Bill Maher Apologizes for Use of Racial Slur on ‘Real Time’ By DAVE ITZKOFFJUNE 3, 2017
The HBO late-night host Bill Maher apologized on Saturday for using a racial epithet during an interview with Senator Ben Sasse, Republican of Nebraska, on a live broadcast of his show on Friday night. HBO denounced the remark as “completely inexcusable and tasteless,” and said it would be edited out of future airings.
A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society. In Europe, peasants were divided into three classes according to their personal status: slave, serf, and free tenant.
Freemen, or free tenants held their land by one of a variety of contracts of feudal land-tenure and were essentially rent-paying tenant farmers who owed little or no service to the lord, and had a good degree of security of tenure and independence. In parts of 11th-century England freemen made up only 10% of the peasant population, and in the rest of Europe their numbers were small.
A villein (or villain) represented the most common type of serf in the Middle Ages. Villeins had more rights and higher status than the lowest serf, but existed under a number of legal restrictions that differentiated them from freemen. Villeins generally rented small homes, with or without land. As part of the contract with the landlord, the lord of the manor, they were expected to spend some of their time working on the lord's fields. The requirement often was not greatly onerous, contrary to popular belief, and was often only seasonal, for example the duty to help at harvest-time. The rest of their time was spent farming their own land for their own profit.
Like other types of serfs, villeins had to provide other services, possibly in addition to paying rent of money or produce. Villeins were somehow retained on their land and by unmentioned manners could not move away without their lord's consent and the acceptance of the lord to whose manor they proposed to migrate to. Villeins were generally able to hold their own property, unlike slaves. Villeinage, as opposed to other forms of serfdom, was most common in Continental European feudalism, where land ownership had developed from roots in Roman law. In many medieval countries, a villein could gain freedom by escaping from a manor to a city or borough and living there for more than a year; but this action involved the loss of land rights and agricultural livelihood, a prohibitive price unless the landlord was especially tyrannical or conditions in the village were unusually difficult.
Status-wise, the bordar or cottar ranked below a serf in the social hierarchy of a manor, holding a cottage, garden and just enough land to feed a family. In England, at the time of the Domesday Survey, this would have comprised between about 1 and 5 acres (0.4 and 2.0 hectares). Under an Elizabethan statute, the Erection of Cottages Act 1588, the cottage had to be built with at least 4 acres (0.02 km2; 0.01 sq mi) of land. However, the later Enclosures Acts (1604 onwards) removed the cottars' right to any land: "before the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm laborer with land and after the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm laborer without land". The bordars and cottars did not own their draught oxen or horses. The Domesday Book showed that England comprised 12% freeholders, 35% serfs or villeins, 30% cotters and bordars, and 9% slaves.
The last type of serf was the slave. Slaves had the fewest rights and benefits from the manor. They owned no tenancy in land, worked for the lord exclusively and survived on donations from the landlord. It was always in the interest of the lord to prove that a servile arrangement existed, as this provided him with greater rights to fees and taxes. The status of a man was a primary issue in determining a person's rights and obligations in many of the manorial court-cases of the period. Also, runaway slaves could be beaten if caught.
The usual serf (not including slaves or cottars) paid his fees and taxes in the form of seasonally appropriate lab our. Usually a portion of the week was devoted to ploughing his lord's fields held in demesne, harvesting crops, digging ditches, repairing fences, and often working in the manor house. The remainder of the serf's time he spent tending his own fields, crops and animals in order to provide for his family. Most manorial work was segregated by gender during the regular times of the year; however, during the harvest, the whole family was expected to work the fields.
A major difficulty of a serf's life was that his work for his lord coincided with, and took precedence over, the work he had to perform on his own lands: when the lord's crops were ready to be harvested, so were his own. On the other hand, the serf of a benign lord could look forward to being well fed during his service; it was a lord without foresight who did not provide a substantial meal for his serfs during the harvest and planting times. In exchange for this work on the lord's demesne, the serfs had certain privileges and rights, including for example the right to gather deadwood – an essential source of fuel – from their lord's forests.
In addition to service, a serf was required to pay certain taxes and fees. Taxes were based on the assessed value of his lands and holdings. Fees were usually paid in the form of agricultural produce rather than cash. The best ration of wheat from the serf's harvest often went to the landlord. Generally hunting and trapping of wild game by the serfs on the lord's property was prohibited. On Easter Sunday the peasant family perhaps might owe an extra dozen eggs, and at Christmas a goose was perhaps required too. When a family member died, extra taxes were paid to the lord as a form of feudal relief to enable the heir to keep the right to till what land he had. Any young woman who wished to marry a serf outside of her manor was forced to pay a fee for the right to leave her lord, and in compensation for her lost lab our.
Serfs served on occasion as soldiers in the event of conflict and could earn freedom or even ennoblement for valor in combat. Serfs could purchase their freedom, be manumitted by generous owners, or flee to towns or to newly settled land where few questions were asked. Laws varied from country to country: in England a serf who made his way to a chartered town (i.e. a borough) and evaded recapture for a year and a day obtained his freedom and became a burgher of the town.
An indentured servant or indentured labor is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed period. The employer is often permitted to assign the labor of an indenturee to a third party. Indenturees usually enter into an indenture for a specific payment or other benefit or to meet a legal obligation, such as debt bondage. Upon completion of the contract, indentured servants were granted freedom and occasionally plots of land.
Digital History ID 449: Quote - Indentured servants agreed to work for a four or five year term of service in return for their transportation to the New World as well as food, clothing, and shelter. In certain respects, the status of white servants differed little from that of slavery. Like slaves, servants could be bought, sold, or leased. They could also be punished by whipping. Unlike slaves, however, servants were allowed to own property, and, if they survived their term of service, received their freedom along with a small sum of money known as "freedom dues."
Background: In the beginning, as Humans started to leave Africa, included with the second (OOA) group were the Albinos of Caucasian phenotype Africans (Horn Africans, Dravidians (Indians) who were probably motivated by a quest for relief from the heat and burning Sunshine of southern Africa - and relief from the torment heaped upon them by normal Africans. Even today, superstitious Blacks of southern Africa; maim and mutilate Albinos in the ignorant belief that their body parts process magical properties, which they use in rituals. After they crossed the Arabian Peninsula and entered what is now India, the decided to head north and eventually ended up in Central Asia.
There they found a low sunlight intensity environment to their liking, and there they stayed, and flourished!
Then, at about 1,500 B.C. the Central Asian Albinos decided to start leaving their low sunlight intensity environment, and return to India as invading Aryans. Soon after, they headed WEST toward Europe. It can only be guessed at, but perhaps after Millennia in Central Asia, the Albinos forgot that they were Albinos, and what devastating effect strong Sunlight could have on them.
For after their conquest of Europe in the late medieval "Race Wars": Historically camouflaged as Civil Wars in Britain, and the supposedly Religious "Thirty Years Wars" on the continent. Note there really was a religious component to the "Thirty Years Wars": That being the original Black Europeans (Catholics) verses insurgent original Central Asian Albinos (Germanics & Slav's) under the banner of their newly created "PROTEST" or "Protestant" Religions. i.e. Anglican, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, Baptist, Amish, Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism, Quakers, Seventh-Day Adventism, et al. After the conquest, the Catholic Church was also usurped, but the Slav's in the East (like the Rus (Russians), chose not to completely overhaul the Eastern Orthodox branch that they took from the Byzantines. As a result, their Holy icons still have "Dark" Skin. The later arriving Turks took over the Black Arabs newly created religion of Islam. After their conquest of Europe, the Albinos went on to conquer the entire WORLD, and each place they settled brought them the SAME problems: SUNBURN and SKIN CANCER. Because they don't belong in those places, their one and ONLY home is Central Asia!
Theres no competition for the country with the highest rate of skin cancer in the world. Its Australia. One out of two Australians gets skin cancer sometime in their life. Every year, 300,000 Australians have surgery to remove cancerous lesions from their skin. Australias problem is simple: Its located as close to the equator as the Sahara desert, but most of the nations 20 million people are descendants of immigrants from the northern, fog-shrouded latitudes of Ireland and Britain.
This is Mars for most of us, a totally alien environment, says Robert Burton of the Australian governments Cancer Strategies Group. In a national campaign, the government now urges people to wear hats, shirts, and suntan lotion whenever theyre outside. On the beaches, children and adults have begun wearing neck-to-knee swimsuits. It may sound extreme, Burton says, but its necessary. You have to wonder how many pale-skinned people you see lying semi-naked in the sun in the middle of the day in the Sahara.
“We were third in the world in the incidents and mortality after Australia and New Zealand and it was, of course, because we have a lot of people who come from Europe with light skin,” Miri Ziv, the Director General of the Israel Cancer Association told The Media Line. “In the last five years, Israel dropped to the 20th country with the highest incidents (of skin cancer) and in terms of mortality, we dropped to number 13 for men and number 20 for women.” According to Ziv, the ICA has worked tirelessly for the past half-decade trying to promote a more sun-smart attitude. “We disseminated our sun-smart stuff in TV programs and in the media. Every summer we launch the early detection project and we encourage people to avoid sun bathing from 10-4.” Ziv cited the achievement that while melanoma is still rising significantly for most of the world, it has stabilized in Israel.
In South Africa, among the white population, there is one of the highest incidences of malignant melanoma in the world and concern for skin cancer overall has grown in recent years. The estimated yearly incidence of malignant melanoma is 4.76 per 100,000 persons overall and 19.2 per 100,000 in whites. In 2009, the Western Cape of South Africa’s incidence for whites was unofficially reported as high as 69 per 100,000 population. South Africans are especially susceptible to skin cancer due to their exposure to year-round high ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) and latitude (22–34°S) . In a population of 54 million, the racial mix within South Africa shows a diverse population, consisting of black (80.2 %), white (8.4 %), colored (8.8 %) and Asian/Indian (2.5 %) populations
1-After the Civil War, a growing number of white workers, including many children, found employment in tobacco and textile factories. African-Americans were largely excluded from factory employment in the South.
2-The postwar South remained overwhelmingly agricultural. The implements of work were the same as before the war, but relations between planters, laborers, and merchants had changed forever.
3-As under slavery, most rural blacks worked on land owned by whites. But they now exercised control over their personal lives, they could come and go as they pleased, and determined which members of the family worked in the fields. Some Black women found work as domestic servants.
4-In early Reconstruction, many black women, seeking to devote more time to their families, sought to withdraw from field labor, a decision strongly resisted by plantation owners.
Children, whose labor had been dictated by the owner under slavery, now attended school.
5-Some urban growth occurred during Reconstruction, both in cities like Richmond and smaller market centers scattered across the cotton belt. Cities offered more diverse work opportunities for both black and white laborers.
6-Under the sharecropping system, which emerged as the dominant labor system in the rural South, black families rented individual plots of land. The system placed a premium on utilizing the labor of all members of the family.
Despite the changes wrought by emancipation, cotton production in the South remained much the same as before, black laborers working with cotton gins cleaned the harvested cotton, then baled it for shipment to market. During Reconstruction, cotton remained the South's most important crop with the tools and methods of production essentially the same as before the war. Most former slaves now worked as sharecroppers, who kept one-third to one-half of the crop for themselves with the remainder going to the landowner. Although the system afforded workers some degree of autonomy, it kept most in a state of poverty and impeded the South's economic development. Sugar workers continued to labor in closely supervised gangs after the Civil War. The system persisted because each plantation had its own steam-powered sugar mill that required a large crop and labor force to insure economic viability.
In July 1865, slavery ended forever in Alabama when Gov. Lewis E. Parsons issued a proclamation declaring all slaves within the state free. Emancipation was given stronger legal standing in September 1865 when the Constitutional Convention in Montgomery adopted an ordinance abolishing slavery within Alabama. Now free to move about where they wished, many of the newly freed slaves left the plantations and farms and moved to urban centers, crowding into cities such as Huntsville, Selma, Montgomery, and Mobile. Rumors of land and equipment giveaways, popularly known as "40 acres and a mule," were quickly revealed as false. Most freedpeople had to turn to charities and the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands (generally known as the Freedmen's Bureau) for support, as did many destitute whites. Some people went in search of family members who had been sold during slavery. The black population of some cotton-producing areas, such as the Tennessee Valley, dropped by almost 10 percent, leaving fields uncultivated. As a result, land value depreciated and agricultural income became almost nonexistent. Alabama had been among the top 10 percent of the wealthiest states in the nation in 1860, a position it has never held since.
Landowners quickly realized that a new system of agricultural production had to be found. A variety of methods were suggested, including importing Chinese workers or white laborers from other areas of the nation and employing a wage-labor system (note - Han Chinese are a mulatto people: some are as White as any European, and some are as dark as Africans). Most agriculturalists soon understood, however, that freedpeople were still the best source of labor. They were encouraged to return to the plantations as paid workers by the Freedmen's Bureau, which, under the leadership of Gen. Wager Swayne, worked out contracts between Alabama freedpeople and landowners. The freedpeople were to live in the old slave quarters and work for cash in gangs as they had during slavery. The wage system, however, failed to work. Of the several reasons for the failure, the two most important were that the freedpeople refused to work in gangs or live in former slave quarters, and that landowners simply had no money to pay laborers.
It was obvious that two things had not changed as a result of the Civil War and emancipation. The first was that a majority of the agricultural riches were still in the hands of white landowners. The second was that former slaves would have to make up most of the post-war labor force and that freedpeople had nothing but their ability to work to bring to the contract. Thus a share-based agriculture was the key to restoring Alabama's agricultural system. In this system, the cropper's share of the crop depended on what he brought into the arrangement. If he provided only labor, he received one-third of the crop. If he were lucky enough to have draft animals, equipment, and supplies, he would receive half of the crop.
As early as the 1870s, most planters, newly freed slaves, and poor whites had accepted the sharecrop rental system as the answer to Alabama's farm labor problem. It was a compromise, but it offered poor whites a means of eking out a meager existence; it gave freedpeople the semblance of the independence they craved; and it offered planters the opportunity to return plantations to productivity under some degree of personal supervision. Another element of the tenancy system was that economic domination by white landowners also helped maintain supremacy over blacks and poor whites. Although farm tenancy did not become an official category in the U.S. Census until 1880, several census takers in 1870 recorded tenant farmers.
The post-Civil War tenancy system was designed for freedpeople, but it quickly encompassed a large number of poor whites; eventually white sharecroppers would outnumber blacks. After the Civil War, hill-country whites from north Alabama swarmed into Alabama's Tennessee Valley to become tenant farmers. Between 1860 and 1866, the white population of the Tennessee Valley grew by more than 8 percent, as the black population declined. In the Wiregrass region of southeast Alabama, poor whites also dominated tenancy. Only in the Black Belt did freedpeople dominate tenant farming.
Many white small farmers turned to cotton production during Reconstruction as a way of obtaining needed cash. As cotton prices declined, many lost their land. By 1880, one third of the white farmers in the cotton states were tenants rather than landowners, and the South as a whole had become even more dependent on cotton than it had been before the war. Before the Civil War, the majority of the South's white population owned no slaves. Few of these farmers grew much cotton; they preferred to concentrate on food crops for their own families, marketing only a small surplus, and making most of the tools, clothing, and other items they needed at home. The widespread destruction of the war plunged many small farmers into debt and poverty, and led many to turn to cotton growing. The increased availability of commercial fertilizer and the spread of railroads into upcountry white areas, hastened the spread of commercial farming.
The Southern Baptist Convention is a Christian denomination based in the United States. It is the world's largest Baptist denomination and the largest Protestant body in the United States, with over 15 million members as of 2015. Founded: May 1845, in Augusta, GA. The Southern Baptist Convention was formed in the 19th century in defense of slaveholders. the Southern Baptists once prominently taught the “curse of Ham” theory, which the resolution describes as “echoing the belief that God through Noah ordained descendants of Africa to be subservient to Anglos” and “which provided the theological justification for slavery and segregation.
A resolution condemning white supremacy and the growing white nationalist alt-right movement was initially rejected at the Southern Baptist Convention’s annual meeting this week, raising outrage from black members of the faith. The controversy illustrates the continued clash among evangelicals over President Donald Trump and the more radical, white nationalistic branch of his supporters.
Dwight McKissic, a prominent African-American preacher, drafted the resolution. It called white nationalism a “toxic menace” to the country and called on the church to “reject the retrograde ideologies, xenophobic biases and racial bigotries of the so-called ‘Alt-Right’ that seek to subvert our government, destabilize society, and infect our political system.”
The committee behind new resolutions decided not to move the proposal forward on Tuesday, the first day of the group’s 2017 meeting in Phoenix. Southern Baptist pastors from across the country gather annually to discuss their beliefs and practices. The Committee on Resolutions decided the language was “inappropriate,” committee Chairman Barrett Duke told The Arizona Republic. “The resolution just contained some significantly inflammatory language that we felt was over the bar,” he said.
After the resolutions committee decided not to move the resolution forward, McKissic made a motion to allow additional time for the resolution to be considered. The motion failed, which led to wide-ranging criticism of the organization, especially from black Baptists.
Garrett Kell, a pastor at Del Ray Baptist Church in Virginia, told the Republic he was concerned about the day’s developments. “I’m disappointed that we as a convention could leave the illusion that we don’t reject the racist ideologies held by many in the alt-right movement,” he said. The controversy comes at a time of a growing divide between evangelicals over politics. White Evangelicals strongly supported Trump, including Liberty University President Jerry Falwell Jr., who called him the “dream president” for evangelicals, pointing to his Supreme Court nomination and economic and immigration policies. But Trump’s comments about women, including the infamous Access Hollywood tape in which he brags about sexually assaulting women, rankled some anti-Trump evangelicals. While 81 percent of evangelicals are said to have supported Trump, according to exit polls, pre-election polling suggested 62 percent of non-white evangelicals supported his Democratic rival, Hillary Clinton. Russell Moore, president of the Southern Baptist Convention’s Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, is an outspoken opponent of the president. “Most illogical is his support from evangelicals and other social conservatives,” he wrote during the campaign. “To back Mr. Trump, these voters must repudiate everything they believe.”
PHOENIX (AP) — a national meeting of Southern Baptists will consider condemning the political movement known as the "alt-right" amid an uproar over the denomination's commitment to confronting prejudice.
Leaders of the faith group initially refused to take up a proposal that they repudiate the political group that emerged dramatically during the U.S. presidential election, mixing racism, white nationalism and populism. Barrett Duke, a Southern Baptist leader who led a committee that decided which resolutions should be considered for a vote, said the resolution as originally written contained inflammatory and broad language "potentially implicating" conservatives who do not support the "alt-right" movement.
But the decision caused a backlash online and at the gathering in Phoenix from Southern Baptists and other Christians, especially African-American evangelicals. The denomination has been striving to overcome its founding in the 19th century in defense of slaveholders. Thabiti Anyabwile, a black Southern Baptist pastor, tweeted that "any 'church' that cannot denounce white supremacy without hesitancy and equivocation is a dead, Jesus denying assembly. No 2 ways about it".
Southern Baptist leaders responded late Tuesday night with a dramatic call for attendees to return to the assembly hall, and then announced they would take up the proposal after all on Wednesday. It was a highly unusual move for the denomination's tightly choreographed conventions, underscoring the sensitivity of the issue and the alarm among leaders that their initial rejection of the proposal would be viewed as an unwillingness to fight racism. In encouraging the meeting to reconsider, Steve Gaines, president of the Southern Baptist Convention, said he wanted to send the message that "we love everybody on this planet."
The initial proposed resolution came from a prominent black Southern Baptist pastor, the Rev. Dwight McKissic, who had submitted the suggested statement to Duke's committee before this week's gathering. When the proposal was not presented Tuesday, McKissic made a direct, unsuccessful plea for reconsideration from the floor of the Phoenix meeting. He called the "alt-right" a symptom of "social disease," ''deceptive" and "antithetical to what we believe." His resolution condemned Christians who attempted to use biblical teachings to justify white supremacy.
The new resolution that will be debated Wednesday states racism and white supremacy endure "in various white supremacist movements, sometimes known as 'white nationalism' or 'alt-right.'" Southern Baptists "decry every form of racism, including alt-right white supremacy as antithetical to the Gospel of Jesus Christ" and "denounce and repudiate white supremacy and every form of racial and ethnic hatred as of the devil," the proposed new resolution states.
The Southern Baptist Convention, based in Nashville, has 15.2 million members and is the largest Protestant group in the country. Leaders have repeatedly condemned racism in formal resolutions from past meetings and built new relationships with black Baptists.
Billy Levengood, a 32-year-old convention attendee from Oxford, Pennsylvania, said he will vote for the resolution, in part to help the denomination move beyond its origins. "We can't undo the slavery aspect, but we can do all we can to engage every person," Levengood said. "The Gospel is true for all of them."
But Daniel Brady, 66, a lifelong Southern Baptist from Flagstaff, said he would examine the language more closely before deciding his vote. He said he would support a less specific condemnation of racism, contending media sometimes categorize people as part of the "alt-right" based solely on whether they backed President Donald Trump. "We're always going to be called racists, as Southern Baptists," he said.
Ed Stetzer, a Southern Baptist speaker and executive director of the Billy Graham Center for Evangelism at Wheaton College in Illinois, said the committee in charge of resolutions should have revised the initial proposal and brought it to a vote."Southern Baptists need to speak to this issue," Stetzer wrote Wednesday in the evangelical magazine Christianity Today. He pointed to the denomination's history in the civil rights movement. "Too many Southern Baptists were on the wrong side of the fire hoses in Birmingham. They need to get on the correct side of the rising tide of racism," Stetzer wrote.
The Southern Baptist Convention formally condemned the political movement known as the "alt-right" during a national meeting in Phoenix. The denomination initially refused to take up a resolution repudiating the movement that emerged dramatically during the U.S. presidential election and mixes racism, nationalism and populism. Pressure built on Southern Baptists to make some statement against the movement. They did so Wednesday after emotional appeals from attendees. The resolution decries every form of racism, including what the denomination called "alt-right white supremacy" as antithetical to the Gospel. The Southern Baptist Convention was formed in the 19th century in defense of slaveholders. It has been working to overcome its history.
A newly appointed advisory council is drafting recommendations to foster vibrant participation within Southern Baptist life among young leaders including pastors, denominational servants and others. The diverse 22-member Young Leaders Advisory Council, appointed by SBC Executive Committee President Frank S. Page, is conducting an online survey of young leaders to help accomplish its goal.
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