mr. Daubuz returned home unhappy in mind and weary in body, sickened of pleuritic fever, and died in a few days,' on 14 June 1717. Law says he was ' a tall, stout, strong, hale man, of a swarthy, black complexion, wore his own strong, black curled hair, and had a very loud voice. He was a worthy, good man, a man beloved and re spected by all.'

 
MURRAY, LINDLEY (1745-1826), grammarian, was born at Swatara, Penn sylvania, on 22 April 1745. His father, Robert Murray, a member of an old Quaker family, was one of the leading New York merchants. Murray was the eldest of twelve children, all of whom he survived, although, he was puny and delicate in childhood. When six years old, he was sent to school in Philadelphia, but soon left to accompany his parents to North Carolina, where they lived until 1753. Murray was tall, slender, and of a ruddy complexion. In spite of bad health he was always cheerful, and his manner was conspicuously modest.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More complete Biographies for the following people is provided on the linked page - Click here

CONSTANTINE I (d. 879) for historical interest only.

HAMILTON, JOHN - SECOND LORD BELHAVEN (1656-1708)

DOUGLAS, SIR WILLIAM, LORD of NITHSDALE (d. 1392 ?)

DAYROLLES, SOLOMON (d. 1786)

THOMAS RANDOLF, 1st EARL OF MORAY

DAUBUZ, CHARLES (1673-1717)

MIDDLETON, FIRST EARL OF

BLACKADDER FAMILY

 

 

 

 

 

Names, Crests, and "Coats-of-Arms" of some ancient Black British people.

 

 

The Surname "Bower"

German

The historical and enchanting region of Austria is the birthplace of the distinguished family name Bower. Austria, which was originally home to a Celtic people, was conquered by the Roman Empire in about 15 BC. Following the fall of Rome, Austria was repeatedly invaded by barbarian tribes, such as the Vandals, Visigoths, and Huns, who swept in from the east. During the 5th and 6th centuries, the Alemanni, Avars and Slavs settled Austria. The Avars were defeated in 785 by the Frankish emperor Charlemagne, who set up the East Mark, which later became known as the Österreich. Otto I defeated the Magyars in 955. Austria was ruled by the Babenburger dynasty until 1278, when they were succeeded by the Hapsburg dynasty, which ruled Austria until the 20th century. One can encounter great variation in the spelling of surnames: in early times, spelling in general, and thus the spelling of names was not yet standardized; and later, spellings would change with branching and movement of families.Variations of the name Bower include Bauer, Baur, Bauerr, Bauerre, Bower, Boerema, Bohr, Burr and many more.

First found in Austria and Bavaria, where the name contributed greatly to the development of an emerging nation which would later play a large role in the tribal and national conflicts of the area. In later years the name branched into many houses, each playing a significant role in the local social and political affairs.

Scottish


Bower is an ancient name for a person who worked as a maker of bows. Further research revealed that the name is derived from the Old English word which means bow maker. Surnames that evolved in the Middle Ages often appear under many spelling variations. These are due to the practice of spelling according to sound in the era before dictionaries had standardized the English language. bower has appeared as Bower, Bowre, Bowyr, Bowers, Bowyer, Beauer and many more.

 

 

The Surname "More"

Austria

The name More comes from the Austrian empire. The tradition of adopting hereditary surnames came to this German speaking region after the 12th century, and surnames derived from places where people lived were a primary source. Many local names carry the prefix "von", meaning "of" or "from". It originally indicated land ownership, and is sometimes a mark of nobility. The More family originally lived in the modern state of Austria In the medieval era, many different cultural groups lived in the German states. There are thus many regional variations of German surnames from that era. Westphalians spoke Low German, which is similar to modern Dutch. Many German names carry suffixes that identify where they came from. Others have phrases attached that identify something about the original bearer. Other variations in German names resulted from the fact that medieval scribes worked without the aid of any spelling rules. The spelling variations of the name More include Mohr, More, Morher, Mohrer, Mor, Moor and others. First found in Austria and the Rhineland, where the name became noted for its many branches within the region, each house acquiring a status and influence which was envied and enrolled by the princes of the region. In their later history the family became a power unto themselves and were elevated to the ranks of nobility as they grew into this most influential family.

 

 

 

 

The Surname "More" continued

France

Spelling variations of this family name include: Moret, Morez, Moré, Morais, Morey, Moraie, Moraies, Mauret, Maurez, Maurais, Maurey, Mauraie, Mauraies, Morret, Maurret, Morrez, Morré, Morrais, Maurrais, Morrey, Maurrey, Morraie, Maurraie, Morraies, Maurraies, Mouré, Mouret, Mourez, Mourière, de Moret and many more. First found in Ile-de-France, where the family has held a family seat since ancient times.

Ireland

There are several distinct sources of the More surname in Ireland. Most of the name find their roots with the Anglo-Norman "Strongbow" invasion of the 12th century. Many of these became de Mora. Others derived from the Old Irish "O Mordha," from the word "mordha," meaning "stately," or "noble." The English surname More is derived from the personal name "More," which is itself derived from the Old French word "maur," meaning "Moor. Since church officials and medieval scribes spelt each name as it sounded to them; as a result, a single person could accumulate many different versions of his name within official records. A close examination of the Origins of the name More revealed the following spelling variations: Moore, More, Moor, O'More, Moores, Mores, McMore, Moire, Moare, MacMoore, McMoir, Moir, O'Moore, O'Moire, McMoare, MacMoir, MacMoare, Mooer and many more. First found in Leicestershire, before the name had made its way to Ireland; their first records appeared on the early census rolls taken by the early kings of Britain to determine the rate of taxation of their subjects.

Scotland

The More surname in Scotland is thought to have been a topographic name for someone who resided near a moor, or heath. In Gaelic, Mor means great or big; therefore, a scribe may have mistaken the adjective Mor as a surname More or Muir. This may explain the occurrence of the surname Muir, or a variant in Northern Scotland. The name Muir would seem out of place in that region because it holds a meaning of "living by a moor or heath," not the typical landscape of the highlands. Judging by its meaning, Muir is a local name of the south that described the area, in which the original bearer lived or held land. Spelling variations of this family name include: Muir, Mure, Moor, Moore, Mure, More, Moorman and many more. First found in Ayrshire, where they held a family seat from early times and their first records appeared on the census rolls taken by the ancient Kings of Scotland to determine the rate of taxation of their subjects.

 

 

Andrewes


The Picts were the ancient Scottish tribe where the ancestors of the andrewes family lived. The name andrewes comes from the baptismal name Andrew which in Greek means manly. The name was popular as both a personal name and a surname, likely because it was the name of Scotland's patron saint. In Gaelic the name is Aindrea and Anndra which again means manly. Before the first dictionaries appeared in the last few hundred years, scribes spelled according to sound. spelling variations are common among Scottish names. andrewes has been spelled Andrew, Andrews, MacAndrew, Androw, Androe, Andro and many more. First found in Caithness. This family was strongly associated with the Clan Ross. It was originally known as the Clan Siol Andrea, meaning the race of Andrew. However, from about the year 1100 the Andrews moved south to the Dumfriesshire area of southwest Scotland. Duncan Andrew, Chief of the clan, rendered homage to King Edward I of England in 1296.

(No idea why so many crest entries for Andrews)

 

 

Andros


The ancient Pictish-Scottish name andros comes from the baptismal name Andrew which in Greek means manly. The name was popular as both a personal name and a surname, likely because it was the name of Scotland's patron saint. In Gaelic the name is Aindrea and Anndra which again means manly. Scribes in the Middle Ages did not have access to a set of spelling rules. They spelled according to sound, the result was a great number of spelling variations. In various documents, andros has been spelled Andrew, Andrews, MacAndrew, Androw, Androe, Andro and many more. First found in Caithness. This family was strongly associated with the Clan Ross. It was originally known as the Clan Siol Andrea, meaning the race of Andrew. However, from about the year 1100 the Andrews moved south to the Dumfriesshire area of southwest Scotland. Duncan Andrew, Chief of the clan, rendered homage to King Edward I of England in 1296.

 

 

Amo


Spelling variations of this family name include: Amor, Amores, Amorim, Amo and others. First found in Castile, in north central Spain.
Some of the first settlers of this family name or some of its variants were: Early migrants to the New World bearing this surname include: Juan De Amor, who arrived in Florida in 1538; Lorenzo de Amor, who arrived in Peru in 1594.

 

 

Morfyn


Spelling variations of this family name include: Morfin, Morffin, Morfee, Maufee, Morfyn, Murfyn and others. First found in Essex where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor. The Saxon influence of English history diminished after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed. But Saxon surnames survived and the family name was first referenced in the 13th century when they held lands.

 

 

Christie

The Picts were the ancient Scottish tribe where the ancestors of the christie family lived. The name christie comes from Christopher or perhaps from Christian. When the first dictionaries were invented in the last few hundred years, spelling gradually became standardized. Before that time, scribes spelled according to sound. Names were often recorded under different spelling variations every time they were written. christie has been written Christie, Chrystie, Chrysty, Christy, McChristie, McChristy, Christe, Christi and many more. First found in Edinburghshire, where they were recorded as a family of great antiquity seated at Carvant in that shire. By 1296 they had moved northward to Stirlingshire and there is a section of the Stirling Antiquary called "the Christies and their doings." A charter from 1457 granted by the abbot of Lindores mentions John Chrysty as a burgess. Later, John Chryste was listed as burgess of Aberdeen in 1530.

 

 

 

Big

The proud Norman name of big was developed in England soon after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. It was name for a large, stout, or strong man. The name is Old Norse in origin, and stems from the Old English root bigge. Spelling variations in names were a common occurrence in the eras before English spelling was standardized a few hundred years ago. In the Middle Ages, even the literate regularly changed the spellings of their names as the English language incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other European languages. Many variations of the name big have been found, including Biggs, Bigg, Big, Bigge, Byggs, Bygges, Bigges and others. First found in Essex, where they had been granted lands by King William after the Norman Conquest in 1066.

 

Dobson

dobson is a name of Anglo-Saxon origin and came from Dob, the baptismal name meaning the son of Robert. Spelling variations in names were a common occurrence before English spelling was standardized a few hundred years ago. In the Middle Ages, even the literate spelled their names differently as the English language incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other European languages. Many variations of the name dobson have been found, including Dobson, Dobsons, Dobsin, Dobsan, Dobsaun, Dobsone and many more. First found in Lancashire where they held a family seat from very ancient times.

 

Gilham

gilham is a name of ancient Norman origin. It arrived in England with the Norman Conquest of 1066. gilham is a name that comes from the Old French given name Guillaume. The name Guillaume was modified into two forms after arriving in England: Gillham and William. Anglo-Norman names are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. When the Normans became the ruling people of England in the 11th century, they introduced a new language into a society where the main languages of Old and later Middle English had no definite spelling rules. These languages were more often spoken than written, so they blended freely with one another. Contributing to this mixing of tongues was the fact that medieval scribes spelled words according to sound, ensuring that a person's name would appear differently in nearly every document in which it was recorded. The name has been spelled Gillham, Gillam, Gilliam, Gilham, Gillem, Gillum, Giliam, Gwillam, Gwillham, Gwilliam, Gwilham, Gyllham, Gylham and many more. First found in Essex where they had been granted lands by King William, Duke of Normandy, for their assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

 

Haynes

The history of the name haynes begins with the Anglo-Saxon tribes of Britain. It is derived from the baptismal name for Haine. As the naming tradition grew in Europe baptismal names began to be introduced in many countries. Baptismal names were sometimes given in honor of Christian saints and other biblical figures. There are very few Christian countries in Europe that did not adopt surnames from these religious figures. The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries; therefore, spelling variations are common among early Anglo-Saxon names. As the form of the English language changed, even the spelling of literate people's names evolved. haynes has been recorded under many different variations, including Haines, Hains, Hain, Haine, Haynes, Hainson and others. First found in Lincolnshire where they held a family seat from very ancient times, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.

 

Monson

We must look to France for the early Origins of the name monson for it is here that the name was derived from Monceaux, who was descended from the ancient lords of Maers and Monceaux, Counts of Nevers. The Count of Nevers (c. 990) had a son named Landric of Nevers who was grandfather of William de Monson who is mentioned by Wace in 1066. This same person appears as William de Moncellis in the Exeter Domesday and as William de Nevers in Norfolk in 1086. Norman surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. The frequent changes in surnames are largely due to the fact that the Old and Middle English languages lacked definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England, as well as the official court languages of Latin and French, also had pronounced influences on the spelling of surnames. Since medieval scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, rather than adhering to any specific spelling rules, it was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings. The name has been spelled Monson, Munson, Mounson and others. First found in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire where the aforementioned William descendants settled. The ancestry of this distinguished Norman name can be traced to Carleton, Lincolnshire when they were Lords of the manor Antecedent to 1200. Thomas de Monceaux (d. 1345) seized the manors of Killingholm and Keleby. His son, Sir John de Monceaux (or Monson) (d. 1363) seized Burton, all in the Lincolnshire.

 

Morison

The descendents of settlers in ancient Scotland were the first to use the name morison. It was derived from the name Maurice. This comes from the Latin personal name Mauritius, which means dark. Numerous legends exist for the Origins of this great Scottish clan. One old tale holds that the Clan's Norse forbears were shipwrecked off the Isle of Lewis, and saved themselves by clinging to driftwood; hence the Clan Plant badge is driftwood. Another branch claims descent from the O'Muircheasain bards of the outer Hebrides. This latter legend is not inconsistent with a possible shipwreck of the Norsemen, as many of the bardic missionaries from Ireland were of Norse descent. Others claim the Clan is descended from King Somerled, King of the Isles, who died in 1164. Again, this is compatible with history, as Somerled was descended from the Norse Kings of Ireland and gave origin to many of the more notable Scottish Clans.

Norleigh

Spelling variations of this family name include: Norley, Norley, Norleigh, Norlea, Norlie, Northley, Nothleigh, Northleigh, Norleighe, Norely and many more. First found in Cheshire where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor. The Saxon influence of English history diminished after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed. But Saxon surnames survived and the family name was first referenced in the 13th century when they held a family seat at Norley in that shire.

Pearson

pearson is an ancient Norman name that arrived in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The name pearson comes from the French given name Pierre, which is equivalent to the English Peter. A multitude of spelling variations characterize Norman surnames. Many variations occurred because Old and Middle English lacked any definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England also had a pronounced effect, as did the court languages of Latin and French. Therefore, one person was often referred to by several different spellings in a single lifetime. The various spellings include Pearson, Peerson, Pierson, Peirson and others. First found in Berwickshire where the name was derived as "son of Pier." Walter Pierson of Berwickshire rendered homage to King Edward I of England on his brief conquest of Scotland in 1296.

 

 

Lindsey

The lindsey family originally lived in the parish of Lindsay in the northern English county of Ealdric de Lindsay held estates in both Normandy and in Lincolnshire, England. He was a tenant of English estates for the Earl of Chester. Spelling variations of this family name include: Lindsay, Lyndsay, Lyndsey, Lindesey, Lindsey and many more. First found in Lanarkshire where they were descended from Randolph Lord of Toeni who was banished by Duke William from Normandy in 1058 along with many other knights. He settled on the borders of Lincolnshire and Leicestershire and erected a barony known as Linesi including Belvoir Castle. When the Duke of Normandy invaded England he was again forced to move and settled on the lands of Crawford in Lanarkshire Scotland. Earl David of Huntingdon then King David of Scotland confirmed the lands to the Clan in 1124.

 

 

The Surname "Buller"

German

First found in Bavaria, where the name Buller became noted for its many branches with the region, each house acquiring a status and influence which was envied by the princes of the region. In their later history the family became a power unto themselves and were elevated to the ranks of nobility as they grew into this most influential family.

Spelling variations of this family name include: Buller, Buler, Buhller, Buhler, Beuller, Bueller, Beuler, Bueler, Boller, Boeler, Bohler, Bohller, Boeller, Boeler, Boehler, Boehller, Bullen, Bulen, Bullel, Bulel, Bullere, Bulere, Buellen, Buelen, Buellel, Buelel, Buellere, Buelere, Bollen, Bolen, Bollel, Bolel, Bollere, Bolere, Boellen, Boelen, Boellel, Boelel, Boellere, Boelere, Bewlar and many more.

English

The history of the buller family name begins after the Norman Conquest of 1066. They lived in Cornwall. Checking further we found the name was derived from the Flemish region of Boulaere, where the family resided before emigrating to England. Anglo-Norman names are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. When the Normans became the ruling people of England in the 11th century, they introduced a new language into a society where the main languages of Old and later Middle English had no definite spelling rules. These languages were more often spoken than written, so they blended freely with one another. Contributing to this mixing of tongues was the fact that medieval scribes spelled words according to sound, ensuring that a person's name would appear differently in nearly every document in which it was recorded. The name has been spelled Buller, Bullar, Buler and others. First found in Cornwall where they held a family seat from very early times and were granted lands by Duke William of Normandy, their liege Lord, for their distinguished assistance at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D.

 

 

Agg

The name agg arrived in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The agg family lived in Oxfordshire. A multitude of spelling variations characterize Norman surnames. Many variations occurred because Old and Middle English lacked any definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England also had a pronounced effect, as did the court languages of Latin and French. Therefore, one person was often referred to by several different spellings in a single lifetime. The various spellings include Agg, Agge, Aug, Auge and others. First found in Auge, as De Augo from Crevecoeur, Calvados, in Normandy. The family were bailiffs of the town of Auge. Henry, Duke of Normandy issued a writ insisting that the men of their ilk would not be allowed to attend the fair at Crevecoeur.

 

 

Buckworth

The ancestors of the bearers of the buckworth family name are thought have lived in ancient Anglo-Saxon England. They were first found in the county of Hertfordshire, at Broxbourne. Until quite recently, the English language has lacked a definite system of spelling rules. Consequently, Anglo-Saxon surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. Changes in Anglo-Saxon names were influenced by the evolution of the English language, as it incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other languages.

Although Medieval scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, so it is common to find one person referred to by several different spellings of his surname, even the most literate people varied the spelling of their own names. Variations of the name buckworth include Buckworth, Buckworthe and others. First found in Hertfordshire where they held a family seat from very ancient times, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.

Haliburton

Spelling variations of this family name include: Halliburton, Haliburton, Haleyburton, Hollyburton, Halyburton, Halburton, Heliburton and many more. First found in Berwickshire where they held a family seat from very ancient times, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.

Soame

Spelling variations of this family name include: Soam, Soams, Soames, Somes, Soame, Soan, Soanes and others. First found in Suffolk where they held a family seat from very ancient times, as Lords of the manor of Berkesden, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D.

 

 

Borthwick

The BoRTHwicK family name comes from a place name that was first used among the Viking settlers who arrived in the shores of Scotland in the Middle Ages. The BoRTHwicK name comes from someone having lived in the old barony of Borthwick, next to 'Borthwick Water' between Selkirk and Roxburghshire. Bearers of this surname have inhabited this area since at least the 14th century. Documents first mention 'Quondam' Thomas de Borthwick, who held lands in Middleton, MidLothian, and who had a charter from John of Gordon, Lord of that Ilk, for the lands near Lauder, between 1357 and 1367.Translation and spelling were non-standardized practices in the Middle Ages, so scribes had only their ears to rely on. This was a practice of extremely limited efficiency, and spelling variations in names, even within a single document, were the result. Over the years, BoRTHwicK has appeared Borthwick, Borthwicke, Barthwick, Barthwicke, Borthock, Borthok and many more. First found in Roxburghshire where this family prospered through an uncertain era of raiding, feuding and warring in Southern Scotland. By 1400, the Border feuds had taken shape into a Code, which although to us at this time may seem like straight outlawry, was a strict set of rules governing the apparent indiscriminate burning of homes and theft of cattle, horses and even women.

Black

The Origins of the Anglo-Saxon name blacke come from its first bearer, who was a person associated with the color black. The name blacke may have referred to someone with black hair or clothing, or to somone who worked in a profession such as chimney sweeping, which left its practitioners covered in soot {Laughter aside: please remember that the source of the name histories is "White"}. The first dictionaries that appeared in the last few hundred years did much to standardize the English language. Before that time, spelling variations in names were a common occurrence. The language was changing, incorporating pieces of other languages, and the spelling of names changed with it. blacke has been spelled many different ways, including Black, Blacke and others. First found in Lincolnshire where they held a family seat from very ancient times, some say well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066 A.D. It is said that the first family of Black were converted to Christianity by Paulinus, the head of the family being Prefect of Lincoln, about 628. They moved northward, however, and were well established in Scotland by 1175 A.D.

 

 

Ashford

The proud ashford family originated in Cornwall, a rugged coastal region in southwestern England. In early times, people were known by only a single name. However, as the population grew and people travelled further afield, it became increasingly necessary to assume an additional name to differentiate between bearers of the same personal name. The manner in which hereditary surnames arose is interesting. Local surnames are derived from where the original bearer lived, was born, or held land. The ashford family originally lived at Ayshford, in Cornwall. The ashford surname was also derived from the Old English words aesc and ford which meant a ford where ash trees grew. Cornish surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. The frequent changes in surnames are due to the fact that the Old and Middle English languages lacked definite spelling rules. The official court languages, which were Latin and French, were also influential on the spelling of a surname. Since the spelling of surnames was rarely consistent in medieval times, and scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded rather than adhering to any specific spelling rules, it was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings of their surname in the ancient chronicles. Moreover, a large number of foreign names were brought into England, which accelerated and accentuated the alterations to the spelling of various surnames. Lastly, spelling variations often resulted from the linguistic differences between the people of Cornwall and the rest of England. The Cornish spoke a unique Brythonic Celtic language which was first recorded in written documents during the 10th century. However, they became increasingly Anglicized, and Cornish became extinct as a spoken language in 1777, although it has been revived by Cornish patriots in the modern era. The name has been spelled Aishford, Ashford, Ayshford, Aysford, Asford, Asseford and many more. First found in Ayshford, in the county of Cornwall, and in the County of Devon, from earliest times, and in later years a branch of the family migrated eastward to Kent. There are at least two references to the name in the Domesday Book: Aisseford and Aiseforda. Both were listed in Devon.

Agas is an ancient Anglo-Saxon surname that came from the baptismal name for the son of Agace. Agas has been recorded under many different variations, including Haggas, Haggis, Hagis, Hagass, Haggist, Hagges, Hages, Hagus, Hagase, Aggas, Agas, Aggs, Agace, Agus and many more.

 

Marquess of Hertford

 

 

The titles of Earl of Hertford and Marquess of Hertford have been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain.

The third Earldom of Hertford was created in 1559 for Edward Seymour, who was simultaneously created Baron Beauchamp of Hache. His grandson William Seymour was subsequently created Marquess of Hertford and restored to the title of Duke of Somerset; the Marquessate became extinct in 1675 and the other three titles in 1750.

The present Marquessate was created in 1793. Lord Hertford holds the subsidiary titles of Earl of Yarmouth (Peerage of Great Britain, 1793), Earl of Hertford (Peerage of Great Britain, 1750), Viscount Beauchamp (Peerage of Great Britain, 1750), Baron Conway, of Ragley in the County of Warwick (Peerage of England, 1703), and Baron Conway of Killultagh, of Killultagh in the County of Antrim (Peerage of Ireland, 1712). Lord Hertford's heir uses the style Earl of Yarmouth.

The Marquesses of Hertford are members of the Seymour family headed by the Duke of Somerset. Francis Seymour (1679–1732) was the fourth son of Sir Edward Seymour of Berry Pomeroy, 4th Baronet, a descendant of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (Sir Edward's grandson Sir Edward Seymour, 6th Baronet, of Berry Pomeroy succeeded as 8th Duke of Somerset in 1750). Upon the death of his elder brother, Francis succeeded to the estates of his relative Edward Conway, 1st Earl of Conway. In 1703 he was created Baron Conway in the Peerage of England and assumed the additional surname of Conway. In 1712 he was created Baron Conway of Killultagh in the Peerage of Ireland. In 1750 his son Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Baron Conway, was created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford. These were revivals of titles previously held by the Dukes of Somerset, which had become extinct the same year on the death of Seymour-Conway's kinsman Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset. In 1793 he was further honoured when he was made Earl of Yarmouth and Marquess of Hertford. The latter title had also previously been held by the Dukes of Somerset, but had become extinct in 1675 (see below). As a descendant of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, the present Marquess of Hertford is in remainder to the Dukedom of Somerset and its subsidiary title the Barony of Seymour. The family seat is Ragley Hall, near Alcester, Warwickshire.

 

Ive or Ivy

 

Dictionary of national biography

IVE or IVY, WILLIAM (d. 1485),
theologian, studied at Magdalen College,
Oxford, and was afterwards a fellow and lec-
turer in theology there. He was head-master
at Winchester College from 1444 to 1454
{Hist. of the Colleges of Winchester, #c.,p. 51).
In 1461-2, before which date he had gradu-
ated D.D.,Ivewas commissary or vice-chan-
cellor for George Neville, the chancellor of the
university. A number of documents relating
to his tenure of this office are printed in the
' Munimenta Academica ' (ii. 683-4, 693,
697, 757, Rolls Ser.) On 29 Jan. 1463 he was
appointed rector of Appleby, Lincolnshire,
and on 21 July 1464 master of Whitting-
ton's College at St. Michael Royal, London,
which post he resigned before 1470 (NEW-
COURT, Repertorium, i. 493). He was a canon
residentiary of Salisbury, and on 21 Aug. 1470
was made chancellor of the diocese. Tanner
says he was also canon of St. Paul's, and for
some time held the church of Brikkelworth.
He was dead by 8 Feb. 1485.

Ive wrote : 1. ' Praelectiones contra hsere-
sim fratris Johannis Mylverton.' These lec-
tures, four in number, were delivered at St.
Paul's, apparently at the end of 1465. Myl-
verton was a Carmelite who had defended
the Mendicant Friars. The first two lectures
had for their subject ' quod Christ us in per-
sona sua nunquam proprie mendicavit ' (styled
by Bale ' De Mendicitate Christ! '). The third
is ' De Sacerdotio Christi,' and the fourth ' De
Excellentia Christi.' The manuscript was in
Bernard's time in the royal library at West-
minster (Cut. MSS. AnffL, 'MSS. in ^Edibus
Jacobaeis,' No. 8033). The manuscript does
not, however, appear in Casley's ' Catalogue
of the Royal MSS.' thirty years later, and it
seems to have now disappeared . Tanner gives
a description of the manuscript. 2. ' Lec-
tura Oxonii habita 9 Feb. contra mendicita-
tem Christi.' This appears to have been in
the same manuscript. Bale also gives, 3. ' In
Minores Prophetas.' 4. 'De Christi Dominio.'
6. ' Sermones ad Clerum.' 6. ' Determina-
tiones.' New College, Oxford, MS. 32 was pre-
sented by Ive. It contains the commentary
of Peter Lombard on the Psalms. Ive was
also the owner of Magd. Coll. Oxford MS. 98.

[Bale, viii. 31 ; Pits, p. 654 ; Tanner's Bibl,
Brit.-Hib. p. 447 ; Wood's Hist, and Antiq. Univ
Qxon. i. 622, 626. The writer has also to thank
Mr. "Ward, of the British Museum, for an endea-
vour to trace Ive's manuscript.] C. L. K.

 

IVES, EDWARD (d. 1786), surgeon anc
traveller, served in the navy as surgeon o:
the Namur in the Mediterranean from 1744
to 1746, and returned to England in the
Yarmouth. He was afterwards for some time
employed by the commissioners for sick anc
wounded, and from 1753 to 1757 was surgeon
of the Kent, bearing the flag of Vice-admira
Charles Wat son [q.v.] as commander- in-chief

the East Indies. On the admiral's death
n August 1757, his own health being some-
what impaired, he resigned his appointment,
ind travelled home overland from Bassorah,
;hrough Baghdad, Mosul, and Aleppo, thence
>y Cyprus, to Leghorn and Venice, and so
lome through Germany and Holland, arriving
nEngland in March 1759. He had no further
service in the navy, but continued on the half-
mylist till 1777, when he was superannuated.
During his later years he resided at Titch-
leld in Hampshire, dividing his time, appa-
rently, between literature and farming. He
died at Bath on 25 Sept. 1786 (Gent. Mag.
1786, vol. Ivi. pt. ii. p. 908). In 1773 he pub-
.ished ' A Voyage from England to India in
she year 1754, and an Historical Narrative
of the Operations of the Squadron and Army
in India, under the command of Vice-admiral
Watson and Colonel Clive, in the years 1755-
1756-7 ; . . . also a Journey from Persia to
England by an unusual Route.' Ives's pre-
sence at many of the transactions which he
describes and his personal intimacy with
Watson give his historical narrative an un-
usual importance, and his accounts of the
manners and customs of the inhabitants, and
of the products of the countries he visited,
are those of an enlightened and acute ob-
server. Ives married about 1751 Ann, daugh-
ter of Richard Roy of Titchfield, by whom
he had issue a daughter, Eliza, and three
sons, the eldest of whom, Edward Otto, was
in Bengal at the time of his father's death ;
the second, Robert Thomas, had just been
appointed to a writership ; the third, John
Richard, seems to have been still a child (will
in Somerset House, 29 March 1780, proved
in London, 1787). Mention is also made of a
sister, Gatty Ives.

[Beyond his own narrative, nothing is known
of his life, except the bare mention of his ap-
pointments in the official books preserved in the
Public Eecord Office.] J. K. L.

 

 

 

 

 

 

IVES, JEREMIAH (^. 1653-1674),
general baptist, came of a family afterwards
connected with Norwich, but originally of
Bourn, Lincolnshire. Probably he is the
' brother Ives ' whom Henry Denne [q. v.]
and Christopher Marriat sought in vain at
Littlebury, Essex, on 8 Nov. 1653, in order
' to require satisfaction of him concerning
his preaching at that place.' He was at
this time, if Crosby's vague statement may
be trusted, ' pastor of a baptised congre-
gation ' which met somewhere in the Old
Jewry. Crosby says he held this office ' be-
tween thirty and forty years.' A self-taught
scholar, he exercised his remarkable contro-
versial powers in defence of adult baptism.

and against quakers and Sabbatarians. For
a time he shared the quaker objection to oath-
taking. For refusing in January 1661 the
oath of allegiance he was thrown into prison
in London, whence he wrote a letter to two
of his friends reproaching them for taking the
oath. After five days' incarceration he took
the oath himself, and published a book to

Erove some oaths lawful, though not all.
ater he held a disputation with a ' Komish
priest' at the bidding and in presence of
Charles II. Ives was habited as an anglican
clergyman, but his opponent, finding at
length that he had to deal with ' an ana-
baptist preacher,' refused to continue the
argument. Among his own people he was
highly esteemed. His latest known publi-
cation is an appendix to a report of dis-
cussions held on 9 and 16 Oct. 1674, and he
is supposed to have died in the following
year.

He published: 1. 'Infants-baptism Dis-
proved,' &c., 1655, 4to (in answer to Alex-
ander Kellie). 2. ' The Quakers Quaking,'
&c., 1656 ? (answered by James Nayler [q.v.]
in ' Weaknes above Wickednes,' &c., 1656,
4to). 3. ' Innocency above Impudency,' &c.,
1656, 4to (reply to Nayler). 4. ' Confidence
Questioned,' &c., 1658, 4to (against Thomas
Willes). 5. ' Confidence Encountred ; or,
a Vindication of the Lawfulness of Preaching
without Ordination,' &c., 1658, 4to (answer
to Willes). 6. ' Saturday no Sabbath,' &c.,
1659, 12mo (account of his discussions with
Peter Chamberlen, M.D. [q. v.], Thomas
Tillam, and Coppinger). 7. ' Eighteen Ques-
tions,' &c., 1659, 4to (on government).

8. ' The Great Case of Conscience opened
. . . about . . . Swearing,' &c., 1660, 4to.

9. ' A Contention for Truth,' &c., 1672, 4to
(two discussions with Thomas Danson [q.v.]).

10. 'A Sober Request,' &c., 1674 (broadside;
answered by William Penn). 11. 'William
Penn's Confutation of a Quaker,' &c., 1674 ?
(answered in William Shewen's ' William
Penn and the Quaker in Unity,' &c., 1674,
4to). 12. ' Some Reflections,' &c., appended
to Thomas Plant's 'A Contest for Chris-
tianity,' &c., 1674, 8vo. The British Mu-
seum Catalogue suggests that Ives wrote
' Strength-weakness ; or, the Burning Bush
not consumed ... by J. J.,' &c., 1655, 4to.

[Sewel's Hist, of the Quakers, 1725, pp. 504
sq. ; Crosby's Hist, of the Baptists, 1739 ii.
308, 1740 iv. 247 sq.; Wilson's Diss. Churches
of London, 1808, ii. 302, 444 sq.; Ivimey's Hist,
of Engl. Baptists, 1814, ii. 603 sq. ; Wood's Hist,
of Gen. Baptists, 1847, p. 140 ; Records of Fen-
stanton (Hanserd Knollys Society), 1854, xxvi.
77 ; Smith's Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873,
pp. 243 sq., 362.J A. G.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IVES, JOHN (1751-1776), Suffolk herald
extraordinary, born at Great Yarmouth in
1751, was the only son of John Ives, an opu-
lent merchant of that town, by Mary, daugh-
ter of John Hannot. He was educated in.
the free school of Norwich, and was subse-
quently entered at Caius College, Cambridge,
where he did not long reside. Returning
to Yarmouth, he became acquainted with
' honest Tom Martin' of Palgrave, from whom
he derived a taste for antiquarian studies.
He was elected F.S.A. in 1771, and F.R.S.
in 1772. His first attempt at antiquarian
publication was by the issuing of proposals,
anonymously, in 1771, for printing ' The His-
tory and Antiquities of the Hundred of
Lothingland in the County of Suffolk,' for
which several arms and monuments were en-
graved from his own drawings. The work
never appeared, but a manuscript copy of it
is preserved in the British Museum (Addit.
MS. 19098). His next performance was 'A
True Copy of the Register of Baptisms and
Burials in ... Yarmouth, for seven year*
past,' printed at his private press 5 Sept.
1772. He contributed the preface to Henry
Swinden's ' History and Antiquities of Great
Yarmouth,' 1772." Swinden, who was a
schoolmaster, was an intimate friend of Ives r
who not only rendered him pecuniary as-
sistance when living, but superintended the
publication of the history for the benefit of
the author's widow.

In 1772 he had nine wooden plates cut of
old Norfolk seals, entitled ' Sigilla antiqua
Norfolciensia ; ' and a copper-plate portrait of
Thomas Martin, afterwards prefixed to that
antiquary's ' History of Thetford,' was en-
graved at his expense. By favour of the Earl
of Suffolk, he was in October 1774 appointed
an honorary member of the College of Arms,
and created Suffolk herald extraordinary,
which title was expressly revived for him
(NOBLE, Hist, of the College of Arms, p. 445).

In imitation of Horace Walpole (to whom,
the first number was inscribed), Ives began
in 1773 to publish 'Select Papers chiefly
relating to English Antiquities,' from his
own collection, of which the second number
was printed in 1774 and a third in 1775.
Among these are 'Remarks upon our English
Coins, from the Norman Invasion down to
the end of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,'
by Archbishop Sharp; Sir William Dug-
dale's ' Directions for the Search of Records,
and making use of them, in order to an His-
torical Discourse of the Antiquities of Staf-
fordshire;' with 'Annals of Gonville and
Caius College, Cambridge,' and the ' Coro-
nation of Henry VII and of Queen Elizabeth.'
In 1774 he published 'Remarks upon the Ivie.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silius Titus (1623–1704), of Bushey, was an English politician, captain of Deal Castle, and Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles II. Colonel Titus was an organiser in the attempted escape of King Charles I from Carisbrooke Castle.


Titus began his political aspirations by writing a pamphlet titled Killing No Murder in 1657 during The Protectorate period of the English Interregnum era of English history. The pamphlet advocated the assassination of Oliver Cromwell. Due to the danger involved in writing such a politically charged opinion against the Protector, Killing No Murder was published under the pseudonym 'William Allen'.


Cromwell was said to have been so disturbed after the publication of Killing No Murder that he never spent more than two nights in the same place and always took extreme precaution in planning his travel. Titus' authorship of this pamphlet has been disputed in some circles; it has also been attributed to Edward Sexby or a man by the real name of William Allen. These attributions are usually unfounded as King Charles II awarded Titus the title of Groom of the Bedchamber for his service in authoring the work.


Silius Titus first took up arms for the Parliament. Although he was a strong Presbyterian Titus became an ardent Royalist devoted to Charles I and King Charles II. He became a member of parliament, successively representing Ludgershall (1660), Lostwithiel (1670–1678), Hertfordshire (1678–1679), Huntingdonshire (1679–1685) and Ludlow (1691–1695). Though not eloquent, he would often illustrate his speeches with a humor that rendered them effective. For instance, when it was complained that Titus made sport of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, he retorted that "things were not necessarily serious because they were dull".

Once again, when Charles II offered to impose limitations on a Roman Catholic Church sovereign rather than exclude his brother from the throne, Titus likened such a plan to "having a lion in the lobby and then voting to secure ourselves by letting him in and chaining him, rather than by keeping him out". Titus also served King James II but later transferred his allegiance to William III. During his life he held a number of royal appointments.

 

Sir Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch KG (d. Paris, 7 September 1376), son of Jean II de Grailly, Captal de Buch, Vicomte de Benauges, and Blanch de Foix,[2] was a cousin of the Counts of Foix and a military leader in the Hundred Years' War who was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart as an ideal of chivalry. Attached to the English side in the conflict, he was made Count of Bigorre by Edward III of England, and was also a founder and the fourth Knight of the Garter in 1348.[3] He played a decisive role as a cavalry leader under Edward, the Black Prince in the Battle of Poitiers (1356), with de Buch leading a flanking move against the French that resulted in the capture of the king of France (John II), as well as many of his nobles. John was taken to London by the Black Prince and held to ransom.


In 1364 he commanded the forces of Charles II of Navarre in Normandy, where he was defeated and captured by Bertrand du Guesclin at Cocherel. After his release the following year, he defected to the French side and was made lord of Nemours by Charles V of France. However, he soon re-established his loyalty to the English, and in 1367 he went to Spain with the Black Prince, fighting at the Battle of Nájera. Here he again faced Bertrand du Guesclin, but this time it was du Guesclin who was captured, and the Captal was put in charge of the prisoner. He was rewarded for his service by being made the Constable of Aquitaine in 1371.


Again fighting for the English, he commanded an English relief force when the French attacked La Rochelle in 1372. While attempting to lift the siege of Soubise his force was surprised by a French force led by Owain Lawgoch, a Welsh soldier of fortune in the French service. The Captal and Sir Thomas Percy, seneschal of Poitou, were captured. The Captal spent the remainder of his life as a prisoner at the Temple in Paris because Charles V believed him too dangerous to ransom back to the English. Froissart gives an account of the Captal de Buch's chivalry and courage at the time of the peasant uprising in 1358 called the Jacquerie (see link). Since he left no heirs from his marriage to Rose d' Albret, his uncle, Archambaud, count of Foix and of Bigorre took the title Captal de Buch, which passed to his descendants the Counts of Foix.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE BLACK HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Germany, Austria, Italy.

 

 

 

The Pucci family - wiki:

The Pucci family was a major political family in Florence. The family surname derives from an ancestor named Jacopo, abbreviated to Jacopuccio, then to Puccio, who was considered wise and frequently called upon to settle disputes - there are records of two such interventions in 1264 and 1287. Their former surname seems to have been Saracini, which explains the presence of a maure or moor's head on their crest and coat of arms. (Albino race conjecture and obfuscation).

 

 

The first Pucci family members to be mentioned date to the 13th century with their subscribing to the Arte dei Legnaioli. These early members include Antonio Pucci, who worked as an architect on the construction of the Loggia della Signoria. His son Puccio Pucci was a merchant who became rich thanks to trade and financial activities in medieval Florence. The first Pucci residences were in the Santa Croce district of Florence, before they moved to that of the church of San Michele Visdomini. They were Guelphs and so they were expelled and their houses demolished after the battle of Montaperti in 1260, though they were soon able to return upon the Ghibellines' expulsion from the city. With wealth came political offices such as magistracies, priors and gonfalonieres - the Pucci family produced a total of 23 priors 8 holders of the post of confaloniere di giustizia.
Constant allies of the Medici during the Renaissance, the Pucci were among the families Cosimo de'Medici called upon as a means of indirectly pursuing his own political interests - trusted Medici allies from the Pucci family included Puccio Pucci, who provided Cosimo with money to improve his living conditions in prison whilst Cosimo was imprisoned prior to being exiled. In the early 16th century the Pucci family's prestige rose yet higher, with it producing three cardinals (Roberto, Lorenzo and Antonio Pucci) within a few decades of each other and continuing to be trusted figures in the Medici's ducal and then grand-ducal courts.

 

 

 

However, a momentary bitter break with the Medici came in 1559 when Pandolfo Pucci was ousted from the court of Cosimo I for various slanderous accusations of immorality or (according to other sources) for dreaming of restoring the ancient Republic of Florence. Thus, for revenge or ideological reasons, he conspired against Cosimo with the support of other noble Florentine families, intending to fire an arquebus at Cosimo as he and his retinue walked along the corner of Palazzo Pucci and Via de' Servi to get to Santissima Annunziata. The plan had already been shelved, but the Medici intelligence network got wind of it, Pandolfo was hung from a window of the Bargello and the Pucci's properties were seized. As a memorial to the quashing of the plot, or perhaps out of prudence or superstition, it was decided to brick up the window at the corner where the attack was to have occurred, as can still be seen. The Pucci later made peace with the Medici and Niccolò Pucci regained the Palazzo Pucci and its furnishings.

 

 

 

In 1662 Orazio Roberto Pucci acquired the fiefdom of Barsento (Bari) for 4,000 scudi and obtained the title of Marchese di Barsento, the noble title which has since been handed down through the family. The most recent notable family member has been Emilio Pucci, founder of the eponymous post-war fashion house, who became famous (above all in the 1960s and 70s) for more and more fancy but still refined designs. He designed the traditional uniform of the Italian Vigili Urbani with large white gloves and oval beret. His brother Puccio Pucci was also notable, as a sports official for CONI and other organisations. In the 1960s the two brothers split the Palazzo Pucci between them, with Emilio taking the left hand half as the main base for his fashion house and Puccio rebuilding the interior of the central part as a commercial gallery with small craft shops, as it still is today.

In 1404 Antonio di Puccio Pucci acquired the chapel of San Sebastiano in the church of Santissima Annunziata, in which he placed the precious Piero del Pollaiolo painting of the Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian (now in the National Gallery, London). Puccio Pucci bought the Cappella della Madonna del Soccorso a few decades later.
The family palazzo still contains one of the four paintings commissioned by Lorenzo the Magnificent from Sandro Botticelli as a gift to Giannozzo Pucci on Giannozzo's marriage to Lucrezia Bini in 1483. These paintings tell the story of Nastalgio degli Onesti and the first three in the narrative are now in the Prado in Madrid. The painting still in Florence shows the use of forks, which were traditionally adopted for the first time in Florence by the Pucci and whosa use Catherine de'Medici then spread right across Europe. It also shows the use of precious tableware and silver vessels, which really existed and were said to be from the workshops of Verrocchio and Pollaiolo.

The Pucci commissioned several works for the churches neighbouring their palazzo. For the church of San Michele Visdomini, in 1518 Francesco Pucci commissioned Pontormo to paint the Holy family with saints, which was described by Vasari as one of the best paintings by an empolese painter. Whilst he was archbishop of Bologna, cardinal Antonio Pucci commissioned Raphael to paint a scene of The Ecstasy of Saint Cecilia - now moved to the city's Pinacoteca. At the end of the 16th century Lorenzo Pucci commissioned Alessandro Allori to paint a Marriage at Cana as an altarpiece for the church of Sant'Agata (completed 1600).

 

 

The family's palazzo was rebuilt by the grand-ducal architect Bernardo Buontalenti in the second half of the 16th century. Between 1585 and 1595 abbot Alessandro Pucci built the Villa di Bellosguardo, to designs by Giovanni Antonio Dosio - it remained a family property until 1858. The Pucci completed the portico of the church of Santissima Annunziata, in a stylistic unity with the piazza outside (the Pucci device is to be seen on the pavement in front of the entrance and on both sides of the portico) - an inscription on the frieze and a plaque on Via Gino Capponi gives its completion date as 1601.

 

 

 

 

The Fugger family

 

 

 

 

English Translation of the German text accompanying the above portrait:

Acquisition memo 1811th
Clemens Jäger
Workshop of Jörg Breu the Younger [version]:
The Secret Book of Honour of the Fugger.
Augsburg, 1545-1549 with supplements 16-19th Century.
Wappenherold: Fugger of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn.
Prayer.
House brands of Fugger.
Coat the Fugger of deer.
Wappenherold: Fugger of deer.
Preface.
Master of Arms: Fugger of the lily.
Arms and noble ancestry Johann Jakob Fugger (1516-1575).
Arms and Tree sample Ursula von Harrach (1522-1554).
Master series of Fugger of the lily.
Supplement 18th century .:
Master series of Count Fugger of Kirchberg and Weissenhorn.
Master series of Fugger of deer.

Note: since the book has supplements from as late as the 19th century, it was most certainly written no earlier than the 1800s. The date of the paintings is probably just another Vile albino lie, as they too are probably from the 1800s. Therefore there is no telling if the Fuggers of the 1500s were Black, Mulattoes, or Albinos. All that is certain is that Ursula was Black and the families benefactor Queen was Black.

  Bio of Ursula Freiin von Harrach (Fugger)

Birthdate: 1522
Death: Died September 20, 1554

Immediate Family:

Daughter of Leonhard III. von Harrach and Barbara von Gleinitz
Wife of Johann Jakob Freiherr von Kirchberg und Weissenhorn
Mother of Siguna Eleonora Fugger; Victor August Fugger; Sigmund Friedrich Fugger; Severin Fugger and Justine Benigne FUGGER
Sister of Leonhard IV von Harrach, Freiherr zu Rohrau and Anna von Harrach

 

 

 

 

 

Most of the family crests of individual Fuggers, (at least 10), have this Queen in the shield as below: This seems to suggest that the families wealth was granted by this Black queen. So far - unable to identify the Black Queen. Also, no way of knowing if this Fugger was actually an Albino.

 

 

 

From The Fugger family wiki:

The Fugger family is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists. Alongside the Welser family, the family controlled much of the European economy in the sixteenth century and accumulated enormous wealth. This banking family replaced the de' Medici family, who influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance. The Fuggers took over many of the Medicis' assets and their political power and influence.

The founder of the family was Johann Fugger, a weaver at Graben, near the Swabian Free City of Augsburg. His son, also called Johann (or Hans), settled in Augsburg, and the first reference to the Fugger family there is his arrival, recorded in the tax register of 1367. He married Klara Widolf and became an Augsburg citizen. After Klara's death, he married Elizabeth Gfattermann. He joined the weaver's guild, and by 1396 he was ranked high in the list of taxpayers. He added the business of a merchant to that of a weaver.

His eldest son, Andreas Fugger, was a merchant in the weaving trade, and was nicknamed "Fugger the Rich" after buying land and other properties. The Fugger family itemized and inventoried a large number of Asian rugs, an unusual undertaking at the time. Andreas's son, Lucas Fugger, was granted arms by the Emperor Frederick III, a golden deer on a blue background, and he was soon nicknamed "the Fugger of the Deer". He was too ambitious, however, and went bankrupt.

Hans Fugger's younger son, Jakob the Elder, founded another branch of the family. This branch progressed more steadily and they became known as the "Fuggers of the Lily" after their chosen arms of a flowering lily on a gold and blue background. Jakob was a master weaver, a merchant, and an alderman. He married Barbara Basinger, the daughter of a goldsmith. His fortune progressed, and by 1461, he was the twelfth richest man in Augsburg. He died in 1469.

Jakob's eldest son, Ulrich, took over the business on his father's death, and in 1473 he provided new suits of clothes to Frederick, his son Maximilian I, and his suite on their journey to Trier to meet Charles the Bold of Burgundy and the betrothal of the young prince to Charles's daughter Maria. Thus began a very profitable relationship between the Fugger family and the Habsburgs. With the help of their brother in Rome, Markus, Ulrich and his brother George handled remittances to the papal court of monies for the sale of indulgences and the procuring of church benefices. From 1508 to 1515 they leased the Roman mint. Ulrich died in 1510.

When the Fuggers made their first loan to the Archduke Sigismund in 1487, they took as security an interest in silver and copper mines in the Tirol. This was the beginning of an extensive family involvement in mining and precious metals. The Fuggers also participated in mining operations in Silesia, and owned copper mines in Hungary. Their trade in spices, wool, and silk extended to almost all parts of Europe.

Ulrich's youngest brother Jakob Fugger (illustration by Albrecht Dürer, below), born in 1459, was to become the most famous member of the dynasty. In 1498 he married Sibylla Artzt, Grand Burgheress to Augsburg, the daughter of an eminent Grand Burgher of Augsburg (German Großbürger zu Augsburg). They had no children, but this marriage gave Jakob the opportunity to elevate to Grand Burgher of Augsburg and later allowed him to pursue a seat on the city council (Stadtrat) of Augsburg. He was elevated to the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire in May 1511, and in 1519, led a consortium of German and Italian businessmen that loaned Charles V 850,000 florins (about 95,625 oz(t) of gold) to procure his election as Holy Roman Emperor over Francis I of France.[5] The Fuggers' contribution was 543,000 florins.

In 1494 the Fuggers established their first public company. Jakob's aim was to establish a copper monopoly by opening foundries in Hohenkirchen and Fuggerau (named for the family, in Carinthia) and by expanding the sales organization in Europe, especially the Antwerp agency. Jakob leased the copper mines in Neusohl (Besztercebánya, today Banská Bystrica, Slovakia) in 1495, eventually making them the greatest mining centre of the time.

At the height of his power Jakob Fugger was sharply criticized by his contemporaries, especially by Ulrich von Hutten and Martin Luther, for selling indulgences and benefices and urging the Pope to rescind or amend the prohibition on the levying of interest. The imperial fiscal and governmental authorities in Nuremberg brought action against him and other merchants in an attempt to halt their monopolistic tendencies.

 

 

 

In 1511, Jakob deposited 15,000 florins as an endowment for some almshouses. In 1514, he bought up part of Augsburg and in 1516 came to an agreement with the city that he would build and provide a number of almshouses for needy citizens. By 1523, 52 houses had been built, and the Fuggerei had come into existence. It is still used today. Jakob died in 1525. He is considered to be one of the richest persons of all time, and today he is well known as Jakob Fugger "the rich".

Jakob's successor was his nephew Anton Fugger, son of his elder brother Georg. Anton was born in 1493, married Anna Rehlinger, and died in 1560. In 1525 the Fuggers were granted the revenues from the Spanish orders of knighthood together with the profits from mercury and silver mines. The formerly rich yield of the Tirolean and Hungarian mines decreased, but Anton established new trade ties with Peru and Chile and started mining ventures in Sweden and Norway. He was involved in the slave trade from Africa to America, but was more successful in the spice trade and the importation of Hungarian cattle. Eventually, he was forced to renounce the Maestrazgo lease after 1542 and to give up the silver mines of Guadalcanal (Spain).

Anton's oldest son, Markus, carried on the business successfully and during the period 1563–1641, earning some 50,000,000 ducats from the production of mercury at Almadén alone, but the Fugger company was completely dissolved after the Thirty Years' War. The burial chapel of the Fuggers in St. Anne's Church, Augsburg is the earliest example of Renaissance architecture in Germany. In Augsburg, a museum of Fugger and Welser history (Fugger und Welser Erlebnismuseum) was opened.

 

 

 

 

 

Tucher

 

 

 

 

Hieronymus Holzchuher

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Cities/Towns with Black Kings (crowned) in their Crests:

of which there are perhaps hundreds, even thousands, as All European countries have Crests with Black Kings or other such imagery.

Note: These are merely drawings of the original Crests. As is often the case, the Albinos draw the Black personage in caricature so as to denigrate Blacks. This is of course a pathetic effort to detract from the lacking's of Albinos, and the fact that these Black people were their former lords (defensive racism).

Another way degenerate Albinos tried to denigrate Black images was to add the loop earring to Black men. Since serious men do not wear earrings, the implication is clear, even Black Bishops - like below - were NOT serious men - i.e they were less than Albino men. Of course we all recognize that as a double negetive - Black Bishops (Blacks in general) didn't exist in Europe (Albinos say), AND, they were less than Albino men. Ha,ha,ha: Our Albinos have weaved such a tangled web.

 

   
Coat of the Bishop of Freising
 
Arms of Illerkirchberg - a town in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
 
Coat of Oberkirchberg Germany

 

 

   
Coat of sub Kirchberg
 
Crest of the district Garmisch - Partenkirchen
  Crest of Eching - a municipality in the district of Freising, in Upper Bavaria, Germany.

 

 

   
Crest of Enzersdorf ( Lower Austria )
  Crest of Fahrenzhausen - a municipality in the district of Freising in Bavaria in Germany.   Crest of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, a district in Bavaria, Germany.

 

 

   
Crest of Huisheim, a municipality in the district of Donau-Ries in Bavaria in Germany.   Coat of the municipality Mittenwald (district Garmisch - Partenkirchen Germany)  
Coat of Neuhofen at the Ybbs (Lower Austria)

 

 

   
Crest of Oberwölz Stadt, a town in the district of Murau in the Austrian state of Styria   Coat of the Municipality of Pastetten (district of Erding)  
Crest of Unterföhringer (Munich)

 

   
Coat of Waidhofen on the Ybbs (Lower Austria)   Coat of the municipality of Wörth (Landkreis-Erding)  
Coat the municipality of Zolling (Freising)

 

 

DEBUNKING THE ALBINO MYTH OF THE BLACKAMOOR

 

     

 

 

 

We tried perusing ancient books for the word MOOR!

 

We found: Ammianus Marcellinus Roman Antiquities Book XIV
Constantius and Gallus - The cruelty of Gallus Caesar.

(Ammianus was born between 325 and 330 in the Greek-speaking East, possibly in Syria or Phoenicia. His native language was most likely Greek; he learned Latin as a second language, and was probably familiar with Syriac as well. The surviving books of his history cover the years 353 to 378).

We also found: THE HISTORY OF COUNT ZOSIMUS.

(Zosimus was a Roman historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I (491–518). According to Photius, he was a comes, and held the office of "advocate" of the imperial treasury).

THESE WERE THE ONLY ANCIENT BOOKS FOUND WITH THE WORD "MOOR".

And in all cases "Moor" ONLY referred to certain North African tribes - PREDATING THE MUSLIMS!

As we have shown with the racist, falsified, translation of Hammurabi's code done by Leonard William King, Albinos WILL put false words in their translations. That those words are false is substantiated by the fact that the word is COMPLETELY MISSING FROM A BOOK ABOUT WARS WITH NORTH AFRICAN TRIBES:

The Jugurthine War by Gaius Crispus Sallust - The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 B.C, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. The Romans defeated Jugurtha. The word "MOOR" is NOT to be found in this book about NORTH AFRICANS!



To further demonstrate the abject stupidity of these Albino falsifiers of History:

So-called MOORS ARE MUSLIMS!

MUSLIMS MEN DON'T WEAR EARRINGS!

To pierce their earlobes may be considered doing harm to oneself - which is forbidden.

The wearing of earrings in general, is prohibited, because it is considered to be "imitating women".

 


So as we can all see, the lie of the Blackamoor, like so many other things, is merely Albino fantasy, Denial, Self-defense Racism, and just plain meanness and degeneracy. After all, that's what Albinos do!

 

 

 

 

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