This is a specific subject page, dealing exclusively with, or primarily with, the subject in the title. Because of need, there are many such pages at RHWW: usually, but not always, linked to primary pages. For those in a hurry, they enable a quick summary of many important subjects. The menu for these pages is here: Click>>>





Biographies of Blacks of note in ancient Britain

Biographies in these pages are taken from:

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) by Stephen Leslie 1832-1904: A standard work of reference with articles on more than 29,000 notable figures from British history. It was originally published in 63 volumes between 1885 and 1900.


The Scottish nation; or, The surnames, families, literature, honours, and biographical history of the people of Scotland (1877) by William Anderson, 1805-1866


Rules for inclusion:

Rules for inclusion in these Biographies is that the person MUST be explicitly described as being a Black person.



Description of John Hamilton from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB)


Quote: Macky (Memoirs, p. 236) caricatures him as a rough, fat, black, noisy man, more like a butcher than a lord. In the obituary notice of him in Boyer, he is described as of a good stature, well set, of a healthy constitution, black complexion and graceful manly presence, as having a quick conception, with a ready and masculine expression, and as being steady in his principles both in politics and religion.



The description and Portrait DON'T MATCH!!!

You will find this typical. False artifacts are part of the White mans false history telling.



Of course to the serious student of history, this incompatibility comes as no surprise. As a matter of fact, if the description and portrait had matched, THAT would have been the surprise. By now it should be clear, to the White man, in his pathetic paranoia of all things Black: no lie is too big, and no fraud is too extreme.

Note below, the treatment the British gave to their very own Black Queen Charlotte: In each successive portrait her Blackness was further obfuscated.



Please note: The Biographies of Blacks of note in ancient Britain in these pages, are only to demonstrate the false history of the White man in his modern Books, Movies, Television, and other media sources. (They have created a "Fantasy" World if you will - No doubt to cement their new-found status as "Masters of the World". Such status of course, requires a "Glorious" Past. But since the "Real Glorious Past" involved Black civilizations and people, since the beginning of time. The creation of a "Fantasy Past" exclusive of Black people was essential).

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) contains over 29,000 entries, undoubtedly many thousands of them are Black people.

The Scottish nation - (1877): is also in several volumes, it is therefore not possible for us to present all of the Black entries. The entries presented here, are a random sampling of volumes in the respective works. Those wishing to peruse the books, may do so on-line at the provided links.

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB): Click here for link to Book

The Scottish nation; or, The surnames: Click here for link to Book

When reading the books on-line: Select the volume of interest by clicking the volume in the listing. In the next screen on the left, there is a heading "View the book" choosing "Full Text" will open the Book in your Browser. The text may then be searched in the normal way.

When the interest is the race of an individual, the search word "Complexion" yields very good results, because there is most often a physical description included in the Biography. However, failing that, use Black or Blackamoor.

Some descriptive terms used are:

Sanguine complexion: Meaning - Bloodred (Since a White person of this complexion would be suffering Sunburn or some other malady, it is assumed that this description indicates someone of a Red-hued Brown complexion, as used to describe the American Indian).

Ruddy complexion: Same as "Sanguine complexion".

Swarthy complexion: "Of a dark color".

Naturally terms like Black and Brown are self explanatory. (It may come as a surprise to some, how many surnames like Duff, and Douglas, actually "Mean Black" in the ancient languages).

Please note: These Books were scanned using "OCR" consequently some characters were not properly recognized by the software, and spelling errors abound. Use common sense.


Excerpts from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) These are NOT the complete entries for the name!

HAVEN (1656-1708)

Born 5 July 1656, was
eldest son of Robert Hamilton (d. 1696), lord
Presmennan, one of the judges of the court of
session, by Marion Denholm, and elder brother
of James Hamilton of Pencaitland, who was
appointed a lord of justiciary in 1712 (BRUN-
TON and HAIG, Senators of College of Justice,
pp. 447, 493). John Hamilton married Mar-
garet, daughter of Sir Robert Hamilton of
Selverton Hill, and granddaughter of John
Hamilton, first lord Belhaven (d. 1679),
who in 1675 obtained a settlement of his
title on his granddaughter's husband. He
succeeded to the peerage in 1679. In the
Scotch parliament of 1681 he opposed the
measures of the government, and during the
debate on the test he spoke of it as failing
Ho secure our religion against a popish or
fanatical successor to the crown '(FOUNTAIN-
HALL, ii. 307-8), a remark obviously aimed,
though he disclaimed any such intention, at
the Duke of York, afterwards James II, who
was then the king's commissioner in Scot-
land. As a punishment he was imprisoned

by order of the parliament in Edinburgh
Castle, and there was some talk of indicting
him for treason, when having ' on his knees
at the bar craved pardon ' (Acts of Parliament
of Scotland, viii. 247 a), he was restored to
his seat in parliament. After the revolution
of 1688 he was one of the members of the
Scotch aristocracy who met in London in
January 1689, and invited the Prince of
Orange to assume the government and to
summon a convention of the estates of Scot-
land. In that convention he contributed to
the settlement of the crown of Scotland on
William and Mary. In June 1689 he was
appointed one of the commissioners for exer-
cising the office of clerk of register. In the
preceding April he had succeeded Andrew
Fletcher of Saltoun (1655-1716) [q. v.] as
captain of the troop of horse raised in Had-
dingtonshire (ib. ix. 27 b}, and in command
of it he was present at the battle of Killie-
crankie, 27 July 1689, on which day he was
appointed a member of the Scotch privy
council. In 1693 he was one of the farmers
of the poll-tax in Scotland, and from 1695
to 1697 of the excise. He was a warm sup-
porter of the Darien scheme, being one of
the few subscribers of 1,000/. to the funds of
the South African Company.

On the accession of Queen Anne, Belhaven
was continued a member of the Scotch privy
council. In the new Scotch parliament of
1703 he was a strenuous advocate of the Act
of Security, and a spirited speech of his on it
delivered in that year was printed for popular
circulation. He was accused, to all appearance
unjustly, of having taken part in the so-called
1 Scotch plot ' of the same year for a Stuart
restoration. Belhaven was appointed a com-
missioner of the Scotch treasury in the
ministry of 1704, and was removed when it
was dismissed in 1705. He was a passionate
opponent of the union. Another speech
published at the time of delivery was made,
21 July 1705, in support of a resolution pro-
testing against the nomination of a successor
to Queen Anne to the crown of Scotland
without limitations of its regal authority.

On 2 Nov. 1706 he denounced the proposed
union in a famous speech, the only specimen
of Scotch parliamentary oratory which has
found its way into English collections of
rhetorical masterpieces. Lord Marchmont
replied that a short answer to this long and
terrible speech would suffice. ' Behold he
dreamed, but lo ! when he awoke, behold it
w r as a dream' (DEFOE, Abstract of Proceedings,
p. 44). Hence the title of 'The Vision' given
to some contemporary doggerel verses ridi-
culing Belhaven's speech, which, according to
the catalogue of the British Museum, may
have been written by Thomas Hamilton, sixth
earl of Haddington [q. v.] ' The Vision ' was
published as a broadsheet at Edinburgh, 1706
(reprinted in London the same year as by a
person of quality), and with a reply to it, ' A
Scot's Answer to a British Vision,' is given in
the second series of ' Various Pieces of Scot-
tish Fugitive Poetry ' (1823 ?). Belhaven's
Vision ' is also the title of a superior metrical
piece warmly eulogising him (London, 1729),
but probably published much earlier. The
famous speech of 2 Nov. 1706, with another
delivered by Belhaven on the 16th of the
same month, was printed as a broadside at
Edinburgh and reprinted in London in 'a
pamphlet cried about the streets,' according
to Defoe, who has given both speeches in
his history of the union, and who attacked
Belhaven in his ' Eeview ' for 12 March

Belhaven with other opponents of the union
was imprisoned at Edinburgh, and in April
1708 brought in custody to London, as sus-
pected of favouring the attempted French
invasion [see FLETCHER, ANDREW, 1655-
1716]. He was examined by the English privy
council and admitted to bail, dying a few
days afterwards, 21 June 1708, of inflamma-
tion of the brain, caused or aggravated, it has
been surmised, by wounded pride (cf. BOYER,
Appendix, p. 44, and A. CUNNINGHAM, Hist,
of Great Britain, 1787, ii. 159). A eulogistic
' elegy ' on him in doggerel verse was printed
as a broadside at Edinburgh soon after his
death. Lockhart of Carnwath accuses him
of want of fixity of principle, and charges him
with making * long premeditated harangues,'
but admits that he was a ' well-accomplished
gentleman in most kinds of learning, well
acquainted with the constitution of Scotland,
and a skilful parliamentary strategist.'

(Memoirs, p. 236) caricatures him as ' a rough,
fat, black, noisy man, more like a butcher
than a lord.' In the obituary notice of him
in Boyer (/#.) he is described as of ' a good
stature, well set, of a healthy constitution,
black complexion and graceful manly pre-
sence,' as having f a quick conception, with a
ready and masculine expression,' and as being
* steady in his principles both in politics and
religion.' There is a portrait of him, with a
brief and valueless memoir in Pinkerton's
' Scottish Gallery,' 1799.

Belhaven was the
author of ' An Advice to the Farmers of
East Lothian to Labour and Improve their
Grounds.' One of its monitions is quoted in
the ' Edinburgh Review ' for November 1814
(p. 87), art. 'Agriculture of Scotland.'

By his wife Belhaven left two sons, John,
third lord, who was appointed governor of
Barbadoes, but was drowned on his way out
off the Lizard, 17 Nov. 1721, and James (d.
1732), an advocate.


















This piece for historical interest only.


Son of Kenneth Macalpine, king of Scotland
or Alba, the country north of the Forth and
Clyde, whose chief seat was Scone,
succeeded his uncle
Donald in 863. His reign was one of the
first when the attacks of the Normans at-
tained a formidable height, threatening the
destruction of the Celtic and Saxon kingdoms.
Two years after his accession Olaf the White,
king of Dublin, wanted the country of the
Picts, and occupied it from the Kalends of
January to the feast of St. Patrick, i.e.
17 March.

According to the Pictish Chronicle,
Olaf was slain by Constantine when on
a raid in the following year, but the ' Annals
of Ulster ' relate that he destroyed Alrhyth
(Dumbarton), after a four months' siege, in
870, and retired in 871 to Dublin with two
hundred ships and a great body of men, Anglo-
Britons and Picts. After this he disappears
from the Irish annals, so that his death may
possibly have been antedated by some years
in the account of the Pictish Chronicle. Ivar,
another of the Norse Vikings of Dublin, who
had fought along with Olaf, died about the
same time, but Scotland was still exposed to
incursions from other leaders of the same
race. Thorstein the Red, a son of Olaf, by
Audur, the wealthy daughter of Ketill Flat-
nore, attacked the northern districts, and,
according to the ' Icelandic Landnamabok/
conquered ( Katanes and Suderland, Ross
and Norway, and more than half Scotland.'
But his kingdom, which, perhaps, was ac-
quiesced in by Constantine, who had slight
hold of the northern parts, was brief, and he
was slain by the men of Alba by a stratagem
or treachery in 875. In the South Halfdane
the Danish leader who led the northern of
the two bands (Guthrum, Alfred's opponent
commanded the other), into which the for-
merly united host of that people was divided,
ravaged the east coast of Britain, laid waste
Northumbria, and destroyed the Picts (of
Galloway ?) and the people of Strathclyde.

Two years later another band of Danes, the
Irish Dubhgall, or Black Strangers, having
been driven from Ireland by the Fingall, or
White Strangers, made a sudden descent on
Scotland by way of the Clyde and, penetra-
ting into the interior, defeated the Scots at
Dollar, from which they passed to Inverdovat,
in the parish of Forgan in Fife, where Con-
stantine was slain (877). Tradition points
to the long black cave, near Crail, as the
scene of his death.

[Robertson's Scotland under her Early Kings ;
Skene's Celtic Scotland.] M. M.



DOUGLAS, Sir WILLIAM, Lord of NITHSDALE (d. 1392 ?)

Was the illegitimate
son of Archibald, third earl of Douglas [q.v.],
himself the illegitimate son of the ' Good ' Sir

For comeliness and bravery he was a
worthy descendant of such ancestors, and the
historians of the period describe him as in-
heriting several of the personal features of
his grandfather, being large-boned, of great
strength, tall and erect, bearing himself with
a majestic mien, yet courteous and affable,
and in company even hearty and merry. He
inherited the swarthy complexion of the
* Good ' Sir James, and was also called the
Black Douglas. He was an active warrior
against the English.

In 1385, while still a
youth, he accompanied his father in a raid
into Cumberland, and took part in the siege
of Carlisle. Making an incursion on his own
account, accompanied by a few personal fol-
lowers, he burned the suburbs of the town.
"While standing on a slender plank bridge
he was attacked by three knights, reckoned
among the bravest in the citadel ; he killed
the foremost, and with his club felled the other
two. He then put the enemy to flight and drew
off his men in safety. On another occasion,
in open field, with but eight hundred men, he
overcame an opposing host of three thousand,
leaving two hundred of the enemy dead on
the plain, and carrying five hundred off as

Robert II was so pleased with the knightly
bearing of young Douglas that in 1387 he
gave him in marriage his daughter Egidia, a
princess whose beauty and wit were so re-
nowned that the king of France wished to
make her his queen, and despatched a painter
to the Scottish court to procure her portrait
secretly. But in the meantime she was be-
stowed on Douglas, and with her the lordship
of Nithsdale. He also received from his royal
father-in-law an annual pension of 300Z., and
his own father gave him the barony of Her-
bertshire, near Stirling.

In 1388 he was entrusted with the com-
mand of a maritime expedition, which was

fitted out to retaliate certain raids by the
Irish upon the coast of Galloway. Embark-
ing in a small flotilla with five hundred men
he sailed for the Irish coast, and attacked
Carlin^ford. The inhabitants offered a large
sum ot money to obtain immunity. Douglas
consented, and a time was fixed for payment.
The townsmen, however, had only wished to
gain time, and immediately despatched a mes-
senger to Dundalk for their English allies.
Unsuspicious of treachery Douglas had only
landed two hundred men, and half of these
were now separated from him in a foraging
expedition under his lieutenant. Sir Robert
Stewart of Durrisdeer. He himself remained
before the town. At nightfall eight hundred
horsemen left Dundalk, and, meeting with
the inhabitants of Carlingford, fell simul-
taneously upon the two companies of the
Scots, with whom, however, the victory re-
mained. Douglas thereupon took the town,
and gave it to the flames, beating down the
castle; and, lading with his spoils fifteen Irish
vessels which he found harbouring there, set
sail and returned to Scotland, On the way
home they attacked and plundered the Isle of

When Douglas reached Lochryan in Gal-
loway, he learned that his father and the
Earl of Fife and Menteith had just led an
expedition over the western marches into
England, and he immediately joined them
with all his available forces. In connection
with the same campaign James, second earl
of Douglas, had simultaneously entered Eng-
land by the eastern marches, and, meeting
with Percy on the field of Otterburn (1388),
was slain. The western portion of the Scot-
tish troops at once returned.

Peace with England was shortly afterwards
secured, and Douglas went abroad in search
of adventure. He was received with great
honour at Spruce or Danzig in Prussia,
where Thomas, duke of Gloucester, was pre-
paring to fight against the Lithuanians (1391).
A fleet of two hundred and forty ships was
fitted out for an expedition, the command
of which Douglas is said to have accepted.
Before leaving Scotland Douglas seems to
have received a challenge from Thomas de
Clifford, tenth lord Clilford [q. v.], to do
wager by battle for some disputed lands.
Cliftbrd obtained a safe-conduct through Eng-
land for Douglas, but nothing is kno-vvn as to
the result of the duel, or even whether it was
fought. It is said to have taken place in
1390. From the Scottish Exchequer Rolls i*
is evident Douglas was alive in 1392, after
which there is no further trace of him. By
Princess Egidia he left a daughter of the same
name, who married Henry, earl of Orkney,
and was associated with him in the foundation
of Eoslin Chapel near Edinburgh. He also
left a son, who succeeded him as Sir William
Douglas of Nithsdale, but who disappears
from record after 1408, while his sister lived
at least thirty years later.



Excerpts from The Scottish nation... These are NOT the complete entries for the name!


CAMERON, Sik Ewen, or Evan, of Locliie!, a chief of the clan Cameron, distinguished for his chivalrous character, was boru in February 1629.

He was called by his followers Mac'onnuill Dhu, or the son of Black Donald, according to the custom of their race, after his father Donald, the chief who preceded him ; also Ewen Dhu, or Black Evan, from his own dark complexion.

He was brought up at Inverary castle, under the guardianship of his kinsman the marquis of Argyle, under whose charge he was placed in his tenth year, being regarded as a hostage for the peaceable behaviour of his clan. Argyle endeavoured to instil into his mind the political principles of the covenanters, but it is said that he was converted to the side of the king by the exhortations of Sit Robert Spottiswood, formerly president of the Court of Session, who had been taken at the battle of Pliiliphaugh in September 1645, and was afterwards executed. At the age of eighteen ho quitted Inverary castle, with the declared intention of joining the marquis of Montrose, who, however, had previously disbanded his forces, and retired to the Continent. Although the royal cause seemed lost, Lochiel kept his clan in arms, and was able to protect his estate from the incursions of Cromwell's troops.

In 1652 he was one of the first to join the insurrection under the earl of Glencairn when that nobleman raised the royal standard in the Highlauds, and for nearly two years greatly distinguished himself at the head of his clan, in a seriea of encounters with General Lilburne, Colonel Morgan, and others of Cromwell's officers. In a sharp skirmish which took place between Lord Glencairn and Colonel Lilbnrne at Braemar, Lochiel gallantly maintained a pass with the defence of which he had been intrusted, and thereby saved Glencairn's army. His services were rewarded by a letter of thanks from Charles the Second, dated at Chantilly, the 8d of November, 1653.

In 1654 Lochiel continued to aid Glencairn in a fresh insurrection headed by him. Being himself opposed to Morgan, a brave and enterprising officer, Lochiel was often hard pressed, and sometimes nearly overpowered, but by his courage and presence of mind, he was always able to extricate himself from positions of the utmost difficulty and danger.

Monk was now commander-in-chief of the parliamentary forces in Scotland, and he resolved to establish a garrison at Inverlochy, now Fort William, with the view of reducing the royalist clans in the neighbourhood. Lochiel lay in wait on a hill to the north of the fort, with thirty-eight of his clan, and observing a body of men about to land at a place called Achdalew, to cut down his woods, and to carry off his cattle, he proceeded along in a line with the vessels, under cover of the woods, until he saw the English soldiers disembark, one hundred and forty of them having axes, hatchets, and other working implements, while the rest remained under arms, to protect their operations. Notwithstanding the disparity of their forces, Lochiel at once gave orders to advance. He ordered his brother Allan to be bound to a tree, to prevent his taking any part in the conflict, and so not deprive his clan of a chief, should he himself be cut off. But Allan prevailed on a little boy, who was left to attend him, to unloose his, cords, and soon plunged into the thickest of the fight. The Camerons rushed on the enemy, discharged against them a destructive shower of shot and arrows, and before they could recover from their surprise attacked them with their broadswords. The combat was long and obstinate. At last the English, retreating slowly, yet contesting every step of ground, and with their faces towards their assailants, were giving way when Lochiel sent two men and a piper round the flank, to sound the pibroch, raise the war-cry of the

clan, and Are their muskets, as if a fresh party ol Camerons had arrived, hoping thereby to create a panic among the English soldiers. But this only rendered the latter more desperate, and instead of throwing down their arms they fought more resolutely than before, as they expected no quarter. They were, at length, completely borne down, and fled, pursued to the sea, when those who had been left in the boats received the fugitives, and firing at the Camerons drove them back, the chief himself advancing till he was chindeep in the water. In the course of the struggle an English officer of great size and strength singled out Lochiel, and as they were pretty equally matched, they fought for some time apart from the general battle. Lochiel succeeded in knocking the sword out of his adversary's hand, but the Englishman closing on him, bore him to the ground, and fell upon him, the officer being uppermost. The latter was in the act of reaching for his sword, which lay near, but when extending his neck in the same direction, Lochiel, collecting his energies, grasped his enemy by the collar, and springing at his throat, seized it with his teeth, and gave so sure and effectual a bite that the officer died almost instantly. Of the English the number killed in this encounter exceeded that of Lochiel's men engaged in it, in the proportion of three to one, whilst only seven of the Camerons fell.

By this and similar attacks, now on the garri son at Inverlochy, now in conjunction with General Middleton, he harassed the forces of the Protector with general success. After the defeat of Middleton in July 1654, and his retreat to the continent, Lochiel was the only chief who remained opposed to Cromwell. The English, desirous to have peace with this formidable chief, made various overtures to him to that effect, but without success, until ho was informed that no express renunciation of the king's authority or oath to the existing government would be required of him, but only his word of honour to live in peace. An agreement on this basis took place about the end of that year. Reparation was made to Lochiel for the wood cut down by the garrison of Inverlochy, and to his tenants for all the losses they had sustained from the troops; while a full indemnity was granted for all acts of depredation and for all crimes committed by his men. All tithes, cess, and public bnrdens which had not been paid, were remitted to his clan.

In 1680 the last wolf known to have existed wild in Great Britain was slain by the hand of this brave and hardy chief in the district of Lochaber. In 1681, when the dnke of York, afterwards James the Second, was residing at Holyrood, as commissioner to the parliament of Scotland, Lochiel took a journey to Edinburgh to solicit the pardon of one of his clan, who, while in command of a party of Camerons, had fired by mistake on a party of Athole men, and killed several. The duke received him with great distinction, and granted his request. On this occasion he was knighted by the duke. After knighting him, the duke presented his sword to Sir Ewen, to keep as a remembrance.

In 1689 Sir Ewen joined the viscount of Dundee when he raised the standard of King James. General Mackay had, by the orders of King William, offered him a title and a considerable sum of money, apparently on the condition of his remaining neutral, but this offer he rejected with disdain. Though then far advanced in years, he distinguished himself with his usual licroism, and had a conspicuous share in the victory at Killiecrankie. Before the battle commenced he spoke to each of his men individually, and took their promise that they would conquer or die. On first seeing Dundee's force, General Mackay's army had raised a kind of shout, on which Lochiel exclaimed, " Gentlemen, the day is our own; I am the oldest commander in the army, and I have always observed something ominous or fatal in such a dull, heavy, feeble noise as that which the enemy has just made in their shout." Encouraged by this prognostication of victory, the Highlanders, with their usual impetuosity, rushed on the troops of Mackay, and in half an hour gained the victory.

In this battle Lochiel was attended by the son of his foster brother, who followed him everywhere like his shadow. Shortly after the commencement of the action the chief missed this faithful adherent from his side, and turning round to look for him, he saw him lying on his back in a dying state, with his breast pierced by an arrow.

With his last breath he informed Sir Ewen that observing an enemy, a Highlander, in General Mackay's army, aiming at him with a bow and arrow from the rear, he sprang behind him to cover him, and thus, like his father, received in his own body the death-wound intended for hit chief.

After the battle of Killiecrankie, Sir Ewen Cameron retired to Lochaber, leaving the command of his men to his eldest son. He survived till the year 1719, when he died at the age of ninety. Notwithstanding all the battles and personal encounters in which be had been engaged, he never lost a drop of blood, or received a wound. He was thrice married, and had four sous and eleven daughters.—Stewart's Sketches of the Highlanders and Highland Regiments.—Browne's History of the Highlands and Highland Clans.


Excerpts from The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) These are NOT the complete entries for the name!



Diplomatist, nephew and heir of James Day-
rolles, king's resident for some time at G eneva,
and from 1717 to 1739 at the Hague, who
died on 2 Jan. 1739, was the godson of Lord
Chesterfield, the wit and politician, through
whose friendship the young official obtained
speedy advancement in his profession. He
began his diplomatic career under James,
first earl of Waldegrave, then ambassador at
Vienna, and when that peer was transferred
to the same position at Versailles, the active
Lord Chesterfield endeavoured to obtain the
appointment of secretary to the embassy for
his protege, but in this he was frustrated by
superior influence. Dayrolles was sworn as
gentleman of the privy chamber to George II
on 27 Feb. 1740, and retained his place in
the court of George III. With the old king
he quickly became a personal favourite, and
was duly rewarded for his good qualities by
the post of master of the revels (12 April
1744). He was secretary to Lord Chester-
field during that peer's second embassy to
the Hague (1745), and when his pati'on some-
what later in the year entered upon his duties
as lord-lieutenant of Ireland,

Dayrolles accom-
panied him in the same capacity, and was no-
minated by him gentleman usher of the black
rod (2 Sept. 1745), a sinecure to which he
was entitled, as the donor ingeniously said,
by the excessive darkness of his complexion.

Through the personal liking of the king, and
Chesterfield's credit with Pelham, the place
of king's resident at the Hague was bestowed
on Dayrolles on 12 May 1747. There he
continued for four years, when he was pro-
moted to a similar office at Brussels, a posi-
tion which he held until August 1757. On his
uncle's death in 1739 he inherited consider-
able wealth, and in that year he purchased
from Sir Richard Child, earl of Tilney, the
estate of Henley Park, in the parish of Ash,
near Guildford, which remained his property
until 1785. In March 1786 he died, and in
the same year his hbrary was sold. Horace
Walpole, with his usual spitefulness, said
that Dayrolles had ' always been a led-captain
to the dukes of Grafton and Richmond, used
to be sent to auctions for them, and to walk
in the park with their daughters, and once
went dry-nurse to Holland with them.' What-
ever Walpole may write, it was through in-
timacy with Chesterfield that DayroUes while
alive secured his promotion and is remem-
bered after his death. For years they kept
up an uninterrupted correspondence, and the
communications which he received from Ches-
terfield were for the first time printed in an
unmutilated state under the editorship of
Lord Mahon, afterwards known as Lord
Stanhope. The originals were bought from
the heirs of Dayrolles by Messrs. Bentley,
and they passed by purchase to Lord Stan-
hope in April 1846. Maty was assisted in
his ' Life of Chesterfield ' by Dayrolles, and
it was on a call from him that the dying
peer, only half an hour before his decease,
remarked, with the ruling passion of formality
strong in death, ' Give Dayrolles a chair,' He
married, on 4 July 1751, Christabella, daugh-
ter of Colonel Peterson of Ireland, who is
said to have been * a lady of accomplished
manners and dignified appearance.' She died
at George Street, Hanover Square, on 3 Aug.
1791, and as her age was at that time given
as fifty-eight she must have been considerably
younger than her husband. A literary stu-
dent, called William Cramp, who was anxious
to fix the authorship of the ' Letters of Junius '
on Lord Chesterfield, published in 1851 a small
pamphlet of * Facsimile Autograph Letters of
Junius, Lord Chesterfield, and Mrs. C. Day-
rolles, showing that the wife of Mr. Solomon
Dayrolles was the amanuensis employed in
copying the Letters of Junius for the prin-
ter.' This pamphlet was reviewed by C. W.
Dilke in the' Athenaeum,' 22 March 1851, and
the article is reproduced in Dilke's 'Papers of
a Critic,' ii. 140-54. Dayrolles had issue one
son, Thomas Philip Dayrolles (a captain in the
10th dragoons, who died at Lausanne, having
married Mile. H. G. Thomaset, a Swiss lady)
and three daughters. Christabella, the eldest,
married in 1784 the Hon. Townsend Ventry.
Emily married, on 24 Dec. 1786, the Baron
de Reidezel, aide-de-camp to the Duke of
Wiirtemberg; and Mary became the wife,
on 5 Feb. 1788, of Richard Croft, junior, a
banker in Pall Mall. The youngest of these
daughters is said to have been the prototype
of the vivacious Miss LaroUes in Miss Bur-
ney's novel of * Cecilia.' Which, if either of
them, was the lady who, according to Wal-
pole, ' eloped to Leonidas Glover's youngest
son,' it is now impossible to say. Dayrolles was
a member of the Egyptian Club, a body of
gentlemen who had visited Egypt, and had
returned with a desire that the origin and
history of its antiquities should be studied
critically. His own official correspondence
and that of his uncle, comprised in twenty-
one folio volumes, once belonged to Upcott.

Dayrolles was a man of benevolent disposi-
tion, set off" by the stately manners of the old

[Chesterfield's Letters (Mahon), vol. i. preface,
ill. 58, 97, 112, 198, 300, 429; Nichols's Lit.
Anecd. iii. 334, v. 663 ; Manning and Bray's Sur-
rey, iii. 73 ; Walpole's Letters (Cunningham), ii.
84, vi. 417; Gent. Mag. 1739, p. 47, 1745, p. 333,
1747, p. 248, 1751, pp. 332, 381, 1786, p. 1146,
1788, p. 178, 1791, p. 780, 1828, pt. i. pp. 2, 215-
216, 290; Maty's Chesterfield (1777), pp. 53,
174-5, 199, 224, 326, 332; Gray's Works (ed.
1884), ii. 353-4; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. i.
219, 373, 476 (1850), 7th ser. ii. 425 (1886).]



DAUBUZ, CHARLES (1673-1717)

Was born in the province of Guienne
in France, in July 1673, being son of Isaie
d'Aubus, protestant pastor at Nerac. On the
revocation of the edict of Nantes, the father
obtained from Louis XIV a document, still
preserved in the family archives, authorising
him to leave France with his wife, Julie, and
four children. He started for England, but
on reaching Calais he died at an inn, and
was privately buried in the garden, the inn-
keeper helping his widow, during the night,
to dig the grave. She was afterwards joined
at Calais by her husband's brother, who held
some ecclesiastical preferment in the north
of England, and he succeeded in bringing
the widow and her children over to this
country, and settling them in Yorkshire.
Charles Daubuz was admitted into Merchant
Taylors' School, London, on 11 Sept. 1686
(Robinson, Register of Merchant Taylors'
School, i. 317). He was admitted a sizar of
Queens' College, Cambridge, 10 Jan. 1689.
He graduated B.A. 13 Jan. 1693, was ap-
pointed librarian of his college on 21 March
in the same year, and continued in that em-
ployment tiU 10 Aug. 1695. In the follow-
ing year he succeeded Thomas Balguy in the
mastership of the grammar school of Sheffield,
and he was the early tutor of his predeces-
sor's son, John Balguy [q. v.] He commenced
M.A. at Cambridge in 1697 {Cantabrigienses
Graduati, ed. 1787, p. 110). He left Shef-
field in 1699, on being presented by the dean
and chapter of York to the vicarage of Bro-
therton, a small viUage near Ferrybridge in
the West Riding of Yorkshire. This vicarage,
of the annual value of 60/. or 70/., was all
the preferment he ever enjoyed, and in order
to support a numerous family he was obliged
to undertake the education of the sons of
several gentlemen in the neighbourhood. He
devoted his leisure to the composition of his
bulky commentary on the * Apocalypse,' which
■was eventually published by his widow. It
is stated in a manuscript note by the Rev.

John Law, who afterwards became vicar of
Brotherton, that * when he had finished his
book he went to consult Dr. Bentley (the
then great critic of the age) ; but the doctor
(as is supposed), thinking Mr. Daubuz would
outshine him in learning, and eclipse his
glory, did not encourage him to publish it.
Upon which poor Mr. Daubuz returned home
unhappy in mind and weary in body, sickened
of pleuritic fever, and died in a few days,' on
14 June 1717.

Law says he was ' a tall, stout,
strong, hale man, of a swarthy, black com-
plexion, wore his own strong, black curled
hair, and had a very loud voice. He was a
worthy, good man — a man beloved and re-
spected by all.'

He married Anne Philota, daughter of
Philippe Guide, M.D., and left issue eight
children. The present English families of
the name of Daubuz derive their descent
from his fifth son Theophilus, who was born
at Brotherton in 1713, and died in London
in 1774 (Agnew, Protestant Exiles from
France, 2nd edit. ii. 246). Another of his
sons, Claude, was educated at Catharine Hall,
Cambridge, became vicar of Huddersfield, and
died at Pontefract on 15 Sept. 1760, aged 50.

His works are : 1. * Caroli Daubuz Presby-
teri et A.M., pro testimonio Flavii Josephi
de Jesu Christo, libri duo . . . Cum prsefa-
tione Johannis Ernesti Grabe,' London, 1706,
8vo. Dedicated to his patron, Dr. Henry
James, master of Queens' College. This dis-
sertation is reprinted in Havercamp's edition
of Josephus,' 2 vols. Amsterdam, 1726. 2. ' A
Perpetual Commentary on the Revelation of
St. John . . . with a preliminary Discourse
concerning the certainty of the Principles upon
which the Revelation of St. John is to be under-
stood,' London, 1720, fol. pp. 1068. Another
edition * new modell'd, abridg'd, and render'd
plain to the meanest capacity, by Peter Lan-
caster, A.M., vicar of Bowden in Cheshire,
and sometime student of Christ Church in Ox-
ford,' appeared at London in 1730, 4to. Lan-
caster collected the symbolical matter, in
which Daubuz's commentary is very rich, and
formed it into a dictionary, constituting the
first part of his abridgment. A new and en-
larged edition, prepared by Matthew Haber-
shon, of this introductory part was published
under the title of ' A Symbolical Diction-
ary ; in which . . . the general signification
of the Prophetic Symbols, especially those of
the Apocalypse, is laid down and proved from
the most ancient authorities, sacred and pro-
fane,' London, 1842, 8vo. Home describes
the ' Commentary ' as ' an elaborate and use-
ful work, of which later authors have not
failed to avail themselves ' (^Introd. to Study
of the Scriptures, vol. v.)

[Addit. MSS. 5867, f. 33, 22910, ff. 277, 389,
22911, f. 72; Agnew's Protestant Exiles from
France, 2nd edit. ii. 219, iii. 73, 214 ; New and
General Biog. Diet. (1761), vol. iv., Whiston's
MS. note on fly-leaf; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. ;
Darling's Cycl.BibIiographica,i. 871 ; Gent. Mag.
new ser. xiii. 212 ; Haag's La France Protestante
(Bordier),i. 559 ; Hunter's Hallamshire (Gatty),
309; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), ii. 594;
Nichols's Illustr. of Lit. iv. 316, v. 63, 64;
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. i. 435, ii. 145, 390, 724,
iii. 668, viii. 373; Notes and Queries, 1st series,
vi. 527, vii. 62, 144 ; Thoresby's Ducatus Leo-
diensis, ed. Whitaker, 232 ; WJhiston's Memoirs
(1749), 107; Zouch's Address to the Clergy of
the Deaneries of Richmond, Catterick, and
Boroughbridge at the visitations held 1792,
p. 4.] T. C.

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (died 20 July 1332) was Regent of Scotland, an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Arbroath.

He is usually described as a nephew of Robert the Bruce although their exact relationship is uncertain. The traditional view is that it was through a daughter of the first marriage of Countess Marjorie of Carrick, who was mother of King Robert by her second marriage. However modern sources state that the King's father Robert (1253–1304) married secondly, after 1292, to a lady with the Christian name of Eleanor (died 1331) by whom he had a daughter, Isabel de Bruce, who married Thomas Randolph, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland.

Thomas, the future Earl of Moray, supported Bruce in his initial coup when he proclaimed himself king and was crowned at Scone, but was captured after the Battle of Methven and later changed sides. Later, fighting for the English, he was captured and brought before the king, who he taunted for his alleged cowardice by engaging in guerrilla warfare instead of standing and fighting in pitched battle.

However, he was persuaded to change sides again, and went on to become one of the king's most important lieutenants. The fact that he was allowed to resume his allegiance to Bruce suggests that they did have family ties. His most famous achievement took place in 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, and stood on top of an apparently impregnable rock. The son of a former Governor knew about a path up the rock, which he had used to visit the town at night against his father's wishes, and tipped off the Scots. Randolph led his men up this path one night to capture the castle. It is difficult to say exactly when Randolph was raised to the Earldom of Moray, but by 1315 he is "Thomas Ranulphi comes Morauie".

He played an important role in the Scottish victory at Bannockburn, where he commanded one of the divisions (schiltroms) of the infantry, the others being commanded by King Robert, Sir James Douglas and Edward Bruce, the king's brother. In 1326 he led the Scottish deputation which negotiated the Treaty of Corbeil, renewing the defensive Franco-Scottish alliance.

On the death of Robert I, the crown was inherited by his son David II, who was only five years old. Randolph became regent, but three years later died of a sudden illness at Musselburgh on his way to repel an invasion by Edward Balliol and his supporters. At the time it was said that he had been poisoned by the English, but this is now discounted. His successor as Guardian was Domhnall II, Earl of Mar. Thomas Randolph married Isabel, only daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill (killed at the Battle of Falkirk (1298)), a brother of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland.

They had several children, including: Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray, John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, Agnes Randolph, who married Patrick Dunbar, 9th Earl of Dunbar. Geilis (or Isabella) Randolph, wife of John de Dunbar of Derchester and Birkynsyde, parents of George, 10th Earl of Dunbar & March.

Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray (died August 11, 1332), a Scottish military commander, held his title for just 23 days. The son of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of King Robert I of Scotland, he succeeded his father on July 20, 1332. Thomas, 2nd Earl of Moray had a chief command under the Earl of Mar ranged against the army of Edward Balliol at the Battle of Dupplin Moor, where he was killed.

John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (1306 – 17 October 1346) was an important figure in the reign of David II of Scotland, and was for a time joint Regent of Scotland. He was son of the famous Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, a companion-in-arms of Robert the Bruce. Upon the death of his elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332, John succeeded to the earldom. He at once took up arms on behalf of his sovereign and cousin King David II and surprised and defeated Edward Balliol at the Battle of Annan in December 1332. At the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333, he commanded the first division of the Scots' Army, supported by Lord Andrew Fraser and his two brothers, Simon and James. Escaping from the carnage there he retired to France. John returned to Scotland the following year, when he and the High Steward of Scotland (the future King Robert II of Scotland) were appointed joint Regents, and set about trying to restore order to the nation.

He was successful in taking prisoner the Comyn Earl of Atholl, commander of the English forces in Scotland, but, on his swearing allegiance to the Scottish Crown he was set free. Comyn, however, disregarded his oath, returned to the English camp, and resumed his hostilities. In August 1335 led an attack on the Burgh Muir near Edinburgh against a body of Flemish auxiliaries in the English service, under Count Guy de Namur, and forced them to surrender. But escorting the Count to the Borders he fell into an ambush and was made prisoner by William de Pressen, (English) Warden of Jedburgh.

He was confined first at Nottingham Castle, and afterwards in the Tower of London. On 25 July 1340, he was removed to Windsor Castle. In 1341 he was exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury, a prisoner with the French, and Moray then returned to Scotland. In February 1342 he invaded England with David II of Scotland. At the fatal Battle of Neville's Cross, outside Durham, on 17 October 1346 John, with Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale, commanded the right wing of the Scottish army, and he was killed during the first English attack. He was married to Euphemia de Ross but the marriage was childless. The Earl's sister, Black Agnes, assumed the honours as Countess of Moray.

Agnes Randolph, Countess of Dunbar and March (c. 1312 – 1369), often known as Black Agnes of Dunbar because of her skin complexion,

was the wife of Patrick, 9th Earl of Dunbar and March. She is buried in the vault near Mordington House. The daughter of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, nephew and companion-in-arms of Robert the Bruce, and Thomas's wife, Isabel (née Stewart), Agnes became renowned for her heroic defence of Dunbar Castle against an English attack by the William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury, which began on 13 January 1338.

This attack took place during the conflict which arose when Edward Balliol, with English backing, attempted to seize the Scottish crown from David II. Patrick Dunbar was fighting in the far-off Scottish army when English forces besieged his home, the great castle of Dunbar in East Lothian. Patrick’s wife, the Lady Agnes, was left alone with only a retinue of servants and a few guards to meet the English siege, but she refused to surrender the fortress, declaring that

"Of Scotland's King I haud my house, He pays me meat and fee, And I will keep my gude auld house, while my house will keep me."

Women occasionally commanded besieged mediaeval garrisons, for if the lord of a castle were away his wife might be left in charge; but Agnes’s is one of the few sieges which has been widely remembered. Though considered one of the ablest commanders of his day, Salisbury was obliged to lift his fruitless siege of Dunbar castle after nearly five months without success. Salisbury began the siege with a bombardment by catapults, sending huge rocks and lead shot against the ramparts of Dunbar. Lady Agnes responded by having her maids dress in their Sunday best; she then led them to the outer walls, where with their handkerchiefs they nonchalantly and slightingly dusted away the damage from the bombardment.

Montague next assaulted the castle with his battering ram. Agnes dropped over the walls a huge boulder captured from an earlier English attack, smashing the assault machinery. According to one story, at one point during the siege, the English captured Agnes’s brother John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, and paraded him in front of the castle with a rope round his neck, threatening to hang him if she did not surrender. She told them to go ahead, as she would then inherit the Earldom of Moray. John survived this brinkmanship. However, this story may be a later invention, as she was not heir to the earldom. On June 10, 1338, William Montague ordered his army to withdraw, leaving Lady Agnes in sole possession of her castle. She is remembered in a ballad which attributes these words to Montague:

"Cam I early, cam I late, I found Agnes at the gate."

Some accounts describe her as Countess of Moray, on the assumption that she inherited the earldom when her brother John was killed at the Battle of Neville's Cross. However, the earldom actually reverted to the crown, although it was later granted to her nephew. No children survived Agnes and her husband, the Earl. Their estates were left to children of the marriage between the Earl's younger brother John de Dunbar of Derchester and Birkynside and his wife, Isobel Randolph, Agnes's younger sister.

























































Excerpts from The Scottish nation... These are NOT the complete entries for the name!


Middle-ton, earl of, a title now extinct, in the peerage of
Scotland, conferred in 1660, on John Middleton, the elder
son of John Middleton of Caldhame, Kincardineshire, who
was killed sitting in his chair, by Montrose's soldiers in 1645
He was a descendant of Malcolm the son of Kenneth, who
got a charter from William the Lion of the lands of Middle-
ton in that county, confirming a donation of King Duncan of
the same, and in consequence assumed the name.

The first earl was from his youth bred to arms. He at
first "trailed a pike" in Hepburn's regiment in France, but
in the civil wars of 1642, he entered into the service of the
parliament of England as commander of a troop of horse, and
lieutenant-general under Sir William Waller. He afterwards
returned to Scotland, and got a command in General Leslie's
army. At the battle of Philiphaugh, 13th September 1645,
he contributed so much to the defeat of Montrose, that the
Estates voted him a gift of 25,000 marks.

When Montrose, soon after, sat down before Inverness,
General Middleton, with a small brigade, was detached from General Leslie's
army and sent north to watch his motions. In the beginning
of May 1646, he left Aberdeen, with a force of 600 horse and
800 foot, and arrived in the neighbourhood of Inverness, on
the 9th of that month. Montrose immediately withdrew to
a position at some distance from the town, but soon quitted
it. Two regiments of cavalry, despatched by Middleton
after him, attacked his rear, cut off some of his men, and
captured two pieces of cannon, and part of his baggage.
Retreating into Ross-shire, he was pursued by Middleton,
who, as Montrose avoided an engagement, laid siege to the
castle of the earl of Seaforth in the chanonry of Ross. After
a siege of four days he took it, but immediately restored it to
the countess of Seaforth, who was within the castle at the

Learning that the marquis of Huntly had seized upon
Aberdeen, Middleton retraced his steps, and re-crossing the
Spey, made him retire into Mar. He then returned to Aber-
deen. When Montrose received orders from the king to dis-
band his forces, Middleton was intrusted by the committee
of Estates with ample powers to negotiate with him, and in
order to discuss the conditions offered to the former, a con-
ference was held between them on 22d July 1646, on a mea-
dow, near the river Hay in Angus, where they " conferred
for the space of two hours, there being none near them but
one man for each of them to hold his horso." (Guthrifs
Memoirs, p. 179). The conditions were that his followers,
on making their submission, should be pardoned, and that
Montrose and a few others of the principal leaders should
leave the kingdom.

The following year, Middleton was occupied in pursuing
the marquis of Huntly, who had appeared in arms for the
king, through Glenmoriston, Badenoch, and other places in
the north, till he was captured by Lieutenant-colonel Men-
zies in Strathdon. Some Irish taken at the same time were
shot by Middleton's orders in Strathbogie. In 1648, when
the "Engagement" was formed for the rescue of the king,
he was appointed lieutenant-general of the cavalry in the
army ordered to be levied by the Scots Estates for that pur-
pose. The levy being opposed by a large body of Covenant-
ers and others at Mauchline in Ayrshire, on the 12th June,
Middleton charged them, and put the whole to the rout, with
the loss of eighty killed and a great many taken prisoners,
among whom were some ministers.

He also dispersed some
gatherings of the western Covenanters at Carsphairn and
other places. He behaved with great gallantly at the battle
of Preston in England, 17th August the same year, but his
horse being shot under him, he was taken prisoner and sent
to Newcastle. He soon made his escape, however, and with
Lord Ogilvy attempted a rising in Athol in favour of the
king. The party being dispersed by a force under the orders
of General David Leslie, Middleton was allowed, on giving
security to keep the peace, to return to his home.

When Charles II., in 1650, arrived in Scotland, General
Middleton immediately repaired to him. Many small bodies
of men were raised for the defence of the king in the north,
and it was at one time proposed to have placed General Mid-
dleton, who commanded a small division of the army, at the
head of all the loyal forces that could be collected for the
purpose of opposing Cromwell, but this was never earned
into effect. For his conduct in support of the king the com-
mission of the church summarily excommunicated him on
the motion of James Guthrie, who pronounced the sentence
from his pulpit at Stirling.

To compel the northern royalists to lay down their arms,
General Leslie, by order of the committee of Estates, crossed
the Tay on the 24th October with a force of 3,000 cavalry,
with the intention of proceeding to Dundee and scouring An-
gus. At this time Middleton was lying at Forfar, and, on
hearing of Leslie's advance, he sent him a letter, enclosing a
copy of a " bond and oath of engagement " which had been
entered into by Huntly, Athol, Seaforth, and himself, with
others, by which they pledged themselves not to lay down
their arms without a general consent, and promised and swore
that they would maintain the true religion as then estab-
lished in Scotland, the national covenant, and the solemn
league and covenant ; and defend the person of the king, his
prerogative, greatness and authority, the privileges of parlia-
ment, and the freedom of the subject.

Middleton stated
that Leslie would perceive, from the terms of the document
sent, that the only aim of himself and friends was to unite
Scotsmen in defence of their common rights, and he proposed
to join Leslie, and put himself under his command, as their
objects appeared to be precisely the same. The negotiation
was finally concluded on 4th November at Strathbogie, when
a treaty was agreed to between Leslie and the chief royalists,
by which the latter accepted an indemnity and laid down
their arms.

On the 12th January 1651, Middleton was relaxed from
his excommunication, and did penance in sackcloth in the
parish church of Dundee. He commanded the horse in the
royal army that marched into England on the 31st July; and
at the battle of Worcester, 3d September, the chief resistance
was made by him. He charged the enemy so vigorously that
he forced them to recoil, but being severely wounded, he was
taken prisoner after the battle, and sent to the Tower of

Cromwell was so incensed against him that he de-
signed to get him tried for his life, as having formerly served
in the parliamentary army, but he contrived to make his
escape. After remaining for some time concealed in London
he retired to France, and joined Charles II. at Paris. In
1653 he was sent home with a commission from the king,
appointing him generalissimo of all the royal forces in Scot-
land, and took the command of the troops at Dornoch.

Middleton soon found himself sorely pressed by General
Monk, who had advanced into the Highlands with a large
army. In an attempt to elude his pursuers he was surprised
in a defile near Lochgarry, 26th July 1654, when his men
were either slain or dispersed, and he himself escaped with
great difficulty. After lurking for some months in the coun-
try, Middleton again got over to the king, who was then at
Cologne, and was excepted by Cromwell from pardon in his
act of grace and indemnity the same year.

At the Restoration, he accompanied King Charles II. to
England, and was created earl of Middleton and Lord Cler-
mont and Fettercairn, by patent, dated 1st October 1660, to
him and his heirs male, having the name and arms of Mid-
dleton. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the
forces in Scotland, governor of Edinburgh castle, and lord
high commissioner to the Scots parliament.

On the 31st
December he arrived at Holvrood-house, having been escort-
ed from Musselburgh by the nobility and gentry then in the
capital, attended by a thousand horse. He was allowed 900
merks per day fur his table, and he lived in a style of great
magnificence. He opened parliament 1st January 1661, with
a splendour to which the Scots people had long been unac-
customed. In this " terrible parliament," as it is well named
by Kirkton, the king's prerogative was restored in its fullest
extent, and a general act rescissory of the parliaments from
1633 was passed. Various other acts of a most unconstitu-
tional nature also became law. On the rising of parliament
in the following July, Middleton hastened to London, to lay
an account of its proceedings before the king.

On his arrival
at court, he assured his majesty and the Scottish privy coun-
cil in London, that the majority of the Scottish nation de-
sired the establishment of episcopacy, and it was accordingly
agreed that " as the government of the state was monarchy,
so that of the church should be prelacy." Middleton's ob-
ject in thus recommending the establishment of the episcopal
church in Scotland was that he might strengthen his own
authority by that of the bishops, and thwart Lauderdale
whom he hated, and who at that time was favourable to pres-

He was again appointed lord high commissioner to the
Scots parliament, which met 6th May 1662, and on 15th
July following, he was nominated an extraordinary lord of
session. In September of the same year, Middleton and the
privy council made a progress through the west of Scotland
and when at Glasgow, under the influence of drink, as Bur-
net says, passed the act for depriving the covenanting minis-
ters of their benefices, by which more than 200 were thrown

After proceeding through Ayrshire to Dumfries, they
returned to Edinburgh. Having procured the passing of the
famous act of billeting, by which Lauderdale and his friends
were incapacitated, that unprincipled nobleman resolved upon
his overthrow. He misrepresented all his actions to the king,
and so prejudiced the royal mind against him that Middleton
in 1663 was ordered up to London to give an account of his
administration in Scotland. When the council met, Lauder-
dale accused him of many miscarriages in his great office,
and particularly of having accepted bribes from many of the
presbyterians, to exclude them from the list of fines. Mid-
dleton was defended by Clarendon, Archbishop Sheldon, and
Monk, duke of Albemarle.

The Scottish prelates also wrote
in his favour, and in vindication of his general policy. Their
interposition, however, was in vain. He was declared guilty
of arbitrary conduct as commissioner, and deprived of all his
offices, to the great joy of the Scottish people, whom he had
disgusted by the oppressive character of his measures, as well
as by his open debauchery and intemperance, being, accord-
ing to Burnet and Wodrow, most ostentatious in his vices.
The former says that he was " perpetually drunk."

After his disgrace he retired to the friary near Guildford, to
the house of a Scotsman named Dalmahoy, who had been
gentleman of the horse to William duke of Hamilton, killed
at the battle of Worcester, and who had married that noble-
man's widow. There he built a bridge over the river which
ran through Dalmahoy's estate, and was called Middleton's
Bridge after him.

He afterwards, as a kind of decent exile,
received the appointment of governor of Tangier, a seaport
town of Fez In Africa, which made part of the dowry of the
princess Catherine of Portugal, whom Charles II. married
soon after the Restoration. He died there in 1673, having
fallen in going down stairs, which in that hot climate pro-
duced inflammation.

His only son, Charles, second and last earl of Middleton,
was M.P. for Winchelsea, in the long parliament. He was
bred in the court of Charles II., by whom he was appointed
envoy extraordinary to the court of Vienna. On his return
home he was constituted one of the principal secretaries of
state for Scotland, 26th September 1682. On 11th July
1684 he was sworn a privy councillor of England, on the 15th
of the same month was admitted an extraordinary lord of
session in Scotland, and on 25th August same year appoint-
ed one of the principal secretaries of state for England. His
seat on the bench, however, he resigned in February 1686,
in favour of his brother-in-law, the earl of Strathmore.

At the Revolution, though he had opposed the violent
measures of King James, he adhered to him steadily. He
refused all the offers made to him by King William, and af-
ter being frequently imprisoned in England, he followed James
to France, and was, in consequence, outlawed by the high
court of justiciary, 23d July 1694, and forfeited by act of
parliament, 2d July 1695.

Before the Revolution, we are told,
he firmly stood in the gap, to stop the torrent of some priests
who were driving King James to his ruin, and had so mean
an opinion of converts that he used to say a new light never
came into the house but by a crack in the tilting. Yet this
man, who had withstood all the temptations of James' reign,
and all the endeavours of that prince to bring him over, to
the surprise of all who knew him declared himself a Roman
Catholic on the king's death, and obtained the entire man-
agement of the exiled court at St. Germains.

He had two sons and three daughters. Lady Elizabeth, the eld-
est daughter, was the wife of Edward Drummond, son of
James, earl of Perth, high-chancellor of Scotland. She was
styled duchess of Perth, and died at Paris after 1773. The
sons, Lord Clermont and the Hon. Charles Middleton, were
taken at sea by Admiral Byng, coming with French troops
to invade Scotland, in 1708, and committed to the Tower of
London. They were soon released, when they returned to

(J/acfo/'s Memoirs, p. 238.)
He is described as having been a black
man, of middle stature, with a sanguine complexion.



There was an ancient family named Blacader, or Blackadder, who possessed the lands of Tulliallan in Perthshire. The ruins of the old castle of Tulliallan, which formerly belonged to them, arc still standing. The modem castle of that name belongs to the baroness Keith, by marriage Countess Flahaut in France.

The original family was Blackadder of that ilk in Berwiikshire, who distinguished themselves in the Border feuds so early as the minority of James the Second, towards the middle of the fifteenth century. They received the lands whence they derived their name from that monarch, conferred as a reward for defending the eastern frontier against the incursions of the English. Beatrice, eldest daughter of one of the two portion of Robert Blackadder of Blackadder, married John Home, fourth of the seven sons of Sir David Home of Wedderburn, so well known in border song as " the seven spears of Wedderburn," and thereby got the estate of Blackadder.

This marriage, however, was brought about in a very violent manner on the part of the Homes, with the view of acquiring the lands of Blnckadder, having, by rapacity and fraud, appropriated to themselves, in course of time, the greater part of Berwickshire. The person on whom James the Second conferred the lands, and who from them took the surname of Blackadder, as a reward for military services, was named Cuthbert, styled the " Chieftain of the South." The royal grant is dated in 1452.

On his expeditions against the English who crossed the borders for plunder he was accompanied by his seven sons who, from the darkness of their complexion, were called the " Black band of the Blackadders."

Writs of the Family, quoted in Crichton's Life of the Rev. John Blackadder,' When the country required to be put in a posture of defence against the preparations of Edward the Fourth, the Blackadders raised a body from among their kindred and retainers, the Elliots, Armstrongs, Johnstons, and other hardy and warlike borderers to the number of two hundred and seventeen men, all accoutred with jack and spear. Their castle, a fortress of some strength, was planted with artillery, and furnished with a garrison of twenty soldiers, Redpath's Border History."] Cuthbert and his sons joined the train of adventurers from Scotland, who had embarked in the wars of York and Lancaster, marshalling themselves under the banner of the Red Rose, and fighting for the earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry the Seventh, at Bosworth, where the father and three of his sons were left dead on the field.

Andrew, the eldest of the surviving brothers, succeeded to the barony of Blackadder. Robert and Patrick entered into holy orders. The former became prior of Coldingham, the latter was made dean sf Dunblane. The fourth brother, William, remained in England, where he obtained a title and opulent possessions. [ Writs of the Family of Blackadder.] In memorial of their services at Bosworth, King James granted the family permission to carry on their shield the roses of York and Lancaster. It was afterwards quartered with the house of Edmonstone; field, azure; cheveron, argent; upper left hand, gules; crest, a dexter hand holding a broadsword; motto, 1 Courage helps fortune/

Andrew Blackadder, the proprietor of the estate, married a daughter of the house of Johnston of Johnston, ancestor of the earls of Annandale, and had two sons, Robert and Patrick. Robert, the elder son, espoused Alison Douglas, fourth daughter of George, Master of Angus, and sister of Archibald, earl of Angus. He followed the standard of the Douglases at Flodden in 1513, and was slain with his father-in-law and two hundred gentlemen of the name of Douglas, on that disastrous field, leaving a widow and two daughters, Beatrix and Margaret, who, at the time, were mere children. put/i's Border History.]

Of Patrick, the younger son, described as a man of chivalry, who obtained by marriage the estate of Tulliallan in Perthshire, the succeeding paragraph gives an account. From the unprotected state of Robert's daughters, the Homes of Wedderburn formed the design of seizing the lands of Blackadder, and the way in which they succeeded in their villanous project is but too illustrative of the manners of those rude times to be omitted, especially as by it the patrimonial estate of the Blackadders was for ever wrested from the rightful owners. They began by cutting off all within their reach, whose affinity was dreaded as an hereditary obstacle. They attacked Robert Blackadder, the prior of Coldingham. at the village of Lamberton, while following
the spoils of the chase, and assassinated him and six of his attendants. [I^eslie's Hist of Scotland, p. 389. History oj the Homes.]

His brother, the dean of Dunblane, shared the same fate. Various others were despatched in a similar manner. Patrick Blackadder, the cousin of the late prior endeavoured to obtain the priory of Coldingham; but on the active interference of the Homes, it was bestowed on William Douglas, brother of the earl of Angus. They now assaulted the castle of Blackadder, where the widow and her two young daughters resided. The garrison refused to surrender, but the Homes succeeded in obtaining possession of the fortress, and seized the widow and her children, compelling them to marriage by force.

Sir David Home of Wedderburn married the widow. The two daughters were contracted to his brothers, John and Robert, in 1518, and they were then only in their eighth year, they were confined, by John Home, in the castle of Blackadder till they came of age. [Douglas* Peerage, vol. ii. p. 174.] The estate, however, had been entailed in the male line, and should have passed to Sir John Blackadder, then baron of Tulliallan, the cousin and tutor of the ladies, as nearest heir.

But the Homes, who obtained the sanction of the Earl of Angus to marry his nieces, refused to quit possession of the lands, or deliver up the fortress. Sir John applied to the legislature for redress against them: but at that period there was no regular administration of justice in Scotland, and both parties had recourse to the sword. During the long minority of James the Fifth, they were involved in mutual hostilities. Sir John Blackadder was beheaded in March 1531 for the murder of James Inglis, abbot of Culross, "because, when he was absent at Edinburgh, the said abbot gave tack above his head to the Lord Erskine of the lands of Balgownie." Happening to meet with him on his return, he resolved to be avenged Both parties being of equal number, about sixteen horse, a rencontre took place, at the Lonhead of Rosyth, near Culross,' which ended in the slaughter of the abbot.

Patrick, archdeacon of Glasgow, succeeded his brother in Tulliallan. He held also, by the king's special commission, the wardenslup of Blackadder, to which he had been appointed, under warrant and command from the governor of Scotland. While archdeacon he had authority granted him by the Pope, in 1510, to visit all kirks and monasteries within the bounds of the see of Glasgow. He got also, in 1521, the priory of Coldingham, (which William Douglas had forcibly held,) by the King's seal, with consent of the duke of Albany, protector and governor of Scotland. In this office, ha was succeeded by his brother, Adam Blackadder, abbot of Dundrennan in Galloway; the first worth two thousand pounds, the latter one thousand pounds a-year. For bearing Sir Patrick's expenses in travelling to France to procure these appointments from Albany, who was there at the time, the said Adam bound himself to pay three thousand pounds; for which he gave in pledge two massy silver cups, till the debt was discharged.

Writs of the Family, quoted in Cricfitoris Life of the Rev. John Blackadder.] Sir Patrick renewed the process against the Homes, for the recovery of Blackadder. Under pretence of submitting the dispute to friends, to have all differences settled in an amicable way, the Homes appointed a day to meet Sir Patrick at Edinburgh. Thither accordingly he repaired, without suspicion of treachery, having received warrant of safe convoy from Archibald, earl of Angus, under the great seal, and accompanied by a Binall retinue of domestics, fifteen or sixteen horsemen, who usually rode in his train, but was clandestinely waylaid by a body of fifty horse, that lay in ambush near the Dean, within a mile of Edinburgh. Being well mounted, he made a gallant charge, and broke through the
ambuscade, killing several with his own hand.

Overpowered with numbers he fled, taking the road towards the West Port, fiercely pursued. On approaching the city, he was surprised by a fresh troop of horse, secretly posted in a hollow, where St. Cuthbert's church now stands. These joining in the pursuit, he made the best of his speed to gain the entrance by the Nether Bow, or the Canongate; but before he could reach the ford of the Loch a party of foot sallied out from another place of concealment to intercept him. Finding himself beset on all hands, he ventured to take the North Loch, near to the place called Wallace's tower (properly Well-house tower) on the Castle brae, when his horse becoming embogt;ed, he and all his attendants were basely murdered. This was in the year 1526. Hume of Godscroft has recorded this affray, (Mist, of Mouse of Angus, vol. ii. p. 86,) but he makes the archdeacon the aggressor. This was the last attempt that the Blackadders made to obtain redress. The estate of Blackadder, of which they were thus fraudulently dispossessed, remained in the family of Home. Both llmuc and Buchanan, mistakenly, call Patrick archdeacon of Dunblane instead of Glasgow, and the brother of Robert heir of Blackadder, whereas he was his nephew.






























































Click for Realhistoryww Home Page