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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

Biography of Prophet Muhammad


Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq

(Copyright 1990, 1997, 1998 All Rights Reserved)


Prophet Muhammad (s) was born in 570 CE in Makkah (Bakka, Baca, Mecca). His

father, Abdullah, died several weeks before his birth in Yathrib (Medinah) where

he went to visit his father's maternal relatives. His mother died while on the

return journey from Medinah at a place called ‘Abwa’ when he was six years old.

He was raised by his paternal grandfather 'Abd al Muttalib (Shaybah) until the

age of eight, and after his grandfather’s death by Abu Talib, his paternal

uncle. 'Abd al Muttalib's mother, Salma, was a native of Medinah and he was born

and raised as a young boy in Medinah before his uncle Muttalib brought him to

Makkah to succeed him. Many years before Muhammad's birth, 'Abd al Muttalib had

established himself as an influential leader of the Arab tribe ‘Quraish’ in

Makkah and took care of the Holy sanctuary ‘Ka’bah’. Makkah was a city state

well connected to the caravan routes to Syria and Egypt in the north and

northwest and Yemen in the south. Muhammad was a descendant of Prophet Ismail

through the lineage of his second son Kedar.

Ka'bah is the first house of worship built on earth for the worship of Allah,

the One True God. It was re-built (raised from the existing foundation) by

Prophets Ibrahim (Abraham) and Ismail (Ishmael). Allah is the proper name of the

One True God, creator and sustainer of the universe, who does not have a partner

or associate, and He did not beget nor was He begotten. Unlike the word god, the

word Allah does not have a plural or gender.

Under the guardianship of Abu Talib, Muhammad (s) began to earn a living as a

businessman and a trader. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Abu Talib with a

merchant caravan as far as Bostra in Syria. Muhammad was popularly known as

‘al-Ameen’ for his unimpeachable character by the Makkans and visitors alike.

The title Al-Ameen means the Honest, the Reliable and the Trustworthy, and it

signified the highest standard of moral and public life.

Upon hearing of Muhammad’s impressive credentials, Khadijah, a rich merchant

widow, asked Muhammad (s) to take some merchandise for trade to Syria. Soon

after this trip when he was twenty-five, Khadijah proposed marriage to Muhammad

through a relative. Muhammad accepted the proposal. At that time, Khadijah was

twice widowed and forty years old. Khadijah (ra) and Muhammad (s) were the

parents of six children - four daughters and two sons. His first son Qasim died

at the age of two. He was nicknamed Abul Qasim, meaning the father of Qasim. His

second son Abdullah died in infancy. Abdullah was also called affectionately as

‘Tayyab’ and ‘Tahir’ because he was born after Muhammad’s prophethood. The four

daughters were: Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah (ra).

The Holy sanctuary Ka’bah was now filled with three hundred sixty idols. The

original, pristine message of Prophet Ibrahim was lost, and it was mixed with

superstitions and traditions of pilgrims and visitors from distant places, who

were used to idol worship and myths. In every generation, a small group of men

and women detested the pollution of Ka’bah and kept pure their practice of the

religion taught by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail. They used to spend some of their

time away from this polluted environment in retreats to nearby hills.

Muhammad (s) was forty when, during his one of many retreats to Mount Hira for

meditation during the month of Ramadan, he received the first revelation from

the Archangel Jibril (Gabriel). On this first appearance, Gabriel (as) said to

Muhammad: "Iqraa," meaning Read or Recite. Muhammad replied, "I cannot read," as

he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write.

The Angel Gabriel then embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance

and after releasing said: "Iqraa." Muhammad’s answer was the same as before.

Gabriel repeated the embrace for the third time, asked him to repeat after him

and said:

"Recite in the name of your Lord who created! He created man from that which

clings. Recite; and thy Lord is most Bountiful, He who has taught by the pen,

taught man what he knew not."

These revelations are the first five verses of Surah (chapter) 96 of the Qur’an.

Thus it was in the year 610 CE the revelation began.

Muhammad (s) was terrified by the whole experience of the revelation and fled

the cave of Mt. Hira [Qur'an 81:19-29]. When he reached his home, tired and

frightened, he asked his wife: ‘cover me, cover me,’ in a blanket. After his awe

had somewhat abated, his wife Khadijah asked him about the reason of his great

anxiety and fear. She then assured him by saying: "Allah (The One God) will not

let you down because you are kind to relatives, you speak only the truth, you

help the poor, the orphan and the needy, and you are an honest man. Khadijah

then consulted with her cousin Waraqa who was an old, saintly man possessing

knowledge of previous revelations and scriptures. Waraqa confirmed to her that

the visitor was none other than the Angel Gabriel who had come to Moses. He then

added that Muhammad is the expected Prophet. Khadijah accepted the revelation as

truth and was the first person to accept Islam. She supported her husband in

every hardship, most notably during the three-year ‘boycott’ of the Prophet’s

clan by the pagan Quraish. She died at the age of sixty-five in the month of

Ramadan soon after the lifting of the boycott in 620 CE.

Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet as commanded by Allah revealing Ayat (meaning

signs, loosely referred to as verses) in Arabic over a period of twenty-three

years. The revelations that he received were sometimes a few verses, a part of a

chapter or the whole chapter. Some revelations came down in response to an

inquiry by the nonbelievers. The revealed verses were recorded on a variety of

available materials (leather, palm leaves, bark, shoulder bones of animals),

memorized as soon as they were revealed, and were recited in daily prayers by

Muslims [Qur'an 80:13-16]. Angel Gabriel taught the order and arrangement of

verses, and the Prophet instructed his several scribes to record verses in that

order [Qur'an 75:16-19 and 41:41-42]. Once a year, the Prophet used to recite

all the verses revealed to him up to that time to Gabriel to authenticate the

accuracy of recitation and the order of verses [Qur'an 17:106]. All the revealed

verses (over a period of 23 years and ending in 632 CE) were compiled in the

book known as Qur’an. The name Qur’an appears in the revealed verses. The Qur’an

does not contain even a word from the Prophet. The Qur'an speaks in the first

person, i.e., Allah's commandments to His creation. Gabriel also visited the

Prophet throughout his mission informing and teaching him of events and strategy

as needed to help in the completion of the prophetic mission. The Prophet’s

sayings, actions, and approvals are recorded separately in collections known as


The mission of Prophet Muhammad (s) was to restore the worship of the One True

God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, as taught by Prophet Ibrahim and

all Prophets of God, and to demonstrate and complete the laws of moral, ethical,

legal, and social conduct and all other matters of significance for the humanity

at large.

The first few people who followed this message were: his cousin Ali, his servant

Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend Abu Bakr and his wife and daughters. They accepted

Islam by testifying that:

"There is no Deity (worthy of worship) except Allah (The One True God) and

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."

Islam means peace by submission and obedience to the Will and Commandments of

God and those who accept Islam are called Muslims, meaning those who have

accepted the message of peace by submission to God.

In the first three years of his mission forty people (men and women) accepted

Islam. This small group comprised of youth as well as older people from a wide

range of economic and social background. The Prophet was directed by a recent

revelation to start preaching Islam to everyone. He then began to recite

revelations to people in public and invite them to Islam. The Quraish, leaders

of Makkah, took his preaching with hostility. The most hostile and closest to

the prophet was his uncle Abu Lahab and his wife. Initially, they and other

leaders of Quraish tried to bribe him with money and power including an offer to

make him king if he were to abandon his message. When this did not work, they

tried to convince his uncle Abu Talib to accept the best young man of Makkah in

place of Muhammad and to allow them to kill Muhammad. His uncle tried to

persuade the Prophet to stop preaching but the Prophet said: "O uncle, if they

were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop me

from preaching Islam, I would never stop. I will keep preaching until Allah

makes Islam prevail or I die."

The Quraish began to persecute Muslims by beating, torture and boycott of their

businesses. Those who were weak, poor or slaves were publicly tortured. The

first person to die by this means was a Muslim women by the name Umm Ammar (the

mother of Ammar Ibn Yasir). The Muslims from well-to-do families were physically

restrained in their homes with the condition that if they recant they will be

allowed freedom of movement. The Prophet was publicly ridiculed and humiliated

including frequent throwing of filth on him in the street and while he prayed in

the Ka’bah. In spite of great hardships and no apparent support, the message of

Islam kept all Muslims firm in their belief. The Prophet was asked by God to be

patient and to preach the message of Qur’an. He advised Muslims to remain

patient because he did not receive any revelation yet to retaliate against their

persecutors. [Persecution]

When the persecution became unbearable for most Muslims, the Prophet advised

them in the fifth year of his mission (615 CE) to emigrate to Abyssinia (modern

Ethiopia) where Ashabah (Negus, a Christian) was the ruler. Eighty people, not

counting the small children, emigrated in small groups to avoid detection. No

sooner had they left the Arabian coastline, the leaders of Quraish discovered

their flight. They decided to not leave these Muslims in peace, and immediately

sent two of their envoys to Negus to bring all of them back. However, Negus

allowed them to stay under his protection after he investigated Muslim belief

and heard the revelations about Jesus and Mary (peace be upon them both), which

appears in Chapter 19, entitled Mary, of the Qur’an. The emigrants were allowed

freedom of worship in Abyssinia.

The Quraish then made life even more difficult for the Prophet by implementing

total ban on contact with the Prophet’s family (Bani Hashim and Muttalib). The

ban lasted for three years without the desired effect. Just before the ban was

lifted, the Prophet was contacted by the leaders of Quraish to agree to a

compromise under which they should all practice both religions (i.e., Islam and

Idolatry). Upon hearing this, the Prophet recited a revelation (Chapter 109) he

had just received and which ends with the words: "... For you your religion and

for me mine." The ban was lifted when leaders of Quraish discovered that their

secret document on the terms of ban, which they had stored in Ka’bah, was eaten

by worms and all that was left were the opening words ‘In Your name, O Allah.’

The effects of the three-year boycott left the Prophet with more personal sorrow

when he lost his beloved wife Khadijah (ra) and uncle Abu Talib soon after the

ban was lifted.

After Khadijah's death in 620 CE, the Prophet married a widowed Muslim woman,

Sawdah (ra) who was fifty years old. She and her husband had emigrated to

Abyssinia in the early years of persecution. After her husband died, she came

back to Makkah and sought Prophet’s shelter. The Prophet, recognizing her

sacrifices for Islam, extended his shelter by marrying her. Later in the same

year, the Prophet upon receiving the divine command in a dream, after approval

of Sawdah, contracted marriage to A’ishah, the daughter of his dear companion

Abu Bakr. She joined the Prophet in Medinah, completing the marriage contract.

Sawdah and A’ishah (ra) were the only wives until he was fifty-six years old.

After the death of his uncle Abu Talib, the Prophet went to Taif (about 50 miles

east, southeast of Makkah) to seek their protection. They flatly refused and

mocked at him, and severely injured him by inciting their children to throw

stones at him. Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet here suggesting that the angels

were ready to destroy the town if he were to ask Allah for the punishment.

Nevertheless, the Prophet declined and prayed for future generations of Taif to

accept Islam [Taif]. It was on the return journey from Taif that the verses from

Surah Al Jinn (Chapter 72) were revealed. It indicated that the Qur’an is a book

of guidance to both the Jinns and Humankind.

Soon after the terrible disappointment at Ta’if, the prophet experienced the

events of al-Israa and al-Miraaj (621 CE). In the Al-Israa, Gabriel (as) took

the Prophet from the sacred Mosque near Ka’bah to the furthest (al-Aqsa) mosque

in Jerusalem in a very short time in the latter part of a night. Here, Prophet

Muhammad met with previous Prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others) and he

led them in prayer. After this, in Al-Miraj, the Prophet was taken up to heavens

to show the signs of God [More... The Dome of the Rock]. It was on this journey

that five daily prayers were prescribed. He was then taken back to Ka’bah, the

whole experience lasting a few hours of a night. Upon hearing this, the people

of Makkah mocked at him. However, when his specific description of Jerusalem,

other things on the way, and the caravan that he saw on this journey including

its expected arrival in Makkah turned out to be true, the ridicule of the

nonbelievers stopped. The event of Israa and Miraaj is mentioned in the Qur’an -

the first verse of Chapter 17 entitled ‘The Children of Israel.’

In 622 CE, the leaders of the Quraish decided to kill the Prophet and they

developed a plan in which one man was chosen from each of the Quraish tribes and

they were to attack the Prophet simultaneously. Gabriel informed the Prophet of

the plan and instructed him to leave Makkah immediately. The Prophet, after

making arrangements to return the properties entrusted to him by several

nonbelievers, left with Abu Bakr in the night he was to be assassinated. They

went south of Makkah to a mountain cave of Thawr [see Qur'an 9:40], and after

staying three nights they traveled north to Yathrib (Medinah) about two hundred

fifty miles from Makkah. Upon discovery of his escape, the leaders of Quraish

put up a reward of one hundred camels on him, dead or alive. In spite of all

their best scouts and search parties, Allah protected the Prophet and he arrived

safely in Quba, a suburb of Medinah [Qur'an 28:85]. This event is known as the

‘Hijra’ (migration) and the Islamic calendar begins with this event. The people

of Aws and Khazraj in Medinah greeted him with great enthusiasm in accordance

with their pledge made at Aqaba less than a year ago during the annual

pilgrimage. One by one those Muslims (men and women) of Makkah who were not

physically restrained, and who could make a secret exit, left for Medinah

leaving behind their properties and homes.

To insure the peace and tranquility, the Prophet proposed a treaty defining

terms of conduct for all inhabitants of Medinah. It was ratified by all -

Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews. After his emigration to Medinah, the enemies

of Islam increased their assault from all sides. The Battles of Badr, Uhud and

Allies (Trench) were fought near or around Medinah. In these battles until the

year 627 CE, the nonbelievers with encouragement from Jews and other Arabian

tribes attacked the Prophet and Muslim community. The Muslims while defending

their city and religion lost many men, which resulted in many widowed Muslim

women and numerous orphaned children. In these circumstances, Prophet Muhammad

(s) married several women during fifty-sixth year up to the sixtieth year of his

life. He did not contract any marriage in the last three years of his life,

following the revelation limiting the number of wives up to a maximum of four.

This is the first time in the history of revealed scriptures that a limit on the

number of wives was imposed and the terms of conduct were specified. The Prophet

was instructed not to divorce any of his wives after this revelation [Qur'an

33:52]. All of the ladies he took as wives were either widowed or divorced,

except A’ishah.

The Prophet married Umm Salamah (ra) in 626 CE. Her husband had died of wounds

inflicted in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). When the Prophet asked her for

marriage, she replied: "O Messenger of God, I suffer from three shortcomings. I

am a very jealous woman, and I am afraid this might cause me to do things that

you dislike. Secondly, I am an old woman. Finally, I have many children." The

Prophet answered: "Regarding your jealousy, I pray to God to remove it from you.

As for your age, we are similar in age. As for the children, your children are

mine." Thus it was that she agreed to marry the Prophet. The Prophet’s marriage

contract with Umm Habibah (ra) was solemnized, by proxy, by Negus, King of

Abyssinia, in 628 CE.

Two of his wives, Juwayriah and Safiyah, were prisoners of war. Both belonged to

the family of the chief of their tribes and were set free by the Prophet; they

then gladly accepted Islam and were pleased to become the Prophet’s wives. The

Prophet’s marriages provided security to women who would have otherwise remained

unmarried, unprotected, or felt humiliated. His marriages were also a means of

transmitting important teachings of Islam. The Prophet's wives, called the

"Mothers of the Believers,"[Qur'an Surah 33, Verse 6 and the last part of Verse

53] showed themselves as examples of proper Muslim womanhood. All his wives,

especially 'Aishah, transmitted many ahadith (sayings, deeds, and actions) from

Prophet Muhammad (s).

A year after the Battle of Allies (Trench), the Prophet and fifteen hundred of

his companions left for Makkah to perform the annual pilgrimage (628 CE). They

were barred from approaching the city at Hudaybiyah, where after some

negotiations a treaty was signed allowing for them to come next year. This

treaty facilitated exchange of ideas among the people of the whole region

without interference. Many delegations from all regions of Arabia came to the

Prophet to investigate the teachings of Islam, and a large number of people

accepted Islam within a couple of years. The Prophet sent many of his companions

(who memorized the Qur'an by heart) to new communities to instruct them about

the practice of Islam. More than fifty of them were murdered by non-believers.

A few weeks after Hudaybiyah the Prophet sent letters to several kings and

rulers (including the two superpowers - Byzantines and Persians) inviting them

to Islam. Negus, the king of Abyssinia, and the Ruler of Bahrain accepted Islam,

and Emperor Heraclius acknowledged Muhammad’s Prophethood. Among rulers who

accepted Islam but without any initiative from the Prophet was Chakrawati

Farmas, a Hindu King of Malabar (located on the southwest coast of India).

About two years later at the end of 629 CE, the Quraish violated the terms of

the Treaty of Hudaybiyah by helping Banu Bakr in the surprise attack on Bani

Khuza’ah who were allied with the Prophet. Some of Bani Khuzah’s men escaped and

took shelter in Makkah and they sought redress. However, the leaders of Quraish

did nothing. They then sent a message to the Prophet for help.

The Prophet, after confirming all the reports of the attack and subsequent

events, marched to Makkah with an army consisting of three thousand Muslims of

Medinah and Muslims from other Arab communities that joined him on the way

totaling ten thousand Muslims. Before entering the city he sent word to citizens

of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home, or in Abu Sufyan’s home, or in

the Ka’bah would be safe. The army entered Makkah without fighting and the

Prophet went directly to the Ka’bah. He magnified Allah for the triumphant entry

in the Holy city. The Prophet pointed at each idol with a stick he had in his

hand and said, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it

reappear" [Qur'an 17:81]. And one by one the idols fell down. The Ka’bah was

then cleansed by the removal of all three hundred sixty idols, and it was

restored to its pristine status for the worship of One True God (as built by

Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail).

The people of the city expected general slaughter in view of their persecution

and torture of Muslims for the past twenty years. While standing by the Ka'bah,

the Prophet (s) promised clemency for the Makkans, stating: "O Quraish, what do

you think that I am about to do with you?" They replied, "Good. You are a noble

brother, son of a noble brother." The Prophet forgave them all saying:

"I will treat you as Prophet Yousuf (Joseph) treated his brothers. There is no

reproach against you. Go to your homes, and you are all free."

The Prophet also declared:

Allah made Makkah holy the day He created heavens and earth, and it is the

holy of holies until the Resurrection Day. It is not lawful for anyone who

believes in Allah and the last day to shed blood therein, nor to cut down

trees therein. It was not lawful to anyone before me and it will not be lawful

to anyone after me.

The people of Makkah then accepted Islam including the staunch enemies of the

Prophet. A few of the staunchest enemies and military commanders had fled Makkah

after his entry. However, when they received the Prophet’s assurance of no

retaliation and no compulsion in religion, they came back and gradually the

message of Islam won their hearts. Within a year (630 CE), almost all Arabia

accepted Islam. Among the Prophet’s close companions were Muslims from such

diverse background as Persia, Abyssinia, Syria and Rome. Several prominent

Jewish Rabbis, Christian bishop and clergymen accepted Islam after discussions

with the Prophet.

One night in March 630 CE, Angel Gabriel visited the Prophet and addressed him

as: "O father of Ibrahim." A few hours later, the Prophet received the news of

the birth of his son from his wife Mariah, and the Prophet named him Ibrahim. He

was the only child born after the six children from Prophet’s first wife

Khadijah. Ibrahim died when he was ten months old. On the day of Ibrahim's

death, there was an eclipse of the sun. When some people began to attribute it

to the Prophet's bereavement, he said: "The sun and the moon are two signs of

the signs of God. Their light is not dimmed for any man's death. If you see them

eclipsed, you should pray until they be clear."

The great change in Arabia alarmed the two superpowers, Byzantines and Persians.

Their Governors, particularly the Byzantines, reacted with threats to attack

Medinah. Instead of waiting, the prophet sent a small army to defend the

northmost border of Arabia. In the remaining life of the Prophet, all of the

major battles were fought on the northern front. The Prophet did not have a

standing army. Whenever he received a threat, he called the Muslims and

discussed with them the situation and gathered volunteers to fight any


The Prophet performed his first and last pilgrimage in 632 CE. One hundred

twenty-thousand men and women performed pilgrimage that year with him. The

Prophet received the last revelation during this pilgrimage. Two months later,

Prophet Muhammad (s) fell ill and after several days died on Monday, 12 Rabi

al-Awwal, the eleventh year after Hijra (June 8, 632 CE) in Medinah. He is

buried in the same place where he died.

Prophet Muhammad lived a most simple, austere and modest life. He and his family

used to go without cooked meal several days at a time, relying only on dates,

dried bread and water. During the day he was the busiest man, as he performed

his duties in many roles all at once as head of state, chief justice,

commander-in-chief, arbitrator, instructor and family man. He was the most

devoted man at night. He used to spend one- to two-thirds of every night in

prayer and meditation. The Prophet's possession consisted of mats, blankets,

jugs and other simple things even when he was the virtual ruler of Arabia. He

left nothing to be inherited except a white mule (a gift from Muqawqis), few

ammunition and a piece of land that he had made a gift during his life time.

Among his last words were: "We the community of Prophets are not inherited.

Whatever we leave is for charity."

Muhammad (s) was a man and a messenger of Allah (The One God). He is the last of

the prophets [Qur'an 33:40] sent by Allah to guide man to the right path; Adam

was the first Prophet. The Qur’an mentions twenty-five Prophets by name and

provides a great insight of their mission, struggle and their communities. The

Qur’an exonerates prophets from charges leveled against them in previous

Scriptures. The Qur’an also mentions four previously revealed Scriptures: Suhoof

(Pages) of Ibrahim (Abraham), Taurat ('Torah') as revealed to Prophet Moses,

Zuboor ('Psalms') as revealed to Prophet David, and Injeel ('Evangel') as

revealed to Prophet Jesus (pbuh). Islam requires belief in all prophets and

revealed scriptures (original, non-corrupted) as part of the Articles of Faith.

Muhammad (s) is greatly respected as the model of Qur’anic behavior. Muslims

mention his name by adding "peace be upon him," a phrase used with the name of

all prophets [e.g., Qur'an Surah 37: verses 79, 109, 120 and 130; also 33:56].

All sincere Muslims try to follow the Qur’an and the Prophet’s example to minute

details. The account of every aspect of his life has been preserved (numerous

daily accounts including his family life). Prophet Muhammad (s) has served as an

example for all Muslims in all periods to modern times. He will remain a model

example for all of humanity.

At the end of his mission, the Prophet was blessed with several hundred thousand

followers (men and women) of Islam. Thousands prayed with him at the mosque and

listened to his sermon. Hundreds of sincere Muslims would find every opportunity

to be with him following five daily prayers and at other times. They used to

seek his advice for their everyday problems, and listened attentively to the

interpretation and application of revealed verses to their situation. They

followed the message of the Qur’an and the Messenger of Allah with utmost

sincerity, and supported him with every thing they had. The most excellent among

them are Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, Ali, Talha, Zubair, 'Abdur Rahman ibn Auf,

S'ad bin Abi Waqqas, S'ad bin Zaid, Abu 'Ubeidah, Hasan, Hussain, and several

dozen others. They faithfully carried the message of Islam after the Prophet,

and within ninety years the light of Islam reached Spain, North Africa, the

Caucasus, northwest China and India.


Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The

Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and

Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of

Jesus, pbuh). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not

have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten. SWT

is an abbreviation of Arabic words that mean 'Glory Be To Him.'

s or pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression is used for all Prophets of


ra: Radiallahu Anha (May Allah be pleased with her).

ra: Radiallahu Anhu (May Allah be pleased with him).



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