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But first, let us consider the degenerate Humans who make Exposé History like this necessary. Please take the time to digest the meaning of that statement: i.e. the Albinos (who are less than 10% of Humanity) have created a complete "Alternate" history for all of Mankind. This amazing feat was accomplished with the Albinos "Natural" weapon - the Lie!

The abject example of this is what is happening in the United States of America TODAY! Thus this history page is about: The United States Republican Party and the Albino Americans who support it: and the German Nazi Party and those who supported it. Verses, the Legacy of the late: BLACK AND BROWN ROYALTY AND NOBILITY OF GREAT BRITAIN, and the BLACK EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE (the Byzantine centered in Turkey), and the BLACK HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (centered in Germany): And the forces of Good, Moral, Black Humans, who they represented.

THE LIE - Oftentimes the Albinos most effective weapon:

Ancient Black kings in the East, specifically those in contact with Albinos, understood the great power of the lie when wielded by Albinos. The Persian Empire included parts of Central Asia (ancestral home of European Albinos, thus many Albino tribes were subjects of the Persian Empire). The great Persian King Darius prayed thusly:

DARIUS, PERSEPOLIS inscription (DPe) 3. (12-24.) Darius the King says: May Ahuramazda bear me aid, with the gods of the royal house; and may Ahuramazda protect this country from a (hostile) army, from famine, from the Lie! Upon this country may there not come an army, nor famine, nor the Lie; this I pray as a boon from Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house. This boon may Ahuramazda together with the gods of the royal house give to me.

55. (4.36-40.). Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a Lie-follower, him do you punish well, if thus you shall think, "May my country be secure!"




It's not that ancient Blacks didn't understand that all people sometimes lie: for various reasons, both big and small. It's that Albinos have "Weaponized" lying to such an extent that an ancient Black Emperor found it necessary to pray to his God for protection from the Lie! Perhaps the Albinos greatest weapon is the ("Big Lie"): this is a lie that is so blatant and so out of proportion, that the ordinary person thinks that it must true, because nobody would lie about such a thing. And therein is the weakness of "Normal Moral Black People" they think everyone has "Morality". As we shall see, Albinos do not, though they do lyingly make quite a "To do" about having it.

The greatest liars of modern times is United States President Donald Trump, and the Albino Rabble of America (87% of Americas Albinos) who support him. President Trumps very name is insight into his being: (though this was certainly not known to his family, else they would have certainly changed it).

DONALD TRUMP - 45th President of the United States.


Trump (the name): from
The etymology of the name Trump (v.2)
To: "fabricate, devise," 1690s, from trump "deceive, cheat" (1510s), from Middle English trumpen (late 14c.), from Old French tromper "to deceive," of uncertain origin. Apparently from se tromper de "to mock," from Old French tromper "to blow a trumpet." Brachet explains this as "to play the horn, alluding to quacks and mountebanks, who attracted the public by blowing a horn, and then cheated them into buying ...." The Hindley Old French dictionary has baillier la trompe "blow the trumpet" as "act the fool," and Donkin connects it rather to trombe "waterspout," on the notion of turning (someone) around. Connection with triumph also has been proposed. Related: Trumped; trumping. Trumped up "false, concocted" first recorded 1728.

Donald Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of Kallstadt in the Palatinate on his father's side, and from the Outer Hebrides in Scotland on his mother's side. All of his grandparents and his mother were born in Europe. Trump's paternal grandfather, Frederick Trump, first immigrated to the United States in 1885 at the age of 16 and became a citizen in 1892. He amassed a fortune operating boomtown restaurants and boarding houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of Canada during its gold rush. On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and married her in 1902. The couple permanently settled in New York in 1905. Donald Trump’s grandfather found it necessary to write a letter begging not to be deported. Donald Trump's father was arrested at Ku Klux Klan riot in New York in 1927. The Trump family went on to become millionaire landlords in New York, regularly sued for racial discrimination.




"Mitch McConnell’s Spectacularly Tone-Deaf ‘Partisan Politics’ Rant Backfires"

From: HuffPost: By Ed Mazza - 11/13/2018
United States Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) published an op-ed on Tuesday that slammed the incoming Democratic majority in the House of Representatives for being too partisan. It didn’t go over very well.

In a piece posted on the Fox News website titled “Will Dems work with us, or simply put partisan politics ahead of the country?” McConnell gloated that a “unified Republican government” led to “a period of historic productivity” over the past two years. He also said bipartisanship wasn’t dead and claimed: “some of the most significant accomplishments of this Congress have been delivered with overwhelmingly bipartisan support.” (None of which is even close to being true).

But then McConnell lashed out at the Democrats taking control of the House following last week’s midterm elections, writing that the message of bipartisanship “may have been lost on a few House Democrats, who have made clear their preference for investigations over policy results.” “After years of rhetoric, it’s hardly news that some are more interested in fanning the flames of division than reaching across the aisle,” he added.




Twitter world then reminded McConnell of his long track record of obstructing President Barack Obama, including his successful blockade of Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland:

Merrick is only one, albeit an important, data point. McConnells outrageous obstruction goes back much further. He tried to block and delegitimize every action taken during the Obama presidency. He blew up long-standing norms to block many dozens of judges. 1
— Norman Ornstein (@NormOrnstein) November 14, 2018

Merrick Garland. Kavanaugh. Blocking 82 of Obama’s nominees. Refusal to bring up a protect Mueller bill to the Senate floor. Setting your prime goal at the outset of his election: making Obama a one term president.
You are the master of relentless partisanship. But it’s a new day.
— Kim Stewart (@DoryWilson) November 14, 2018


But one Twitterer really understood the gravity of McConnell's lies:

Quote: It is a bit frightening at just how easy you wrote that piece, given your 8 yrs. as leader of the @GOP Party of Obstruction, including the refusal to hear Merrtick Garland. You sir, are a serious danger to the US Constitution.
— Chris (@cjcFlint) November 14, 2018



Sarah Huckabee Sanders (White House press secretary) Wants To Be Remembered For Being 'Transparent And Honest'

HuffPost by David Barden - 12/12/2018
Sarah Huckabee Sanders hopes to be remembered for being “transparent and honest” when her tenure as White House press secretary comes to an end. As HuffPost has reported previously, Sanders has a well-documented history of giving false and misleading information to the press. Sarah is the daughter of Michael Dale Huckabee, an Evangelical Christian minister, who served as the 44th governor of the State of Arkansas from 1996 to 2007. He was a candidate in the United States Republican presidential primaries in both 2008 and 2016. It comes as no surprise that Sarah and her father - like Trump - are degenerate liars.





HUFFPOST - News Headline

Mike Huckabee Says Donald Trump “Tires His Staff Out Because He’s Like A 32-Year-Old.”

By Lee Moran - 12/18/2018

The former Arkansas governor commented on the high turnover of Trumps White House staff. However, the Evangelical Minister and former Arkansas governor, whose daughter Sarah Huckabee Sanders is the White House press secretary, has put the staffing turmoil down in part to Trump’s “vigor of somebody who’s about 32 years old.”


VANITY FAIR - News Headline

Report: Trump Clocks in About Three Hours of Work on a Good Day
The rest of his day is devoted to “executive time,” i.e. TV-watching and Twitter.

By Bess Levin - October 29, 2018

Back in January, Axios obtained an inside look at Donald Trump’s schedule, revealing that the president of the United States was doing far less work than in the early days of his term, and demanding large blocks of “Executive Time,” a euphemism created by Chief of Staff John Kelly so that White House aides didn’t have to write dick around on Twitter and shout at the TV on official documents. Now, nine months later, Politico has revisited Trump’s schedule, and it turns out that the most powerful person in the world is somehow doing even less work every day than he was earlier this year. Moreover, when Trump does deign to do his job, it’s mostly in the form of signing ceremonies and shouting at aides to craft policy around something he saw on Fox & Friends. DEIGN meaning - If you deign to do something, you don't feel it's worthy of your lofty stature, but you do it anyway — it's like you're doing someone a really big favor.

Last Tuesday’s schedule, for instance, reportedly included a whopping nine hours of “Executive Time,” or triple the time that was allotted for actual work. Trump’s first commitment of the day came at 1 P.M., and while he had a 30-minute call with C.E.O.s here and a quick briefing and dinner with senior military leaders there, the rest of the day consisted of doing whatever the hell he wanted.

Trump’s supporters like to claim that it’s unfair to slag on the guy for doing hardly any work at all because apparently sometimes, during his hours of playtime, he’ll hustle everyone into his office to discuss some inane thought that popped into his head. “He might read something in the paper and immediately you’d get an impromptu meeting on trade,” a person familiar with the president’s scheduling told Politico. “It’s just more impromptu than like a month in advance you have a policy time set that you’re going to work up to.” Mostly, though, it‘s devoted to media bashing from the comfort of his bed. Did we mention that Mike Huckabee was an Evangelical Minister?




Mika Brzezinski (host of MSNBC "Morning Joe Show") apologizes after calling Mike Pompeo "A Wannabe Dictator's "BUTT BOY" on the show.

Yahoo News by Taryn Ryder 12/12/2018
During a segment this morning, the MSNBC host went after Mike Pompeo for his response to the murder of Saudi journalist and Washington Post writer Jamal Khashoggi, calling the United States Secretary of State a “Wannabe Dictator’s (Trump) Butt Boy.” Mika was making reference to the Ancient Greek custom of using Boys as Sexual surrogates while in the field of War. Pompeo angered Brzezinski in his appearance on Fox & Friends where he continued to downplay the CIA’s conclusion that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the brutal killing of Khashoggi. (Even the Fox News hosts didn’t seem to buy Pompeo’s assessment of the murder).







With the ascension of the despicable Donald Trump, and the reality that the great majority of the United States Albino population supports him; we are forced to reconsider our concepts of what is "Normal" in what we consider civilized living and civilized behaviour, as relates to Albinos: and where those norms came from. Donald Trump did not make Mitch McConnell such a despicable liar, he was always that way. Likewise Donald Trump did not make Veep Mike Spence or Deven Nunes or any of the Republican Senate and House hierarchy despicable liars, they always were that way. And just look at poor Linsey Graham, senator of South Carolina: without the normal human morality of John McCain to tell him what to do and say, (John McCain died Aug. 2018), he quickly regressed to the normal Republican mode of lie, fantasy, and greed.

But going forward: the problem for the United States is not the damage done by Donald Trump, or his Republican party, or any of its degenerate leaders. Everyone in the world understands that a country can make mistakes and inadvertently follow a "Pied Piper". Rather, it's the Worlds realization that Donald Trump and his Republican minions are not Pied Pipers "LEADING" the rats; but instead they are "FOLLOWERS" of the Albino Rabble of the United States. It is these Albino Rabble who "Enable" Donald Trump and the Republicans. It is "THEY" who have made Lying and Racism socially acceptable in the United States. And the World is watching!



United States President Donald Trump waiting to address the United Nations General Assembly on September 25, 2018. In the first minute of his speech, Trump boasted that his administration had accomplished more over two years than “almost any administration” in American history, eliciting laughter in the cavernous chamber hall. The president appeared startled. “Didn’t expect that reaction,” he said, “but that’s okay.” Members of the audience chuckled again — perhaps this time in sympathy. By now members of the world community understood that the U.S. President couldn't help lying, he has a pathological condition: what probably disturbs them more, is the understanding that the majority of Americas Albinos, don't care!




All of us were taught that lying was a terrible thing to do - and it is: but with Donald Trump and his Albino supporters, we have seen lying become an integral part of all public discourse related to the great "MAJORITY" of the United States Albino population (87% of U.S. Albinos support Donald Trump).





But even more enlightening: Now that media is available to all, not just the Albino elite; we have the ability to see how Albinos interact with others, not like themselves. First - they are extremely uncomfortable with others who are not the same as they. That discomfort becomes paranoia when the others are just as powerful, or more powerful than they. Next that paranoia turns to a murderous blood-lust that cannot be calmed until all those "Others" are dead or under Albinos control. The preceding is merely a summation of history, as seen in the Americas and other places.

From these behavioral traits we can make some judgments about Albinos: despite being the smallest Human population, they want all humans to look and be the same as they. They have a deep genetic fear of others, therefore Killing other Humans comes very easy to them.

As we have seen in articles in the "Bits-n-Pieces Headlines of our times page": these former Albino Pheasants and Surfs in Europe (and before that, Central Asia) don't give a shit about the individual rights of Man, or Democracy, or individual freedom - unless it's their own. These are things that they don't really understand: all they really know is that they want and need protection from "Pigmented Humans". But they have learned through observation that civilized humans are supposed to believe in those things, so to mimic civilized humans, they give "Lip Service" to those ideals. But as we have seen over and over again: Albinos are all the while ready to brush those ideals aside, as the situation requires. And as the official time when the MAJORITY of Americans will be "Pigmented" approaches: the situation may well require. (Of course the majority of Americans are already pigmented - the Albino government simply won't acknowledge it with the census, preferring to drag-out the lie).

Albinos proclaim their love and respect for Human Life: yet the means of their ascension (the "Thirty Years War" on the continent, and the "British Civil Wars"), and the later Wars among themselves (WWI-2): have claimed more lives than at any time in Human History. It appears that to Albinos, any cost in human life is worth it, if it means their dominance in the end: (truly a paranoid people).

The U.S. constitution proudly proclaims respect for individual freedoms and tolerance for diverse though. But now we see from the behavior of modern Albinos, that those guarantees were merely lip-service. And as with similar guarantees in pre-WW1 Germany: We see with Trump and U.S. Albinos, that those guarantees could and would be swept aside, if necessary, as Hitler’s Albinos did in 1930s Germany - and then they killed millions.


The Big Lie - 2

The big lie as a propaganda technique. The expression was coined by Adolf Hitler, when he dictated his 1925 book Mein Kampf, about the use of a lie so "colossal" that no one would believe that someone "could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously". Hitler believed the technique was used by Jews to blame Germany's loss in World War I on German general Erich Ludendorff, who was a prominent nationalist and antisemitic political leader in the Weimar Republic.

Hitler's use of the expression: The source of the big lie technique is this passage, taken from Chapter 10 of James Murphy's translation of Mein Kampf: Quote: "But it remained for the Jews, with their unqualified capacity for falsehood, and their fighting comrades, the Marxists, to impute responsibility for the downfall precisely to the man who alone had shown a superhuman will and energy in his effort to prevent the catastrophe which he had foreseen and to save the nation from that hour of complete overthrow and shame. By placing responsibility for the loss of the world war on the shoulders of Ludendorff they took away the weapon of moral right from the only adversary dangerous enough to be likely to succeed in bringing the betrayers of the Fatherland to Justice."

All this was inspired by the principle—which is quite true within itself—that in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths, and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously. Even though the facts which prove this to be so may be brought clearly to their minds, they will still doubt and waver and will continue to think that there may be some other explanation. For the grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying.
—Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, vol. I, ch. X

Goebbels's use of the expression: Later, Joseph Goebbels put forth a slightly different theory which has come to be more commonly associated with the expression "big lie". Goebbels wrote the following paragraph in an article dated 12 January 1941, 16 years after Hitler's first use of the phrase. The article, titled Aus Churchills Lügenfabrik (English: "From Churchill's Lie Factory") was published in Die Zeit ohne Beispiel.

The essential English leadership secret does not depend on particular intelligence. Rather, it depends on a remarkably stupid thick-headedness. The English follow the principle that when one lies, one should lie big, and stick to it. They keep up their lies, even at the risk of looking ridiculous. ONE SHOULD REMEMBER THAT THE CURRENT BRITISH RULING FAMILY IS "GERMAN" NOT ENGLISH!


The House of Windsor

The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The dynasty is of German paternal descent and was originally a branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, itself derived from the House of Wettin, which succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy following the death of Queen Victoria, wife of Albert, Prince Consort. The name was changed from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the English Windsor (from "Windsor Castle") in 1917 because of anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.


Berlin Germany in the 1920s:

The Golden Twenties was a vibrant period in the history of Berlin, Germany, Europe and the world in general. After the Greater Berlin Act the city became the third largest municipality in the world and experienced its heyday as a major world city. It was known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, music, film, higher education, government, diplomacy, industries and military affairs. The Weimar Republic era began in the midst of several major movements in the fine arts. German Expressionism had begun before World War I and continued to have a strong influence throughout the 1920s, although artists were increasingly likely to position themselves in opposition to expressionist tendencies as the decade went on. Politically, Berlin was seen as a left wing stronghold, with the Nazis calling it "the reddest city [in Europe] after Moscow." Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels became his party's "Gauleiter" for Berlin in the autumn of 1926 and had only been in charge a week before organizing a march through a communist-sympathizing area that devolved into a street riot. The communists, who adopted the motto "Beat the fascists wherever you encounter them!" had their own paramilitary organization called the Roter Frontkämpferbund to battle the Nazis' Sturmabteilung (SA).


John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States Senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. On July 29, 1967, McCain was a lieutenant commander when he was near the center of the USS Forrestal fire. He escaped from his burning jet and was trying to help another pilot escape when a bomb exploded; McCain was struck in the legs and chest by fragments. The ensuing fire killed 134 sailors and took 24 hours to control. With the Forrestal out of commission, McCain volunteered for assignment with the USS Oriskany, another aircraft carrier employed in Operation Rolling Thunder. There he was awarded the Navy Commendation Medal and the Bronze Star Medal for missions flown over North Vietnam.

Prisoner of war

McCain's capture and subsequent imprisonment occurred on October 26, 1967. He was flying his 23rd bombing mission over North Vietnam when his A-4E Skyhawk was shot down by a missile over Hanoi. McCain fractured both arms and a leg when he ejected from the aircraft, and nearly drowned after he parachuted into Trúc Bạch Lake. Some North Vietnamese pulled him ashore, then others crushed his shoulder with a rifle butt and bayoneted him. McCain was then transported to Hanoi's main Hỏa Lò Prison, nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton".

Although McCain was seriously wounded and injured, his captors refused to treat him. They beat and interrogated him to get information, and he was given medical care only when the North Vietnamese discovered that his father was an admiral. His status as a prisoner of war (POW) made the front pages of major American newspapers.

McCain spent six weeks in the hospital, where he received marginal care. He had lost 50 pounds (23 kg), was in a chest cast, and his gray hair had turned white. McCain was sent to a different camp on the outskirts of Hanoi. In December 1967, McCain was placed in a cell with two other Americans who did not expect him to live more than a week. In March 1968, McCain was placed into solitary confinement, where he remained for two years.

In mid-1968, his father John S. McCain Jr. was named commander of all U.S. forces in the Vietnam Theater, and the North Vietnamese offered McCain early release because they wanted to appear merciful for propaganda purposes and also to show other POWs that elite prisoners were willing to be treated preferentially. McCain refused repatriation unless every man taken in before him was also released. Such early release was prohibited by the POWs' interpretation of the military Code of Conduct which states in Article III: "I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy". To prevent the enemy from using prisoners for propaganda, officers were to agree to be released in the order in which they were captured.

Beginning in August 1968, McCain was subjected to a program of severe torture. He was bound and beaten every two hours; this punishment occurred at the same time that he was suffering from heat and dysentery. Further injuries brought McCain to "the point of suicide", but his preparations were interrupted by guards. Eventually, McCain made an anti-U.S. propaganda "confession". He had always felt that his statement was dishonorable, but as he later wrote, "I had learned what we all learned over there: every man has his breaking point. I had reached mine." Many U.S. POWs were tortured and maltreated in order to extract "confessions" and propaganda statements; virtually all of them eventually yielded something to their captors. McCain received two to three beatings weekly because of his continued refusal to sign additional statements.

McCain refused to meet various anti-war groups seeking peace in Hanoi, wanting to give neither them nor the North Vietnamese a propaganda victory. From late 1969, treatment of McCain and many of the other POWs became more tolerable, while McCain continued to resist the camp authorities. McCain and other prisoners cheered the U.S. "Christmas Bombing" campaign of December 1972, viewing it as a forceful measure to push North Vietnam to terms.

McCain was a prisoner of war in North Vietnam for five and a half years until his release on March 14, 1973. His wartime injuries left him permanently incapable of raising his arms above his head. After the war, McCain returned to the site with his wife Cindy and family on a few occasions to try to come to terms with what happened to him there during his capture.





President Donald Trump

It was during the 2016 Presidential primaries, when John McCain referred to a room full of Trump supporters as "crazies" that the real estate mogul then said of McCain: "He insulted me, and he insulted everyone in that room... He is a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren't captured. And most of Americas Albinos were fine with that!

President Donald Trump the "Draft Dodger".

Back in 1968, at the age of 22, Donald J. Trump seemed the picture of health. He stood 6 feet 2 inches with an athletic build; had played football, tennis and squash; and was taking up golf. His medical history was unblemished, aside from a routine appendectomy when he was 10. But after he graduated from college in the spring of 1968, making him eligible to be drafted and sent to Vietnam, he received a diagnosis that would change his path: bone spurs in his heels. (Plantar fasciitis, a painful inflammation of the fibrous band of connective tissue (plantar fascia) that runs along the bottom of the foot and connects the heel bone to the ball of the foot). TREATMENTS: Stretching exercises, Shoe recommendations, Taping or strapping to rest stressed muscles and tendons, Shoe inserts or orthotic devices, Physical therapy: with these therapies the condition usually clears up in a couple of weeks. The diagnosis resulted in a coveted 1-Y medical deferment that fall, exempting him from military service as the United States was undertaking huge troop deployments to Southeast Asia, inducting about 300,000 men into the military that year. The deferment was one of five Donald Trump received during Vietnam: the others were for education.

Donald Trump, like the majority of the 87% of American Albinos who support him, have no real "Moral Compass". Their overriding concern is being protected from the 90% of Humanity who is not Albino; and if that means denigrating people who they used to cheer, then so be it! The Mulattoes of Asia: China, Japan, Korea, Hindu's etc. And those of the Middle East and the Americas; must be greatly distressed to learn from Trumps people that they are in the same boat as Blacks, as relates to Albino fears. This after being told that they were acceptable to Albinos - so much wasted Ass-kissing. And here we find a really peculiar difference between how certain Blacks were treated, as opposed to Mongols and what were considered "Low Class European Whites". Amazingly - some Blacks were treated better!


Immigration Quotas, 1925–1927.

In response to growing public opinion against the flow of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe in the years following World War I, Congress passed first the Quota Act of 1921 then the even more restrictive Immigration Act of 1924 (the Johnson-Reed Act). Initially, the 1924 law imposed a total quota on immigration of 165,000—less than 20 percent of the pre-World War I average. It based ceilings on the number of immigrants from any particular nation on the percentage of each nationality recorded in the 1890 census—a blatant effort to limit immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, which mostly occurred after that date. In the first decade of the 20th century, an average of 200,000 Italians had entered the United States each year. With the 1924 Act, the annual quota for Italians was set at less than 4,000.

By contrast, the annual quota for Germany after the passage of the Act was over 57,000. Some 86% of the 155,000 permitted to enter under the Act were from Northern European countries, with Germany, Britain, and Ireland having the highest quotas. The new quotas for immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe were so restrictive that in 1924 there were more Italians, Czechs, Yugoslavs, Greeks, Lithuanians, Hungarians, Portuguese, Romanians, Spaniards, Jews, Chinese, and Japanese that left the United States than those who arrived as immigrants.

Meanwhile in the Caribbean which is overwhelmingly Black: migration from the Western Hemisphere had not been subject to the national origin quotas set in 1921 and 1924. Instead, the growth had to do with circumstances specific to each country. Migration from Jamaica and other former British colonies was driven by immigration restrictions set by the United Kingdom and the simultaneous recruitment by the United States of English-speaking workers of varying skill levels (from rural laborers in agriculture or construction to nurses). Flows from Cuba, Haiti, and to a lesser extent the Dominican Republic, were first driven by the political instability at home, prompting members of the elite and skilled professionals to emigrate. As economic conditions deteriorated, these migration flows increased and grew to include other social groups. Thus, while the upper middle class represented a sizable portion of immigrants from Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic in the 1960s, it declined as a share later. In contrast, a relatively high share of Jamaican immigrants to the United States has consistently been skilled professionals.


Hillary Clinton gives them a new name: "The deplorables"

September 2016: Speaking at a fundraiser in New York City, Hillary Clinton said half of Donald Trump’s supporters belong in a “basket of deplorables” characterized by “racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamaphobic” views. We now know that includes 87% of Americas Albinos.

A strange thing happened during Donald Trumps Presidential campaign, Valdimer Putin President of Americas Arch enemy "Communist Russia" became a symbol of strength for Trumps supporters.

REMEMBERING: On November 18, 1956, Communist leader Nikita Khrushchev, the head of the Soviet Union, attended a party at the Polish Embassy in Moscow. At that event, he made some boasting comments about the competition between Communism and “capitalist states” like the US. One of those comments included what would become Khrushchev’s most famous (and infamous) quotation. The words he spoke in Russian were “My vas pokhoronim,”. The story caused a huge stir in the US. Headlines blared “‘We Will Bury You,’ Russian Boss Rants” and “Raging Soviet Boss Shouts At The West ‘We Will Bury You.’” Many Americans believed Khrushchev was saying that the Soviet Union could — and some day would — violently destroy the US and its allies, implicitly in a nuclear war.



Headline: The American Prospect magazine:
President Donald J. Trump loves Vladimir Putin, the Russian strongman—as do the right-wingers who love Trump.

Some on the far right see Putin as the restorer of Christendom; others simply see him as a champion of the white race. Donald Trump apparently sees Putin as the savior of, well, Donald Trump. But motives hardly matter in this new time; for white nationalists like former White House strategist Steve Bannon, Trump’s weakness for Putin serves Bannon’s dark vision for a reordering of the world, one that has little respect for democracy or civil rights. It was once though that Russians would infiltrate Liberial Institutions like Trade Unions and the like to bring down America. But recent occurrences show us that Russians were far more clever than that. They understood that those issues of Freedom, Democracy, Justice, and the like were merely noble words to Albinos like themselves. Accordingly they targeted Americans most like themselves for infiltration.


Maria Butina Pleads Guilty to Role in a Russian Effort to Influence Conservatives.

To the conservative Americans she courted, Maria Butina was the right kind of Russian: She loved guns and the church and networking with top officials in the National Rifle Association. She schmoozed with Republican presidential candidates, and became a supporter of Donald J. Trump. She spent Thanksgiving at a congressman’s country house, took a Trump campaign aide to see the rock band Styx and helped a Rockefeller heir organize “friendship dinners” with influential Washingtonians. On Thursday, Ms. Butina, 30, pleaded guilty to a single charge of conspiring to act as a foreign agent in a deal with federal prosecutors. In doing so, she acknowledged that her activities were motivated by more than mere personal conviction.

As part of the deal, Ms. Butina admitted to being involved in an organized effort, backed by Russian officials, to open up unofficial lines of communication with influential Americans in the N.R.A. and in the Republican Party, and to win them over to the idea of Russia as a friend, not a foe. Ms. Butina’s guilty plea now casts a spotlight on the Americans she worked with, including prominent members of the N.R.A. and her boyfriend, Paul Erickson, 56, a longtime Republican operative who ran Patrick J. Buchanan’s 1992 presidential campaign and who now faces accusations of fraud in three states. Officials have said federal investigators are examining what Mr. Erickson and others who helped Ms. Butina knew about her links to the Russian government.



New report on Russian disinformation, prepared for the Senate, shows the operation’s scale and sweep.

By Craig Timberg and Tony Romm - December 17 at 12:22 PM
A report prepared for the Senate that provides the most sweeping analysis yet of Russia’s disinformation campaign around the 2016 election found the operation used every major social media platform to deliver words, images and videos tailored to voters’ interests to help elect President Trump — and worked even harder to support him while in office.

The first report — by Oxford University’s Computational Propaganda Project and Graphika, a network analysis firm — offers new details of how Russians working at the Internet Research Agency, which U.S. officials have charged with criminal offenses for interfering in the 2016 campaign, sliced Americans into key interest groups for targeted messaging.

The data sets used by the researchers were provided by Facebook, Twitter and Google and covered several years up to mid-2017, when the social media companies cracked down on the known Russian accounts. The report, which also analyzed data separately provided to House Intelligence Committee members, contains no information on more recent political moments, such as November’s midterm elections. “What is clear is that all of the messaging clearly sought to benefit the Republican Party — and specifically Donald Trump,” the report says. “Trump is mentioned most in campaigns targeting conservatives and right-wing voters, where the messaging encouraged these groups to support his campaign. The main groups that could challenge Trump were then provided messaging that sought to confuse, distract and ultimately discourage members from voting.”

The Russians aimed particular energy at activating conservatives on issues such as gun rights and immigration, while sapping the political clout of left-leaning African American voters by undermining their faith in elections and spreading misleading information about how to vote. Many other groups — Latinos, Muslims, Christians, gay men and women, liberals, Southerners, veterans — got at least some attention from Russians operating thousands of social media accounts. The second report — prepared for the Senate Intelligence Committee by researchers for New Knowledge, Columbia University and Canfield Research — emphasized this aspect of the Russian operation, saying, “The IRA created an expansive cross-platform media mirage targeting the Black community, which shared and cross-promoted authentic Black media to create an immersive influence ecosystem.”

This report, though largely tracking with the one from Oxford and Graphika in its conclusions, also offered some new statistics, including that the Russians posted more than 1,000 YouTube videos for their disinformation campaign and that Instagram generated more than twice the “engagement” among users than either Facebook or Twitter. Such metrics track user comments, shares, likes and other actions that go beyond having an item merely appear on their screens. Both reports also offered some of the first detailed analyses of the role played by YouTube, a subsidiary of Google, and Instagram, owned by Facebook, in the Russian campaign, as well as anecdotes about how Russians used other social media platforms — Google+, Tumblr and Pinterest — that have received relatively little scrutiny. The Russian effort also used email accounts from Yahoo, Microsoft’s Hotmail service and Google’s Gmail. Clearly Trump, Putin, and their supporters see themselves as bulwarks against "Pigmented Humanity".


NEWS HEADLINE: December 19, 2018
(AFP) Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international French news agency that is headquartered in Paris, France.

Most Americans against becoming more 'politically correct: says poll.

Washington (AFP) - A small majority of Americans say they do not want their country to become more "politically correct," an attitude they see as crimping their freedom to express themselves, a polls said Wednesday.

The poll carried out by the Marist Institute for Public Opinion showed that 52 percent of Americans did not want public discourse to become more PC, including a majority of independent voters. The mood reflects what President Donald Trump and his supporter have railed against; arguing that political correctness -- the desire to not use language which minority groups may find offensive -- had limited their right to say what they really want to say.

"If the Democratic Party moves in a direction that is more to its base on this issue, it suggests independents are going to be tested to stay with the Democrats electorally," said Lee Miringoff, the polling center's director. The poll showed that 76 percent of Republicans were against the country becoming more rather than less politically correct, as were 53 per of independent voters. A 55-percent majority of Democrats wanted more "sensitivity" in how people express their views. When he was campaigning for president, Trump said during a Republican primary debate that "the big problem this country has is being politically correct." His critics have accused him of opening up public debate to less tolerant and often openly racist views, especially with his comments on immigrants coming from Mexico, when he accused Washington's southern neighbor of sending "rapists" across the border. Seventy percent of the 1,075 people polled said the standard of polite discourse in Washington had fallen under Trump's presidency. Sixty-seven percent of Democrats blamed the president for the coarsening of the debate, but 58 percent of Republicans blamed the media, whom the president has dubbed the "enemy of the people


James Comey

Said Former FBI Director James Comey after an appearance before a Senate Committee: “Republicans used to understand that the actions of a president matter, that words of a president matter, the rule of law matters, and the truth matters. Where are those Republicans today?” he said. “At some point, someone has to stand up, and in the face of fear of Fox News, fear of their base, fear of mean tweets, stand up for the values of this country and not slink away into retirement.” Comey also said: “This is not about Republicans and Democrats, this is about what does it mean to be an American. What are the things that we care about beyond our policy disputes, which are important. There’s a set of values that represent the glue of this country and they are under attack by things just like that.” In response to the Trump's attacks on the FBI investigation, Comey told the press that "we have to stop being numb to it. Whether you’re Republican or Democrat you need to stand on your feet, overcome your shame and say something.” (At least one Albino understands that "SHAME" is one of the correct emotions for having produced Donald Trump and his supporters).



Considering the above, and much, much more: it is therefore natural that some would wonder how could it be that those (Albinos) who taught us about the "Aspirational" virtues of Humans; could be such liars and killers. How could people like them conceive of, and establish, what we think of as the "Norms" of civilized humans?

They didn't - they are liars and mimickers like Monkeys: they learned to repeat the words, and to try to play the parts, but without understanding the true underlying meanings and concepts.

For example - In the United States and Canada: the United States Constitution, and other such documents were written by British immigrants, and the descendants of British immigrants. But those laws were not conceptualized and created by British Albinos, rather, they were created by Blacks in earlier periods, when Blacks ruled Britain.

The U.S. constitution is based on the British "Magna Carta": In 1215, after King John of England violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which enumerates what later came to be thought of as human rights. The Magna Carta primarily established the rights of 13th-century English citizens. It granted protection from unlawful imprisonment and swift justice, which established the idea that everybody, including the king, was subject to the letter of the law.

Going even further back: this is why the Albinos have created so many lies to take-over the identities of Black Greeks and Romans: Wiki quote: A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life, especially religion, developed by Hellenistic philosophy, scholasticism and humanism. The Catholic Church was for centuries at the center of the development of the values, ideas, science, laws and institutions which constitute Western civilization. Empiricism later gave rise to the scientific method during the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment. Ancient Greece is considered the birthplace of many elements of Western culture, with the world's first democratic system of government.

Not really so: earlier Black civilizations had similar ways. Albinos, having convinced themselves that they are the descendants of Greeks and Romans, created this lie, to make themselves feel special. But the fact is that Greece and Rome were Black civilizations: Albinos were still in Central Asia at their creation.

Likewise with religion: though Albinos mimic religious belief, they don't really understand the concepts. To them spirituality is the practice of a particular religion, rather than a connection between the known and the unknown. No other people besides Albinos, and now their Mulattos, have tried to "Weaponized" religion. To try to hold everyone to the same belief's: that in itself is an indication of Albino presence and perversion - no other people would try to force others to believe as they do - except Albinos and their Mulattoes.

In ancient times people were free to believe as they wished, though it appears that those of the governing belief system did enjoy additional benefits. The most spectacular example of "Altruistic" religious belief is when Cyrus the Great - a Zorocrastian - freed the Hebrews from Babylonian bondage, (which was a continuation of Assyrian bondage - Assyrians like the Babylonians, worshipped the Sumerian pantheon), and bade them to return home and rebuild their temple. The other extreme, is that it appears Hebrews were the least tolerant of the ancient Blacks, especially in regards to the Canaanite Religion.

This inability to truly comprehend religious though is why Albinos have never created their own religions, the best they can do is to merely re-write and corrupt the religions of Blacks. Keeping in mind that though Albinos did create Protestantism: it is merely a re-write of Black Catholicism, as created by Black Romans and Greeks. And as we have seen with the likes of the Huckabee's, those called "Conservative Evangelicals" (Protestants) are perhaps the most corrupt of them all, as relates to the policies they pursue, and the truth of why they pursue them. See more about Evangelicals in the "Headlines of our Times" section.


If you are wondering why it is that mostly all of Americas Albino Rabble has

congregated in the Republican Party – well that’s no accident – here is what happened.


The Southern Strategy: (From Wikipedia).

In American politics, southern strategy refers to methods the Republican Party used to gain political support in the South by appealing to the racism against African Americans harbored by many southern white voters. As the African American Civil Rights Movement and dismantling of Jim Crow laws in the 1950s and 1960s visibly deepened pre-existing racial tensions in much of the Southern United States, Republican politicians such as presidential candidate Richard Nixon and Senator Barry Goldwater developed strategies that successfully contributed to the political realignment of many white, conservative voters in the South to the Republican Party that had traditionally supported the Democratic Party.









Ronald Reagan:

In 1980, Republican candidate Ronald Reagan made a much-noted appearance at the Neshoba County Fair. His speech there contained the phrase "I believe in states' rights" and was cited as evidence that the Republican Party was building upon the Southern strategy again. Reagan's campaigns used racially coded rhetoric, making attacks on the "welfare state" and leveraging resentment towards affirmative action. Dan Carter explains "Reagan showed that he could use coded language with the best of them, lambasting welfare queens, busing, and affirmative action as the need arose." During his 1976 and 1980 campaigns Reagan employed stereotypes of welfare recipients, often invoking the case of a "welfare queen" with a large house and a Cadillac using multiple names to collect over $150,000 in tax-free income. Aistrup described Reagan's campaign statements as "seemingly race neutral" but explained how whites interpret this in a racial manner, citing a DNC funded study conducted by CRG Communications. Though Reagan didn't overtly mention the race of the welfare recipient, the unstated impression in whites' minds were black people and Reagan's rhetoric resonated with Southern white perceptions of black people.

The whole point of this prologue is to introduce those lost people who taught our Albinos the mores of civilized living, only to have their Albinos "Who were Incapable of Truly Understanding the Concepts " turn on them, and destroy them. Here then are....




(with a few "Redbones" thrown in).



This Wiki of John Macky is excerpted from:

Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 35
Macky, John
by Thomas Finlayson Henderson


MACKY, JOHN (d. 1726), was a government agent or spy, author of ‘Memoirs of Secret Services,’ was a Scotsman of good education, but of his parentage or birth nothing is known. According to his own account he ‘came early into the measures of the revolution,’ and being, on the return of King James from Ireland to France, sent to Paris to find out the further purposes of the Jacobites, he discovered that the French government intended to send an expedition against England in 1692. He arrived in London with the information before James reached his army encamped at La Hogue, and thus gave the government ample time for preparations against it. On the return of King William to England in October 1693, he was appointed inspector of the coast from Harwich to Dover in order to prevent treasonable correspondence between the two countries by passengers or letters. He discovered the proposed descent on England in 1696 in connection with the assassination plot of Sir George Barclay [q. v.]; and after its disclosure published ‘A View of the Court of St. Germains from the year 1690 to 1695, with an Account of the Entertainment Protestants meet with there, directed to the malcontent Protestants of England,’ 1696. Of this pamphlet he states that no fewer than thirty thousand copies were sold. After the peace of Ryswick, 20 Sept. 1697, he had the direction of the packet-boats from Dover to France and Flanders, and he states that during the negotiations connected with the Partition treaty in 1698 he had the charge of transmitting all the private expresses that passed between King William and Lord Portland.

The packet-boat service was discontinued after the death of King William in 1702, and Macky went to look after an estate possessed by him and others in the island of Zante, in the dominion of Venice. After the battle of Ramillies in May 1706 he had the direction of the packet-boats to Ostend, with instructions to watch narrowly all naval preparations at Ostend and other sea-coast towns; and in 1708 he discovered the preparations for an armament at Dunkirk. Subsequently he came under the suspicion of the government and was thrown into prison, where he remained till the accession of George I. On obtaining his liberty he endeavoured at his own expense to establish a service of packetboats to Dublin, but the undertaking involved him in heavy expenses, and was soon dropped. Ultimately he went abroad, and he died at Rotterdam in 1726.

He is the author of a somewhat important contribution to contemporary history: 'Memoirs of the Secret Services of John Macky, Esq., during the Reign of King William, Queen Anne, and King George I. Including also the true Secret History of the Rise, Promotions, &c., of the English and Scots Nobility; Officers, Civil, Military, Naval, and other Persons of distinction from the Revolution. In their respective Characters at large: drawn up by Mr. Macky pursuant to the direction of Her Royal Highness the Princess Sophia. Published from his original Manuscript, as attested by his son. Spring Macky, Esq.,' London, 1733. An edition in French, translated by 'A. R.,' was published at the Hague in the same year. The chief value of the 'Memoirs' consists in its descriptions of the leading personages of the period, which evidence both keen powers of observation and great impartiality of judgment. Swift has appended notes, generally of an acrid character, to many of the descriptions. Macky was also the author of 'Journey through England,' 1714; 2nd edition, 1722, with additional volume; 3rd edition, 1723, with a third volume; reprinted, with large additions, 1724 and 1732; 'Journey through Scotland,' 1723; and 'Journey through the Austrian Netherlands,' 1725.



Princess Sophia

(Mentioned above)


The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed important aspects of the constitutional structure of the (Black) Holy Roman Empire. The Bull explicitly named the seven Prince-electors who were to choose the King/Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and also defined the Reichserzamter, their (largely ceremonial) offices at court.




Ecclesiastical princes (3)

Archbishop of Mainz (Archchancellor of Germany).
Archbishop of Cologne (Archchancellor of Italy).
Archbishop of Trier (Archchancellor of Burgundy).

Secular princes (4)

King of Bohemia (Arch-Cupbearer).
Count Palatine of the Rhine (Arch-Steward).
Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg (Arch-Marshal).
Margrave of Brandenburg (Arch-Chamberlain).

An Electress was the consort of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.

Princess Sophia

Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 1630 – 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. As a granddaughter of James I, she became heir presumptive to the crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Acts of Union 1707, she became heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain. She died less than two months before she would have become queen succeeding her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, and her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714.

Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, and Elizabeth Stuart, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Lower Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Luneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, and bore him seven children who survived to adulthood. Initially a landless cadet, Ernest Augustus succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of Hanover, the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland.

Before her marriage, Sophia, as the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, was referred to as Sophie, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, or as Sophia of the Palatinate. The Electors of the Palatinate were the Calvinist senior branch of House of Wittelsbach, whose Catholic branch ruled the Electorate of Bavaria.

On 30 September 1658, she married Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, at Heidelberg, who in 1692 became the first Elector of Hanover. Ernest August was a second cousin of Sophia's mother Elizabeth Stuart, as they were both great-grandchildren of Christian III of Denmark.




Amazingly, one of the most accurate sources for telling us what Europeans looked like 300 years ago..

is this "Essay" by the American Statesman Benjamin Franklin.







Lets start with the "Redbones" because we already have a few

(somewhat authentic) pictures of them














Queen Elizabeth I











Pages from the Memoirs of the Secret Services of John Macky, Esq.








Charles I (1600–1649) was King of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to a Spanish Habsburg princess culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.

After his succession, Charles quarreled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of reformed groups such as the Puritans and Calvinists, who thought his views too Catholic. He supported high church ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to successfully aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments and helped precipitate his own downfall.

From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. In 1660, the English Interregnum ended when the monarchy was restored to Charles's son, Charles II.

































































Biographies of Blacks of note in ancient Britain

Biographies in these pages are taken from:

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) by Stephen Leslie 1832-1904: A standard work of reference with articles on more than 29,000 notable figures from British history. It was originally published in 63 volumes between 1885 and 1900.


The Scottish nation; or, The surnames, families, literature, honours, and biographical history of the people of Scotland (1877) by William Anderson, 1805-1866


Rules for inclusion:

Rules for inclusion in these Biographies is that the person MUST be explicitly described as being a Black person.



Description of John Hamilton from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB)


Quote: Macky (Memoirs, p. 236) caricatures him as a rough, fat, black, noisy man, more like a butcher than a lord. In the obituary notice of him in Boyer, he is described as of a good stature, well set, of a healthy constitution, black complexion and graceful manly presence, as having a quick conception, with a ready and masculine expression, and as being steady in his principles both in politics and religion.



The description and Portrait DON'T MATCH!!!

You will find this typical. False artifacts are part of the White mans false history telling.



Of course to the serious student of history, this incompatibility comes as no surprise. As a matter of fact, if the description and portrait had matched, THAT would have been the surprise. By now it should be clear, to the White man, in his pathetic paranoia of all things Black: no lie is too big, and no fraud is too extreme.

Note below, the treatment the British gave to their very own Black Queen Charlotte: In each successive portrait her Blackness was further obfuscated.



Please note: The Biographies of Blacks of note in ancient Britain in these pages, are only to demonstrate the false history of the White man in his modern Books, Movies, Television, and other media sources. (They have created a "Fantasy" World if you will - No doubt to cement their new-found status as "Masters of the World". Such status of course, requires a "Glorious" Past. But since the "Real Glorious Past" involved Black civilizations and people, since the beginning of time. The creation of a "Fantasy Past" exclusive of Black people was essential).

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) contains over 29,000 entries, undoubtedly many thousands of them are Black people.

The Scottish nation - (1877): is also in several volumes, it is therefore not possible for us to present all of the Black entries. The entries presented here, are a random sampling of volumes in the respective works. Those wishing to peruse the books, may do so on-line at the provided links.

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB): Click here for link to Book

The Scottish nation; or, The surnames: Click here for link to Book

When reading the books on-line: Select the volume of interest by clicking the volume in the listing. In the next screen on the left, there is a heading "View the book" choosing "Full Text" will open the Book in your Browser. The text may then be searched in the normal way.

When the interest is the race of an individual, the search word "Complexion" yields very good results, because there is most often a physical description included in the Biography. However, failing that, use Black or Blackamoor.

Some descriptive terms used are:

Sanguine complexion: Meaning - Bloodred (Since a White person of this complexion would be suffering Sunburn or some other malady, it is assumed that this description indicates someone of a Red-hued Brown complexion, as used to describe the American Indian).

Ruddy complexion: Same as "Sanguine complexion".

Swarthy complexion: "Of a dark color".

Naturally terms like Black and Brown are self explanatory. (It may come as a surprise to some, how many surnames like Duff, and Douglas, actually "Mean Black" in the ancient languages).

Please note: These Books were scanned using "OCR" consequently some characters were not properly recognized by the software, and spelling errors abound. Use common sense.


Excerpts from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) These are NOT the complete entries for the name!


Born 5 July 1656, was eldest son of Robert Hamilton (d. 1696), lord Presmennan, one of the judges of the court of session, by Marion Denholm, and elder brother of James Hamilton of Pencaitland, who was appointed a lord of justiciary in 1712 (BRUNTON and HAIG, Senators of College of Justice, pp. 447, 493).

John Hamilton married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Hamilton of Selverton Hill, and granddaughter of John Hamilton, first lord Belhaven (d. 1679), who in 1675 obtained a settlement of his title on his granddaughter's husband. He succeeded to the peerage in 1679. In the Scotch parliament of 1681 he opposed the measures of the government, and during the debate on the test he spoke of it as failing Ho secure our religion against a popish or fanatical successor to the crown '(FOUNTAINHALL, ii. 307-8), a remark obviously aimed, though he disclaimed any such intention, at the Duke of York, afterwards James II, who was then the king's commissioner in Scotland. As a punishment he was imprisoned by order of the parliament in Edinburgh Castle, and there was some talk of indicting him for treason, when having' on his knees at the bar craved pardon' (Acts of Parliament of Scotland, viii. 247 a), he was restored to his seat in parliament.

After the revolution of 1688 he was one of the members of the Scotch aristocracy who met in London in January 1689, and invited the Prince of Orange to assume the government and to summon a convention of the estates of Scotland. In that convention he contributed to the settlement of the crown of Scotland on William and Mary. In June 1689 he was appointed one of the commissioners for exercising the office of clerk of register. In the preceding April he had succeeded Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun (1655-1716) [q. v.] as captain of the troop of horse raised in Had- dingtonshire (ib. ix. 27 b}, and in command of it he was present at the battle of Killie- crankie, 27 July 1689, on which day he was appointed a member of the Scotch privy council. In 1693 he was one of the farmers of the poll-tax in Scotland, and from 1695 to 1697 of the excise. He was a warm supporter of the Darien scheme, being one of the few subscribers of 1,000/ to the funds of the South African Company.

On the accession of Queen Anne, Belhaven was continued a member of the Scotch privy council. In the new Scotch parliament of 1703 he was a strenuous advocate of the Act of Security, and a spirited speech of his on it delivered in that year was printed for popular circulation. He was accused, to all appearance unjustly, of having taken part in the so-called 1 Scotch plot ' of the same year for a Stuart restoration. Belhaven was appointed a com- missioner of the Scotch treasury in the ministry of 1704, and was removed when it was dismissed in 1705. He was a passionate opponent of the union. Another speech published at the time of delivery was made, 21 July 1705, in support of a resolution pro- testing against the nomination of a successor to Queen Anne to the crown of Scotland without limitations of its regal authority. On 2 Nov. 1706 he denounced the proposed union in a famous speech, the only specimen of Scotch parliamentary oratory which has found its way into English collections of rhetorical masterpieces.

Lord Marchmont replied that a short answer to this long and terrible speech would suffice. 'Behold he dreamed, but lo ! when he awoke, behold it were as a dream' (DEFOE, Abstract of Proceedings, p. 44). Hence the title of 'The Vision' given to some contemporary doggerel verses ridi- culing Belhaven's speech, which, according to the catalogue of the British Museum, may have been written by Thomas Hamilton, sixth earl of Haddington [q. v.] ' The Vision ' was published as a broadsheet at Edinburgh, 1706 (reprinted in London the same year as by a person of quality), and with a reply to it, ' A Scot's Answer to a British Vision,' is given in the second series of ' Various Pieces of Scot- tish Fugitive Poetry ' (1823 ?). Belhaven's Vision ' is also the title of a superior metrical piece warmly eulogising him (London, 1729), but probably published much earlier. The famous speech of 2 Nov. 1706, with another delivered by Belhaven on the 16th of the same month, was printed as a broadside at Edinburgh and reprinted in London in 'a pamphlet cried about the streets,' according to Defoe, who has given both speeches in his history of the union, and who attacked Belhaven in his ' review ' for 12 March 1707.

Belhaven with other opponents of the union was imprisoned at Edinburgh, and in April 1708 brought in custody to London, as suspected of favouring the attempted French invasion [see FLETCHER, ANDREW, 1655- 1716]. He was examined by the English privy council and admitted to bail, dying a few days afterwards, 21 June 1708, of inflammation of the brain, caused or aggravated, it has been surmised, by wounded pride (cf. BOYER, Appendix, p. 44, and A. CUNNINGHAM, History, of Great Britain, 1787, ii. 159). A eulogistic ' elegy ' on him in doggerel verse was printed as a broadside at Edinburgh soon after his death. Lockhart of Carnwath accuses him of want of fixity of principle, and charges him with making * long premeditated harangues,' but admits that he was a ' well-accomplished gentleman in most kinds of learning, well acquainted with the constitution of Scotland, and a skillful parliamentary strategist. Belhaven was the author of ' An Advice to the Farmers of East Lothian to Labour and Improve their Grounds.' One of its monitions is quoted in the ' Edinburgh Review ' for November 1814 (p. 87), art. 'Agriculture of Scotland.' By his wife Belhaven left two sons, John, third lord, who was appointed governor of Barbadoes, but was drowned on his way out off the Lizard, 17 Nov. 1721, and James (d. 1732), an advocate.

Macky (Memoirs, p. 236) caricatures him as 'a rough, fat, black, noisy man, more like a butcher than a lord.' In the obituary notice of him in Boyer, he is described as of ' a good stature, well set, of a healthy constitution, black complexion and graceful manly presence,' as having f a quick conception, with a ready and masculine expression,' and as being steady in his principles both in politics and religion.' There is a portrait of him, with a brief and valueless memoir in Pinkerton's ' Scottish Gallery,' 1799.



BACKGROUND: (For below)

The Picts

The Picts were a confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods. Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones. While very little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, and various Irish annals.




Son of Kenneth Macalpine, king of Scotland or Alba, the country north of the Forth and Clyde, whose chief seat was Scone, succeeded his uncle Donald in 863. His reign was one of the first when the attacks of the Normans attained a formidable height, threatening the destruction of the Celtic and Saxon kingdoms. Two years after his accession Olaf the White, king of Dublin, wanted the country of the Picts, and occupied it from the Kalends of January to the feast of St. Patrick, i.e. 17 March.
According to the Pictish Chronicle, Olaf was slain by Constantine when on a raid in the following year, but the 'Annals of Ulster' relate that he destroyed Alrhyth (Dumbarton), after a four months' siege, in 870, and retired in 871 to Dublin with two hundred ships and a great body of men, Anglo- Britons and Picts.

After this he disappears from the Irish annals, so that his death may possibly have been antedated by some years in the account of the Pictish Chronicle. Ivar, another of the Norse Vikings of Dublin, who had fought along with Olaf, died about the same time, but Scotland was still exposed to incursions from other leaders of the same race. Thorstein the Red, a son of Olaf, by Audur, the wealthy daughter of Ketill Flatnore, attacked the northern districts, and, according to the 'Icelandic Landnamabok: conquered ( Katanes and Suderland, Ross and Norway, and more than half Scotland.' But his kingdom, which, perhaps, was acquiesced in by Constantine, who had slight hold of the northern parts, was brief, and he was slain by the men of Alba by a stratagem or treachery in 875. In the South Halfdane the Danish leader who led the northern of the two bands (Guthrum, Alfred's opponent commanded the other), into which the formerly united host of that people was divided, ravaged the east coast of Britain, laid waste Northumbria, and destroyed the Picts (of Galloway ?) and the people of Strathclyde.

Two years later another band of Danes, the Irish Dubhgall, or Black Strangers, having been driven from Ireland by the Fingall, or White Strangers, made a sudden descent on Scotland by way of the Clyde and, penetrating into the interior, defeated the Scots at Dollar, from which they passed to Inverdovat, in the parish of Forgan in Fife, where Constantine was slain (877). Tradition points to the long black cave, near Crail, as the scene of his death. [Robertson's Scotland under her Early Kings; Skene's Celtic Scotland.] M. M.

DOUGLAS, Sir WILLIAM, Lord of NITHSDALE (d. 1392 ?)
Was the illegitimate son of Archibald, third earl of Douglas [q.v.], himself the illegitimate son of the ' Good ' Sir James. For comeliness and bravery he was a worthy descendant of such ancestors, and the historians of the period describe him as inheriting several of the personal features of his grandfather, being large-boned, of great strength, tall and erect, bearing himself with a majestic mien, yet courteous and affable, and in company even hearty and merry. He inherited the swarthy complexion of the Good ' Sir James, and was also called the Black Douglas.

He was an active warrior against the English. In 1385, while still a youth, he accompanied his father in a raid into Cumberland, and took part in the siege of Carlisle. Making an incursion on his own account, accompanied by a few personal fol- lowers, he burned the suburbs of the town. "While standing on a slender plank bridge he was attacked by three knights, reckoned among the bravest in the citadel ; he killed the foremost, and with his club felled the other two. He then put the enemy to flight and drew off his men in safety. On another occasion, in open field, with but eight hundred men, he overcame an opposing host of three thousand, leaving two hundred of the enemy dead on the plain, and carrying five hundred off as prisoners. Robert II was so pleased with the knightly bearing of young Douglas that in 1387 he gave him in marriage his daughter Egidia, a princess whose beauty and wit were so re- nowned that the king of France wished to make her his queen, and despatched a painter to the Scottish court to procure her portrait secretly. But in the meantime she was bestowed on Douglas, and with her the lordship of Nithsdale. He also received from his royal father-in-law an annual pension of 300, and his own father gave him the barony of Herbertshire, near Stirling.

In 1388 he was entrusted with the com- mand of a maritime expedition, which was fitted out to retaliate certain raids by the Irish upon the coast of Galloway. Embark- ing in a small flotilla with five hundred men he sailed for the Irish coast, and attacked Carlinford. The inhabitants offered a large sum ot money to obtain immunity. Douglas consented, and a time was fixed for payment. The townsmen, however, had only wished to gain time, and immediately despatched a messenger to Dundalk for their English allies. Unsuspicious of treachery Douglas had only landed two hundred men, and half of these were now separated from him in a foraging expedition under his lieutenant. Sir Robert Stewart of Durrisdeer. He himself remained before the town. At nightfall eight hundred horsemen left Dundalk, and, meeting with the inhabitants of Carlingford, fell simultaneously upon the two companies of the Scots, with whom, however, the victory remained.

Douglas thereupon took the town, and gave it to the flames, beating down the castle; and, lading with his spoils fifteen Irish vessels which he found harbouring there, set sail and returned to Scotland, On the way home they attacked and plundered the Isle of Man. When Douglas reached Lochryan in Galloway, he learned that his father and the Earl of Fife and Menteith had just led an expedition over the western marches into England, and he immediately joined them with all his available forces. In connection with the same campaign James, second earl of Douglas, had simultaneously entered England by the eastern marches, and, meeting with Percy on the field of Otterburn (1388), was slain. The western portion of the Scottish troops at once returned.

Peace with England was shortly afterwards secured, and Douglas went abroad in search of adventure. He was received with great honour at Spruce or Danzig in Prussia, where Thomas, duke of Gloucester, was preparing to fight against the Lithuanians (1391). A fleet of two hundred and forty ships was fitted out for an expedition, the command of which Douglas is said to have accepted. Before leaving Scotland Douglas seems to have received a challenge from Thomas Clifford, tenth lord Clilford [q. v.], to do wager by battle for some disputed lands. Cliftbrd obtained a safe-conduct through England for Douglas, but nothing is known as to the result of the duel, or even whether it was fought. It is said to have taken place in 1390. From the Scottish Exchequer Rolls is evident Douglas was alive in 1392, after which there is no further trace of him. By Princess Egidia he left a daughter of the same name, who married Henry, earl of Orkney, and was associated with him in the foundation of Eoslin Chapel near Edinburgh. He also left a son, who succeeded him as Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale, but who disappears from record after 1408, while his sister lived at least thirty years later.





Excerpts from The Scottish nation... These are NOT the complete entries for the name!


CAMERON, Sik Ewen, or Evan, of Locliie!, a chief of the clan Cameron,

distinguished for his chivalrous character, was boru in February 1629.


He was called by his followers Mac'onnuill Dhu, or the son of Black Donald, according to the custom of their race, after his father Donald, the chief who preceded him ; also Ewen Dhu, or Black Evan, from his own dark complexion.

He was brought up at Inverary castle, under the guardianship of his kinsman the marquis of Argyle, under whose charge he was placed in his tenth year, being regarded as a hostage for the peaceable behaviour of his clan. Argyle endeavoured to instil into his mind the political principles of the covenanters, but it is said that he was converted to the side of the king by the exhortations of Sit Robert Spottiswood, formerly president of the Court of Session, who had been taken at the battle of Pliiliphaugh in September 1645, and was afterwards executed. At the age of eighteen ho quitted Inverary castle, with the declared intention of joining the marquis of Montrose, who, however, had previously disbanded his forces, and retired to the Continent. Although the royal cause seemed lost, Lochiel kept his clan in arms, and was able to protect his estate from the incursions of Cromwell's troops.

In 1652 he was one of the first to join the insurrection under the earl of Glencairn when that nobleman raised the royal standard in the Highlauds, and for nearly two years greatly distinguished himself at the head of his clan, in a seriea of encounters with General Lilburne, Colonel Morgan, and others of Cromwell's officers. In a sharp skirmish which took place between Lord Glencairn and Colonel Lilbnrne at Braemar, Lochiel gallantly maintained a pass with the defence of which he had been intrusted, and thereby saved Glencairn's army. His services were rewarded by a letter of thanks from Charles the Second, dated at Chantilly, the 8d of November, 1653. In 1654 Lochiel continued to aid Glencairn in a fresh insurrection headed by him. Being himself opposed to Morgan, a brave and enterprising officer, Lochiel was often hard pressed, and sometimes nearly overpowered, but by his courage and presence of mind, he was always able to extricate himself from positions of the utmost difficulty and danger.

Monk was now commander-in-chief of the parliamentary forces in Scotland, and he resolved to establish a garrison at Inverlochy, now Fort William, with the view of reducing the royalist clans in the neighbourhood. Lochiel lay in wait on a hill to the north of the fort, with thirty-eight of his clan, and observing a body of men about to land at a place called Achdalew, to cut down his woods, and to carry off his cattle, he proceeded along in a line with the vessels, under cover of the woods, until he saw the English soldiers disembark, one hundred and forty of them having axes, hatchets, and other working implements, while the rest remained under arms, to protect their operations. Notwithstanding the disparity of their forces, Lochiel at once gave orders to advance. He ordered his brother Allan to be bound to a tree, to prevent his taking any part in the conflict, and so not deprive his clan of a chief, should he himself be cut off. But Allan prevailed on a little boy, who was left to attend him, to unloose his, cords, and soon plunged into the thickest of the fight. The Camerons rushed on the enemy, discharged against them a destructive shower of shot and arrows, and before they could recover from their surprise attacked them with their broadswords. The combat was long and obstinate. At last the English, retreating slowly, yet contesting every step of ground, and with their faces towards their assailants, were giving way when Lochiel sent two men and a piper round the flank, to sound the pibroch, raise the war-cry of the

clan, and Are their muskets, as if a fresh party ol Camerons had arrived, hoping thereby to create a panic among the English soldiers. But this only rendered the latter more desperate, and instead of throwing down their arms they fought more resolutely than before, as they expected no quarter. They were, at length, completely borne down, and fled, pursued to the sea, when those who had been left in the boats received the fugitives, and firing at the Camerons drove them back, the chief himself advancing till he was chindeep in the water. In the course of the struggle an English officer of great size and strength singled out Lochiel, and as they were pretty equally matched, they fought for some time apart from the general battle. Lochiel succeeded in knocking the sword out of his adversary's hand, but the Englishman closing on him, bore him to the ground, and fell upon him, the officer being uppermost. The latter was in the act of reaching for his sword, which lay near, but when extending his neck in the same direction, Lochiel, collecting his energies, grasped his enemy by the collar, and springing at his throat, seized it with his teeth, and gave so sure and effectual a bite that the officer died almost instantly. Of the English the number killed in this encounter exceeded that of Lochiel's men engaged in it, in the proportion of three to one, whilst only seven of the Camerons fell.

By this and similar attacks, now on the garri son at Inverlochy, now in conjunction with General Middleton, he harassed the forces of the Protector with general success. After the defeat of Middleton in July 1654, and his retreat to the continent, Lochiel was the only chief who remained opposed to Cromwell. The English, desirous to have peace with this formidable chief, made various overtures to him to that effect, but without success, until ho was informed that no express renunciation of the king's authority or oath to the existing government would be required of him, but only his word of honour to live in peace. An agreement on this basis took place about the end of that year. Reparation was made to Lochiel for the wood cut down by the garrison of Inverlochy, and to his tenants for all the losses they had sustained from the troops; while a full indemnity was granted for all acts of depredation and for all crimes committed by his men. All tithes, cess, and public bnrdens which had not been paid, were remitted to his clan.

In 1680 the last wolf known to have existed wild in Great Britain was slain by the hand of this brave and hardy chief in the district of Lochaber. In 1681, when the dnke of York, afterwards James the Second, was residing at Holyrood, as commissioner to the parliament of Scotland, Lochiel took a journey to Edinburgh to solicit the pardon of one of his clan, who, while in command of a party of Camerons, had fired by mistake on a party of Athole men, and killed several. The duke received him with great distinction, and granted his request. On this occasion he was knighted by the duke. After knighting him, the duke presented his sword to Sir Ewen, to keep as a remembrance. In 1689 Sir Ewen joined the viscount of Dundee when he raised the standard of King James. General Mackay had, by the orders of King William, offered him a title and a considerable sum of money, apparently on the condition of his remaining neutral, but this offer he rejected with disdain.

Though then far advanced in years, he distinguished himself with his usual licroism, and had a conspicuous share in the victory at Killiecrankie. Before the battle commenced he spoke to each of his men individually, and took their promise that they would conquer or die. On first seeing Dundee's force, General Mackay's army had raised a kind of shout, on which Lochiel exclaimed, " Gentlemen, the day is our own; I am the oldest commander in the army, and I have always observed something ominous or fatal in such a dull, heavy, feeble noise as that which the enemy has just made in their shout." Encouraged by this prognostication of victory, the Highlanders, with their usual impetuosity, rushed on the troops of Mackay, and in half an hour gained the victory.

In this battle Lochiel was attended by the son of his foster brother, who followed him everywhere like his shadow. Shortly after the commencement of the action the chief missed this faithful adherent from his side, and turning round to look for him, he saw him lying on his back in a dying state, with his breast pierced by an arrow. With his last breath he informed Sir Ewen that observing an enemy, a Highlander, in General Mackay's army, aiming at him with a bow and arrow from the rear, he sprang behind him to cover him, and thus, like his father, received in his own body the death-wound intended for hit chief.

After the battle of Killiecrankie, Sir Ewen Cameron retired to Lochaber, leaving the command of his men to his eldest son. He survived till the year 1719, when he died at the age of ninety. Notwithstanding all the battles and personal encounters in which be had been engaged, he never lost a drop of blood, or received a wound. He was thrice married, and had four sous and eleven daughters.—Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders and Highland Regiments.—Browne's History of the Highlands and Highland Clans.




Excerpts from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) These are NOT the complete entries for the name!


DAYROLLES, SOLOMON (d. 1786) Diplomatist, nephew and heir of James Dayrolles, king's resident for some time at Geneva, and from 1717 to 1739 at the Hague, who died on 2 Jan. 1739, was the godson of Lord Chesterfield, the wit and politician, through whose friendship the young official obtained speedy advancement in his profession. He began his diplomatic career under James, first earl of Waldegrave, then ambassador at Vienna, and when that peer was transferred to the same position at Versailles, the active Lord Chesterfield endeavoured to obtain the appointment of secretary to the embassy for his protege, but in this he was frustrated by superior influence. Dayrolles was sworn as gentleman of the privy chamber to George II on 27 Feb. 1740, and retained his place in the court of George III. With the old king he quickly became a personal favourite, and was duly rewarded for his good qualities by the post of master of the revels (12 April 1744). He was secretary to Lord Chesterfield during that peer's second embassy to the Hague (1745), and when his pation somewhat later in the year entered upon his duties as lord lieutenant of Ireland, Dayrolles accompanied him in the same capacity, and was nominated by him gentleman usher of the black rod (2 Sept. 1745), a sinecure to which he was entitled, as the donor ingeniously said, by the excessive darkness of his complexion.

Through the personal liking of the king, and Chesterfield's credit with Pelham, the place of king's resident at the Hague was bestowed on Dayrolles on 12 May 1747. There he continued for four years, when he was promoted to a similar office at Brussels, a posi- tion which he held until August 1757. On his uncle's death in 1739 he inherited consider- able wealth, and in that year he purchased from Sir Richard Child, earl of Tilney, the estate of Henley Park, in the parish of Ash, near Guildford, which remained his property until 1785. In March 1786 he died, and in the same year his hbrary was sold. Horace Walpole, with his usual spitefulness, said that Dayrolles had ' always been a led-captain to the dukes of Grafton and Richmond, used to be sent to auctions for them, and to walk in the park with their daughters, and once went dry-nurse to Holland with them.' What- ever Walpole may write, it was through intimacy with Chesterfield that Dayrolles while alive secured his promotion and is remembered after his death. For years they kept up an uninterrupted correspondence, and the communications which he received from Chesterfield were for the first time printed in an unmutilated state under the editorship of Lord Mahon, afterwards known as Lord Stanhope. The originals were bought from the heirs of Dayrolles by Messrs. Bentley, and they passed by purchase to Lord Stanhope in April 1846.

Maty was assisted in his ' Life of Chesterfield ' by Dayrolles, and it was on a call from him that the dying peer, only half an hour before his decease, remarked, with the ruling passion of formality strong in death, ' Give Dayrolles a chair,' He married, on 4 July 1751, Christabella, daughter of Colonel Peterson of Ireland, who is said to have been a lady of accomplished manners and dignified appearance.' She died at George Street, Hanover Square, on 3 Aug. 1791, and as her age was at that time given as fifty-eight she must have been considerably younger than her husband. A literary stu- dent, called William Cramp, who was anxious to fix the authorship of the ' Letters of Junius ' on Lord Chesterfield, published in 1851 a small pamphlet of Facsimile Autograph Letters of Junius, Lord Chesterfield, and Mrs. C. Dayrolles, showing that the wife of Mr. Solomon Dayrolles was the amanuensis employed in copying the Letters of Junius for the printer.' This pamphlet was reviewed by C. W. Dilke in the' Athenaeum,' 22 March 1851, and the article is reproduced in Dilke's 'Papers of a Critic,' ii. 140-54. Dayrolles had issue one son, Thomas Philip Dayrolles (a captain in the 10th dragoons, who died at Lausanne, having married Mile. H. G. Thomaset, a Swiss lady) and three daughters. Christabella, the eldest, married in 1784 the Hon. Townsend Ventry.

Emily married, on 24 Dec. 1786, the Baron de Reidezel, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wiirtemberg; and Mary became the wife, on 5 Feb. 1788, of Richard Croft, junior, a banker in Pall Mall. The youngest of these daughters is said to have been the prototype of the vivacious Miss Dayrolles in Miss Burney's novel of Cecilia.' Which, if either of them, was the lady who, according to Walpole, ' eloped to Leonidas Glover's youngest son,' it is now impossible to say. Dayrolles was a member of the Egyptian Club, a body of gentlemen who had visited Egypt, and had returned with a desire that the origin and history of its antiquities should be studied critically. His own official correspondence and that of his uncle, comprised in twenty- one folio volumes, once belonged to Upcott. Dayrolles was a man of benevolent disposition, set off" by the stately manners of the old school. [Chesterfield's Letters (Mahon), vol. i. preface, ill. 58, 97, 112, 198, 300, 429; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iii. 334, v. 663 ; Manning and Bray's Sur- rey, iii. 73 ; Walpole's Letters (Cunningham), ii. 84, vi. 417; Gent. Mag. 1739, p. 47, 1745, p. 333, 1747, p. 248, 1751, pp. 332, 381, 1786, p. 1146, 1788, p. 178, 1791, p. 780, 1828, pt. i. pp. 2, 215- 216, 290; Maty's Chesterfield (1777), pp. 53, 174-5, 199, 224, 326, 332; Gray's Works (ed. 1884), ii. 353-4; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i. 219, 373, 476 (1850), 7th ser. ii. 425 (1886).]

DAUBUZ, CHARLES (1673-1717) Was born in the province of Guienne in France, in July 1673, being son of Isaie d'Aubus, protestant pastor at Nerac. On the revocation of the edict of Nantes, the father obtained from Louis XIV a document, still preserved in the family archives, authorising him to leave France with his wife, Julie, and four children. He started for England, but on reaching Calais he died at an inn, and was privately buried in the garden, the inn- keeper helping his widow, during the night, to dig the grave. She was afterwards joined at Calais by her husband's brother, who held some ecclesiastical preferment in the north of England, and he succeeded in bringing the widow and her children over to this country, and settling them in Yorkshire. Charles Daubuz was admitted into Merchant Taylors' School, London, on 11 Sept. 1686 (Robinson, Register of Merchant Taylors' School, i. 317). He was admitted a sizar of Queens' College, Cambridge, 10 Jan. 1689. He graduated B.A. 13 Jan. 1693, was appointed librarian of his college on 21 March in the same year, and continued in that employment till 10 Aug. 1695. In the follow ing year he succeeded Thomas Balguy in the mastership of the grammar school of Sheffield, and he was the early tutor of his predecessor's son, John Balguy [q. v.]

He commenced M.A. at Cambridge in 1697 {Cantabrigienses Graduati, ed. 1787, p. 110). He left Shef- field in 1699, on being presented by the dean and chapter of York to the vicarage of Brotherton, a small village near Ferrybridge in the West Riding of Yorkshire. This vicarage, of the annual value of 60/. or 70/., was all the preferment he ever enjoyed, and in order to support a numerous family he was obliged to undertake the education of the sons of several gentlemen in the neighbourhood. He devoted his leisure to the composition of his bulky commentary on the Apocalypse,' which was eventually published by his widow. It is stated in a manuscript note by the Rev. John Law, who afterwards became vicar of Brotherton, that when he had finished his book he went to consult Dr. Bentley (the then great critic of the age) ; but the doctor (as is supposed), thinking Mr. Daubuz would outshine him in learning, and eclipse his glory, did not encourage him to publish it. Upon which poor Mr. Daubuz returned home unhappy in mind and weary in body, sickened of pleuritic fever, and died in a few days,' on 14 June 1717. Law says he was ' a tall, stout, strong, hale man, of a swarthy, black complexion, wore his own strong, black curled hair, and had a very loud voice. He was a worthy, good man — a man beloved and respected by all.'

He married Anne Philota, daughter of Philippe Guide, M.D., and left issue eight children. The present English families of the name of Daubuz derive their descent from his fifth son Theophilus, who was born at Brotherton in 1713, and died in London in 1774 (Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, 2nd edit. ii. 246). Another of his sons, Claude, was educated at Catharine Hall, Cambridge, became vicar of Huddersfield, and died at Pontefract on 15 Sept. 1760, aged 50. His works are : 1. * Caroli Daubuz Presbyteri et A.M., pro testimonio Flavii Josephi de Jesu Christo, libri duo . . . Cum prsefatione Johannis Ernesti Grabe,' London, 1706, 8vo. Dedicated to his patron, Dr. Henry James, master of Queens' College. This dis- sertation is reprinted in Havercamp's edition of Josephus,' 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1726. 2. ' A Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation of St. John . . . with a preliminary Discourse concerning the certainty of the Principles upon which the Revelation of St. John is to be under- stood,' London, 1720, fol. pp. 1068.

Another edition new modell'd, abridg'd, and render'd plain to the meanest capacity, by Peter Lan- caster, A.M., vicar of Bowden in Cheshire, and sometime student of Christ Church in Oxford,' appeared at London in 1730, 4to. Lancaster collected the symbolical matter, in which Daubuz's commentary is very rich, and formed it into a dictionary, constituting the first part of his abridgment. A new and en- larged edition, prepared by Matthew Haber- shon, of this introductory part was published under the title of ' A Symbolical Diction- ary ; in which . . . the general signification of the Prophetic Symbols, especially those of the Apocalypse, is laid down and proved from the most ancient authorities, sacred and profane,' London, 1842, 8vo. Home describes the ' Commentary ' as ' an elaborate and use- ful work, of which later authors have not failed to avail themselves '

(^Introd. to Study of the Scriptures, vol. v.) [Addit. MSS. 5867, f. 33, 22910, ff. 277, 389, 22911, f. 72; Agnew's Protestant Exiles from France, 2nd edit. ii. 219, iii. 73, 214 ; New and General Biog. Diet. (1761), vol. iv., Whiston's MS. note on fly-leaf; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ; Darling's Cycl.BibIiographica,i. 871 ; Gent. Mag. new ser. xiii. 212 ; Haag's La France Protestante (Bordier),i. 559 ; Hunter's Hallamshire (Gatty), 309; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), ii. 594; Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 316, v. 63, 64; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 435, ii. 145, 390, 724, iii. 668, viii. 373; Notes and Queries, 1st series, vi. 527, vii. 62, 144 ; Thoresby's Ducatus Leo- diensis, ed. Whitaker, 232 ; WJhiston's Memoirs (1749), 107; Zouch's Address to the Clergy of the Deaneries of Richmond, Catterick, and Boroughbridge at the visitations held 1792, p. 4.] T. C.

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (died 20 July 1332) was Regent of Scotland, an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Arbroath. He is usually described as a nephew of Robert the Bruce although their exact relationship is uncertain. The traditional view is that it was through a daughter of the first marriage of Countess Marjorie of Carrick, who was mother of King Robert by her second marriage. However modern sources state that the King's father Robert (1253–1304) married secondly, after 1292, to a lady with the Christian name of Eleanor (died 1331) by whom he had a daughter, Isabel de Bruce, who married Thomas Randolph, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland.

Thomas, the future Earl of Moray, supported Bruce in his initial coup when he proclaimed himself king and was crowned at Scone, but was captured after the Battle of Methven and later changed sides. Later, fighting for the English, he was captured and brought before the king, who he taunted for his alleged cowardice by engaging in guerrilla warfare instead of standing and fighting in pitched battle. However, he was persuaded to change sides again, and went on to become one of the king's most important lieutenants. The fact that he was allowed to resume his allegiance to Bruce suggests that they did have family ties. His most famous achievement took place in 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, and stood on top of an apparently impregnable rock. The son of a former Governor knew about a path up the rock, which he had used to visit the town at night against his father's wishes, and tipped off the Scots. Randolph led his men up this path one night to capture the castle. It is difficult to say exactly when Randolph was raised to the Earldom of Moray, but by 1315 he is "Thomas Ranulphi comes Morauie".

He played an important role in the Scottish victory at Bannockburn, where he commanded one of the divisions (schiltroms) of the infantry, the others being commanded by King Robert, Sir James Douglas and Edward Bruce, the king's brother. In 1326 he led the Scottish deputation which negotiated the Treaty of Corbeil, renewing the defensive Franco-Scottish alliance. On the death of Robert I, the crown was inherited by his son David II, who was only five years old. Randolph became regent, but three years later died of a sudden illness at Musselburgh on his way to repel an invasion by Edward Balliol and his supporters. At the time it was said that he had been poisoned by the English, but this is now discounted. His successor as Guardian was Domhnall II, Earl of Mar. Thomas Randolph married Isabel, only daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill (killed at the Battle of Falkirk (1298)), a brother of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland. They had several children, including: Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray, John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, Agnes Randolph, who married Patrick Dunbar, 9th Earl of Dunbar. Geilis (or Isabella) Randolph, wife of John de Dunbar of Derchester and Birkynsyde, parents of George, 10th Earl of Dunbar & March.

Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray (died August 11, 1332), a Scottish military commander, held his title for just 23 days. The son of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of King Robert I of Scotland, he succeeded his father on July 20, 1332. Thomas, 2nd Earl of Moray had a chief command under the Earl of Mar ranged against the army of Edward Balliol at the Battle of Dupplin Moor, where he was killed.

John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (1306 – 17 October 1346) was an important figure in the reign of David II of Scotland, and was for a time joint Regent of Scotland. He was son of the famous Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of Robert the Bruce. Upon the death of his elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332, John succeeded to the earldom. He at once took up arms on behalf of his sovereign and cousin King David II and surprised and defeated Edward Balliol at the Battle of Annan in December 1332. At the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, he commanded the first division of the Scots' Army, supported by Lord Andrew Fraser and his two brothers, Simon and James. Escaping from the carnage there he retired to France. John returned to Scotland the following year, when he and the High Steward of Scotland (the future King Robert II of Scotland) were appointed joint Regents, and set about trying to restore order to the nation.

He was successful in taking prisoner the Comyn Earl of Atholl, commander of the English forces in Scotland, but, on his swearing allegiance to the Scottish Crown he was set free. Comyn, however, disregarded his oath, returned to the English camp, and resumed his hostilities. In August 1335 led an attack on the Burgh Muir near Edinburgh against a body of Flemish auxiliaries in the English service, under Count Guy de Namur, and forced them to surrender. But escorting the Count to the Borders he fell into an ambush and was made prisoner by William de Pressen, (English) Warden of Jedburgh. He was confined first at Nottingham Castle, and afterwards in the Tower of London. On 25 July 1340, he was removed to Windsor Castle. In 1341 he was exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury, a prisoner with the French, and Moray then returned to Scotland. In February 1342 he invaded England with David II of Scotland. At the fatal Battle of Neville's Cross, outside Durham, on 17 October 1346 John, with Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale, commanded the right wing of the Scottish army, and he was killed during the first English attack. He was married to Euphemia de Ross but the marriage was childless. The Earl's sister, Black Agnes, assumed the honours as Countess of Moray.

Agnes Randolph, Countess of Dunbar and March (c. 1312 – 1369), often known as Black Agnes of Dunbar because of her skin complexion, was the wife of Patrick, 9th Earl of Dunbar and March. She is buried in the vault near Mordington House. The daughter of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, nephew and companion-in-arms of Robert the Bruce, and Thomas's wife, Isabel (née Stewart), Agnes became renowned for her heroic defence of Dunbar Castle against an English attack by the William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, which began on 13 January 1338. This attack took place during the conflict which arose when Edward Balliol, with English backing, attempted to seize the Scottish crown from David II. Patrick Dunbar was fighting in the far-off Scottish army when English forces besieged his home, the great castle of Dunbar in East Lothian. Patrick’s wife, the Lady Agnes, was left alone with only a retinue of servants and a few guards to meet the English siege, but she refused to surrender the fortress, declaring that "Of Scotland's King I haud my house, He pays me meat and fee, And I will keep my gude auld house, while my house will keep me."

Women occasionally commanded besieged mediaeval garrisons, for if the lord of a castle were away his wife might be left in charge; but Agnes’s is one of the few sieges which has been widely remembered. Though considered one of the ablest commanders of his day, Salisbury was obliged to lift his fruitless siege of Dunbar castle after nearly five months without success. Salisbury began the siege with a bombardment by catapults, sending huge rocks and lead shot against the ramparts of Dunbar. Lady Agnes responded by having her maids dress in their Sunday best; she then led them to the outer walls, where with their handkerchiefs they nonchalantly and slightingly dusted away the damage from the bombardment.

Montague next assaulted the castle with his battering ram. Agnes dropped over the walls a huge boulder captured from an earlier English attack, smashing the assault machinery. According to one story, at one point during the siege, the English captured Agnes’s brother John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, and paraded him in front of the castle with a rope round his neck, threatening to hang him if she did not surrender. She told them to go ahead, as she would then inherit the Earldom of Moray. John survived this brinkmanship. However, this story may be a later invention, as she was not heir to the earldom. On June 10, 1338, William Montague ordered his army to withdraw, leaving Lady Agnes in sole possession of her castle. She is remembered in a ballad which attributes these words to Montague: "Cam I early, cam I late, I found Agnes at the gate." Some accounts describe her as Countess of Moray, on the assumption that she inherited the earldom when her brother John was killed at the Battle of Neville's Cross. However, the earldom actually reverted to the crown, although it was later granted to her nephew. No children survived Agnes and her husband, the Earl. Their estates were left to children of the marriage between the Earl's younger brother John de Dunbar of Derchester and Birkynside and his wife, Isobel Randolph, Agnes's younger sister.


Excerpts from The Scottish nation... These are NOT the complete entries for the name!



Middleton, earl of, a title now extinct, in the peerage of Scotland, conferred in 1660, on John Middleton, the elder son of John Middleton of Caldhame, Kincardineshire, who was killed sitting in his chair, by Montrose's soldiers in 1645 He was a descendant of Malcolm the son of Kenneth, who got a charter from William the Lion of the lands of Middle- ton in that county, confirming a donation of King Duncan of the same, and in consequence assumed the name. The first earl was from his youth bred to arms. He at first "trailed a pike" in Hepburn's regiment in France, but in the civil wars of 1642, he entered into the service of the parliament of England as commander of a troop of horse, and lieutenant-general under Sir William Waller. He afterwards returned to Scotland, and got a command in General Leslie's army. At the battle of Philiphaugh, 13th September 1645, he contributed so much to the defeat of Montrose, that the Estates voted him a gift of 25,000 marks.

When Montrose, soon after, sat down before Inverness, General Middleton, with a small brigade, was detached from General Leslie's army and sent north to watch his motions. In the beginning of May 1646, he left Aberdeen, with a force of 600 horse and 800 foot, and arrived in the neighbourhood of Inverness, on the 9th of that month. Montrose immediately withdrew to a position at some distance from the town, but soon quitted it. Two regiments of cavalry, despatched by Middleton after him, attacked his rear, cut off some of his men, and captured two pieces of cannon, and part of his baggage. Retreating into Ross-shire, he was pursued by Middleton, who, as Montrose avoided an engagement, laid siege to the castle of the earl of Seaforth in the chanonry of Ross. After a siege of four days he took it, but immediately restored it to the countess of Seaforth, who was within the castle at the time.

Learning that the marquis of Huntly had seized upon Aberdeen, Middleton retraced his steps, and re-crossing the Spey, made him retire into Mar. He then returned to Aberdeen. When Montrose received orders from the king to dis band his forces, Middleton was intrusted by the committee of Estates with ample powers to negotiate with him, and in order to discuss the conditions offered to the former, a con- ference was held between them on 22d July 1646, on a meadow, near the river Hay in Angus, where they " conferred for the space of two hours, there being none near them but one man for each of them to hold his horse." (Guthrifs Memoirs, p.179). The conditions were that his followers, on making their submission, should be pardoned, and that Montrose and a few others of the principal leaders should leave the kingdom.

The following year, Middleton was occupied in pursuing the marquis of Huntly, who had appeared in arms for the king, through Glenmoriston, Badenoch, and other places in the north, till he was captured by Lieutenant-colonel Menzies in Strathdon. Some Irish taken at the same time were shot by Middleton's orders in Strathbogie. In 1648, when the "Engagement" was formed for the rescue of the king, he was appointed lieutenant-general of the cavalry in the army ordered to be levied by the Scots Estates for that purpose. The levy being opposed by a large body of Covenanters and others at Mauchline in Ayrshire, on the 12th June, Middleton charged them, and put the whole to the rout, with the loss of eighty killed and a great many taken prisoners, among whom were some ministers.

He also dispersed some gatherings of the western Covenanters at Carsphairn and other places. He behaved with great gallantly at the battle of Preston in England, 17th August the same year, but his horse being shot under him, he was taken prisoner and sent to Newcastle. He soon made his escape, however, and with Lord Ogilvy attempted a rising in Athol in favour of the king. The party being dispersed by a force under the orders of General David Leslie, Middleton was allowed, on giving security to keep the peace, to return to his home. When Charles II., in 1650, arrived in Scotland, General Middleton immediately repaired to him. Many small bodies of men were raised for the defence of the king in the north, and it was at one time proposed to have placed General Mid- dleton, who commanded a small division of the army, at the head of all the loyal forces that could be collected for the purpose of opposing Cromwell, but this was never earned into effect. For his conduct in support of the king the commission of the church summarily excommunicated him on the motion of James Guthrie, who pronounced the sentence from his pulpit at Stirling.

To compel the northern royalists to lay down their arms, General Leslie, by order of the committee of Estates, crossed the Tay on the 24th October with a force of 3,000 cavalry, with the intention of proceeding to Dundee and scouring An- gus. At this time Middleton was lying at Forfar, and, on hearing of Leslie's advance, he sent him a letter, enclosing a copy of a " bond and oath of engagement " which had been entered into by Huntly, Athol, Seaforth, and himself, with others, by which they pledged themselves not to lay down their arms without a general consent, and promised and swore that they would maintain the true religion as then established in Scotland, the national covenant, and the solemn league and covenant ; and defend the person of the king, his prerogative, greatness and authority, the privileges of parliament, and the freedom of the subject. Middleton stated that Leslie would perceive, from the terms of the document sent, that the only aim of himself and friends was to unite Scotsmen in defence of their common rights, and he proposed to join Leslie, and put himself under his command, as their objects appeared to be precisely the same. The negotiation was finally concluded on 4th November at Strathbogie, when a treaty was agreed to between Leslie and the chief royalists, by which the latter accepted an indemnity and laid down their arms.

On the 12th January 1651, Middleton was relaxed from his excommunication, and did penance in sackcloth in the parish church of Dundee. He commanded the horse in the royal army that marched into England on the 31st July; and at the battle of Worcester, 3d September, the chief resistance was made by him. He charged the enemy so vigorously that he forced them to recoil, but being severely wounded, he was taken prisoner after the battle, and sent to the Tower of London. Cromwell was so incensed against him that he de- signed to get him tried for his life, as having formerly served in the parliamentary army, but he contrived to make his escape. After remaining for some time concealed in London he retired to France, and joined Charles II. at Paris. In 1653 he was sent home with a commission from the king, appointing him generalissimo of all the royal forces in Scot- land, and took the command of the troops at Dornoch. Middleton soon found himself sorely pressed by General Monk, who had advanced into the Highlands with a large army. In an attempt to elude his pursuers he was surprised in a defile near Lochgarry, 26th July 1654, when his men were either slain or dispersed, and he himself escaped with great difficulty. After lurking for some months in the country, Middleton again got over to the king, who was then at Cologne, and was excepted by Cromwell from pardon in his act of grace and indemnity the same year.

At the Restoration, he accompanied King Charles II. to England, and was created earl of Middleton and Lord Clermont and Fettercairn, by patent, dated 1st October 1660, to him and his heirs male, having the name and arms of Mid- dleton. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland, governor of Edinburgh castle, and lord high commissioner to the Scots parliament. On the 31st December he arrived at Holvrood-house, having been escorted from Musselburgh by the nobility and gentry then in the capital, attended by a thousand horse. He was allowed 900 merks per day fur his table, and he lived in a style of great magnificence. He opened parliament 1st January 1661, with a splendour to which the Scots people had long been unaccustomed. In this " terrible parliament," as it is well named by Kirkton, the king's prerogative was restored in its fullest extent, and a general act rescissory of the parliaments from 1633 was passed. Various other acts of a most unconstitutional nature also became law. On the rising of parliament in the following July, Middleton hastened to London, to lay an account of its proceedings before the king.

On his arrival at court, he assured his majesty and the Scottish privy council in London, that the majority of the Scottish nation de- sired the establishment of episcopacy, and it was accordingly agreed that " as the government of the state was monarchy, so that of the church should be prelacy." Middleton's object in thus recommending the establishment of the episcopal church in Scotland was that he might strengthen his own authority by that of the bishops, and thwart Lauderdale whom he hated, and who at that time was favourable to presbyterianism. He was again appointed lord high commissioner to the Scots parliament, which met 6th May 1662, and on 15th July following, he was nominated an extraordinary lord of session. In September of the same year, Middleton and the privy council made a progress through the west of Scotland and when at Glasgow, under the influence of drink, as Bur- net says, passed the act for depriving the covenanting minis- ters of their benefices, by which more than 200 were thrown out. After proceeding through Ayrshire to Dumfries, they returned to Edinburgh. Having procured the passing of the famous act of billeting, by which Lauderdale and his friends were incapacitated, that unprincipled nobleman resolved upon his overthrow. He misrepresented all his actions to the king, and so prejudiced the royal mind against him that Middleton in 1663 was ordered up to London to give an account of his administration in Scotland. When the council met, Lauderdale accused him of many miscarriages in his great office, and particularly of having accepted bribes from many of the presbyterians, to exclude them from the list of fines.


Middleton was defended by Clarendon, Archbishop Sheldon, and Monk, duke of Albemarle. The Scottish prelates also wrote in his favour, and in vindication of his general policy. Their interposition, however, was in vain. He was declared guilty of arbitrary conduct as commissioner, and deprived of all his offices, to the great joy of the Scottish people, whom he had disgusted by the oppressive character of his measures, as well as by his open debauchery and intemperance, being, accord- ing to Burnet and Wodrow, most ostentatious in his vices. The former says that he was " perpetually drunk." After his disgrace he retired to the friary near Guildford, to the house of a Scotsman named Dalmahoy, who had been gentleman of the horse to William duke of Hamilton, killed at the battle of Worcester, and who had married that noble- man's widow. There he built a bridge over the river which ran through Dalmahoy's estate, and was called Middleton's Bridge after him. He afterwards, as a kind of decent exile, received the appointment of governor of Tangier, a seaport town of Fez In Africa, which made part of the dowry of the princess Catherine of Portugal, whom Charles II. married soon after the Restoration. He died there in 1673, having fallen in going down stairs, which in that hot climate produced inflammation.

His only son, Charles, second and last earl of Middleton, was M.P. for Winchelsea, in the long parliament. He was bred in the court of Charles II., by whom he was appointed envoy extraordinary to the court of Vienna. On his return home he was constituted one of the principal secretaries of state for Scotland, 26th September 1682. On 11th July 1684 he was sworn a privy councillor of England, on the 15th of the same month was admitted an extraordinary lord of session in Scotland, and on 25th August same year appointed one of the principal secretaries of state for England. His seat on the bench, however, he resigned in February 1686, in favour of his brother-in-law, the earl of Strathmore.

At the Revolution, though he had opposed the violent measures of King James, he adhered to him steadily. He refused all the offers made to him by King William, and af- ter being frequently imprisoned in England, he followed James to France, and was, in consequence, outlawed by the high court of justiciary, 23d July 1694, and forfeited by act of parliament, 2d July 1695. Before the Revolution, we are told, he firmly stood in the gap, to stop the torrent of some priests who were driving King James to his ruin, and had so mean an opinion of converts that he used to say a new light never came into the house but by a crack in the tilting. Yet this man, who had withstood all the temptations of James' reign, and all the endeavours of that prince to bring him over, to the surprise of all who knew him declared himself a Roman Catholic on the king's death, and obtained the entire management of the exiled court at St. Germains.

He had two sons and three daughters. Lady Elizabeth, the eld- est daughter, was the wife of Edward Drummond, son of James, earl of Perth, high-chancellor of Scotland. She was styled duchess of Perth, and died at Paris after 1773. The sons, Lord Clermont and the Hon. Charles Middleton, were taken at sea by Admiral Byng, coming with French troops to invade Scotland, in 1708, and committed to the Tower of London. They were soon released, when they returned to France. (J/acfo/Mack's Memoirs, p. 238.) He is described as having been a black man, of middle stature, with a sanguine complexion.



There was an ancient family named Blacader, or Blackadder, who possessed the lands of Tulliallan in Perthshire. The ruins of the old castle of Tulliallan, which formerly belonged to them, arc still standing. The modem castle of that name belongs to the baroness Keith, by marriage Countess Flahaut in France. The original family was Blackadder of that ilk in Berwiikshire, who distinguished themselves in the Border feuds so early as the minority of James the Second, towards the middle of the fifteenth century. They received the lands whence they derived their name from that monarch, conferred as a reward for defending the eastern frontier against the incursions of the English. Beatrice, eldest daughter of one of the two portion of Robert Blackadder of Blackadder, married John Home, fourth of the seven sons of Sir David Home of Wedderburn, so well known in border song as "the seven spears of Wedderburn," and thereby got the estate of Blackadder.

This marriage, however, was brought about in a very violent manner on the part of the Homes, with the view of acquiring the lands of Blackadder, having, by rapacity and fraud, appropriated to themselves, in course of time, the greater part of Berwickshire. The person on whom James the Second conferred the lands, and who from them took the surname of Blackadder, as a reward for military services, was named Cuthbert, styled the "Chieftain of the South." The royal grant is dated in 1452.

On his expeditions against the English who crossed the borders for plunder he was accompanied by his seven sons who, from the darkness of their complexion, were called the "Black band of the Blackadders."

Writs of the Family, quoted in Crichton's Life of the Rev. John Blackadder,' When the country required to be put in a posture of defence against the preparations of Edward the Fourth, the Blackadders raised a body from among their kindred and retainers, the Elliots, Armstrongs, Johnstons, and other hardy and warlike borderers to the number of two hundred and seventeen men, all accoutred with jack and spear. Their castle, a fortress of some strength, was planted with artillery, and furnished with a garrison of twenty soldiers, Redpath's Border History."] Cuthbert and his sons joined the train of adventurers from Scotland, who had embarked in the wars of York and Lancaster, marshalling themselves under the banner of the Red Rose, and fighting for the earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry the Seventh, at Bosworth, where the father and three of his sons were left dead on the field.

Andrew, the eldest of the surviving brothers, succeeded to the barony of Blackadder. Robert and Patrick entered into holy orders. The former became prior of Coldingham, the latter was made dean sf Dunblane. The fourth brother, William, remained in England, where he obtained a title and opulent possessions. [ Writs of the Family of Blackadder.] In memorial of their services at Bosworth, King James granted the family permission to carry on their shield the roses of York and Lancaster. It was afterwards quartered with the house of Edmonstone; field, azure; cheveron, argent; upper left hand, gules; crest, a dexter hand holding a broadsword; motto, 1 Courage helps fortune.

Andrew Blackadder, the proprietor of the estate, married a daughter of the house of Johnston of Johnston, ancestor of the earls of Annandale, and had two sons, Robert and Patrick. Robert, the elder son, espoused Alison Douglas, fourth daughter of George, Master of Angus, and sister of Archibald, earl of Angus. He followed the standard of the Douglases at Flodden in 1513, and was slain with his father-in-law and two hundred gentlemen of the name of Douglas, on that disastrous field, leaving a widow and two daughters, Beatrix and Margaret, who, at the time, were mere children. put/i's Border History.]

Of Patrick, the younger son, described as a man of chivalry, who obtained by marriage the estate of Tulliallan in Perthshire, the succeeding paragraph gives an account. From the unprotected state of Robert's daughters, the Homes of Wedderburn formed the design of seizing the lands of Blackadder, and the way in which they succeeded in their villanous project is but too illustrative of the manners of those rude times to be omitted, especially as by it the patrimonial estate of the Blackadders was forever wrested from the rightful owners. They began by cutting off all within their reach, whose affinity was dreaded as an hereditary obstacle. They attacked Robert Blackadder, the prior of Coldingham. at the village of Lamberton, while following the spoils of the chase, and assassinated him and six of his attendants. [I^eslie's Hist of Scotland, p. 389. History oj the Homes.]

His brother, the dean of Dunblane, shared the same fate. Various others were despatched in a similar manner. Patrick Blackadder, the cousin of the late prior endeavoured to obtain the priory of Coldingham; but on the active interference of the Homes, it was bestowed on William Douglas, brother of the earl of Angus. They now assaulted the castle of Blackadder, where the widow and her two young daughters resided. The garrison refused to surrender, but the Homes succeeded in obtaining possession of the fortress, and seized the widow and her children, compelling them to marriage by force.

Sir David Home of Wedderburn married the widow. The two daughters were contracted to his brothers, John and Robert, in 1518, and they were then only in their eighth year, they were confined, by John Home, in the castle of Blackadder till they came of age. [Douglas* Peerage, vol. ii. p. 174.] The estate, however, had been entailed in the male line, and should have passed to Sir John Blackadder, then baron of Tulliallan, the cousin and tutor of the ladies, as nearest heir. But the Homes, who obtained the sanction of the Earl of Angus to marry his nieces, refused to quit possession of the lands, or deliver up the fortress. Sir John applied to the legislature for redress against them: but at that period there was no regular administration of justice in Scotland, and both parties had recourse to the sword. During the long minority of James the Fifth, they were involved in mutual hostilities. Sir John Blackadder was beheaded in March 1531 for the murder of James Inglis, abbot of Culross, "because, when he was absent at Edinburgh, the said abbot gave tack above his head to the Lord Erskine of the lands of Balgownie." Happening to meet with him on his return, he resolved to be avenged Both parties being of equal number, about sixteen horse, a rencontre took place, at the Lonhead of Rosyth, near Culross,' which ended in the slaughter of the abbot.

Patrick, archdeacon of Glasgow, succeeded his brother in Tulliallan. He held also, by the king's special commission, the wardenslup of Blackadder, to which he had been appointed, under warrant and command from the governor of Scotland. While archdeacon he had authority granted him by the Pope, in 1510, to visit all kirks and monasteries within the bounds of the see of Glasgow. He got also, in 1521, the priory of Coldingham, (which William Douglas had forcibly held,) by the King's seal, with consent of the duke of Albany, protector and governor of Scotland. In this office, ha was succeeded by his brother, Adam Blackadder, abbot of Dundrennan in Galloway; the first worth two thousand pounds, the latter one thousand pounds a-year. For bearing Sir Patrick's expenses in travelling to France to procure these appointments from Albany, who was there at the time, the said Adam bound himself to pay three thousand pounds; for which he gave in pledge two massy silver cups, till the debt was discharged.

Writs of the Family, quoted in Cricfitoris Life of the Rev. John Blackadder. Sir Patrick renewed the process against the Homes, for the recovery of Blackadder. Under pretence of submitting the dispute to friends, to have all differences settled in an amicable way, the Homes appointed a day to meet Sir Patrick at Edinburgh. Thither accordingly he repaired, without suspicion of treachery, having received warrant of safe convoy from Archibald, earl of Angus, under the great seal, and accompanied by a Binall retinue of domestics, fifteen or sixteen horsemen, who usually rode in his train, but was clandestinely waylaid by a body of fifty horse, that lay in ambush near the Dean, within a mile of Edinburgh. Being well mounted, he made a gallant charge, and broke through the
ambuscade, killing several with his own hand.

Overpowered with numbers he fled, taking the road towards the West Port, fiercely pursued. On approaching the city, he was surprised by a fresh troop of horse, secretly posted in a hollow, where St. Cuthbert's church now stands. These joining in the pursuit, he made the best of his speed to gain the entrance by the Nether Bow, or the Canongate; but before he could reach the ford of the Loch a party of foot sallied out from another place of concealment to intercept him. Finding himself beset on all hands, he ventured to take the North Loch, near to the place called Wallace's tower (properly Well-house tower) on the Castle brae, when his horse becoming embogted, he and all his attendants were basely murdered. This was in the year 1526. Hume of Godscroft has recorded this affray, (Mist, of Mouse of Angus, vol. ii. p. 86,) but he makes the archdeacon the aggressor. This was the last attempt that the Blackadders made to obtain redress. The estate of Blackadder, of which they were thus fraudulently dispossessed, remained in the family of Home. Both llmuc and Buchanan, mistakenly, call Patrick archdeacon of Dunblane instead of Glasgow, and the brother of Robert heir of Blackadder, whereas he was his nephew.


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