|Imperial Rome describes the period of the Roman Empire (27 B.C. to A.D. 476) following Julius Caesar's assassination, which ultimately ended Rome's time as a republic. At its height in A.D. 117, Rome controlled all the land from Western Europe to the Middle East.|
By Lizzie Wade (a white woman) Nov. 7, 2019 , 2:00 PM
Two thousand years ago, the streets of Rome bustled with people from all over the ancient world. The empire's trade routes stretched from North Africa to Asia, and new immigrants poured in every day, both by choice and by force. Now, an ancient DNA study has shown those far-flung connections were written in the genomes of the Romans.
People from the city's earliest eras and from after the Western empire's decline in the fourth century C.E. genetically resembled other Western Europeans.
In conformity with the narrative of degenerate lying Albinos: which says ALL Black people not in Africa, were once Slaves. This in spite of agreed upon Archeological History that says Humans evolved in Africa 400,000 years ago, and spread out from Africa starting at about 70,000 years ago. As demonstrated by modern Trump supporters, Albinos care little for truth, they mostly want to feel safe from Blacks and other non-Albinos: thus they concoct totally ridiculous stories like this one of Yarrow Mamout, aka (Muhammad Yaro) c. 1736 – 1823.
But Albinos are not totally out-of-bounds nuts: they are only a small part of the Human population, and worst yet, they have a deadly sensitivity to the Sun because of their Albinism. Those circumstances would make anyone crazy.
1) The White (Albino) population of the world is about 850,000,000: see Wikipedia section titled “White People”
2) The Mongol population (China, Japan, Korea) is 1,637,452,415
3) There is about 540,000,000 (0.54 billion) Mulattoes
4) The "Pure-Black" population of the world is about 4.65 Billion or 60%.
Back to Yarrow:
Quote: Yarrow was a formerly enslaved African entrepreneur, and later property owner in Georgetown, Washington, DC. Mamout was enslaved and taken to Annapolis from Guinea in 1752. He was originally from West Africa of the Fulani people and spoke the Fula language and rudimentary English. Because he could read and write in Arabic and could also write his name in English, historians believe he came from a wealthy Muslim family. Samuel Beall and his son kept him in slavery. Beall owned a plantation in Takoma Park. After 44 years of being slave, Mamout gained freedom at the age of 60 (enslaved at age 16). He made enough money to purchase 3324 Dent Place NW in Washington in the early 1800s, and was a financier who lent funds to merchants. He also owned stock in the Columbia Bank of Georgetown. Mamout was one of a few black slave owners, and has also been described as a brickmaker, a jack of all trades, a charcoal maker, a ship loader, and a basket weaver. There are two known portraits of Mamout, this one painted by Charles Willson Peale, and another by James Alexander Simpson: Wikipedia.
Every now and then, we get Albino mail resentfully telling us that Blacks think we're better, but we're not! Well pardon us for believing Albinos like above, when they tell us that were're Supermen.
But during the imperial period most sampled residents had Eastern Mediterranean or Middle Eastern ancestry. At that time, "Rome was like New York City … a concentration of people of different origins joining together," says Guido Barbujani, a population geneticist at the University of Ferrara in Italy who wasn't involved in the study. "This is the kind of cutting-edge work that's starting to fill in the details [of history]," adds Kyle Harper, a Roman historian at the University of Oklahoma in Norman.
The study, published today in Science , traces 12,000 years of history using genomes from 127 people buried at 29 archaeological sites in and around the city of Rome. Alfredo Coppa, a physical anthropologist at Sapienza University of Rome, sought hundreds of samples from dozens of previously excavated sites. Ron Pinhasi of the University of Vienna extracted DNA from the skeletons' ear bones, and Jonathan Pritchard, a population geneticist at Stanford University, sequenced and analyzed their DNA.
The authors - Margaret L. Antonio1,*, View ORCID ProfileZiyue Gao2,3,*, View ORCID ProfileHannah M. Moots4,*, Michaela Lucci5, View ORCID ProfileFrancesca Candilio6,7, Susanna Sawyer8, View ORCID ProfileVictoria Oberreiter8, View ORCID ProfileDiego Calderon1, View ORCID ProfileKatharina Devitofranceschi8, View ORCID ProfileRachael C. Aikens1, View ORCID ProfileSerena Aneli9, Fulvio Bartoli10, Alessandro Bedini11, View ORCID ProfileOlivia Cheronet8, View ORCID ProfileDaniel J. Cotter3, View ORCID ProfileDaniel M. Fernandes8,12, Gabriella Gasperetti13, Renata Grifoni14, Alessandro Guidi15, Francesco La Pastina7, Ersilia Loreti16, View ORCID ProfileDaniele Manacorda17, View ORCID ProfileGiuseppe Matullo9, Simona Morretta18, View ORCID ProfileAlessia Nava5,19, Vincenzo Fiocchi Nicolai20, Federico Nomi15, Carlo Pavolini21, Massimo Pentiricci16, Philippe Pergola22, Marina Piranomonte23, Ryan Schmidt24, Giandomenico Spinola25, View ORCID ProfileAlessandra Sperduti19,27, View ORCID ProfileMauro Rubini28,29, View ORCID ProfileLuca Bondioli19, View ORCID ProfileAlfredo Coppa7,†, View ORCID ProfileRon Pinhasi8,†,‡, View ORCID ProfileJonathan K. Pritchard2,3,29,†,‡
The oldest genomes came from three hunter-gatherers who lived 9000 to 12,000 years ago and genetically resembled other hunter-gatherers in Europe at the time. Later genomes showed the Romans changed in step with the rest of Europe, as an influx of early farmers with ancestry from Anatolia (what is now Turkey) reshaped the genetics of the entire region some 9000 years ago.
But Rome went its own way from 900 B.C.E. to 200 B.C.E. That's when it grew from a small town into an important city, says Kristina Killgrove, a Roman bioarchaeologist at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill who wasn't involved in the study. During its growth, "probably a lot of migration [was] happening," she says—as the genomes of 11 individuals from this period confirm. Some people had genetic markers resembling those of modern Italians, whereas others had markers reflecting ancestry from the Middle East and North Africa.
The Central Asian Albinos called Germanics started invading Black Europe, circa 1,200 B.C. As a linguistic group, modern Germanic peoples include the Austrians, Danes, Dutch, English, Flemish, Frisians, Germans, Icelanders, Lowland Scots, Norwegians, Swedes, and others.
The incoming Central Asia Albinos, called Germans by modern Albinos, were described thusly by the Roman historian Tacitus in 100 A.D. From Tacitus: Germany Book 1 
1. The name Germany, on the other hand, they say, is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror.
4. For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves. Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them.
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That diversity increased even more as Rome became an empire. Between 27 B.C.E. and 300 C.E., the city was the capital of an empire of 50 million to 90 million people, stretching from North Africa to Britain to the Middle East. Its population grew to more than 1 million people. The genetic "diversity was just overwhelming," Pinhasi says.
But people from certain parts of the empire were far more likely to move to the capital. The study suggests the vast majority of immigrants to Rome came from the East. Of 48 individuals sampled from this period, only two showed strong genetic ties to Europe. Another two had strong North African ancestry. The rest had ancestry connecting them to Greece, Syria, Lebanon, and other places in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East.
That makes sense, Harper says, because at the time, areas to the east of Italy were more populous than Europe; many people lived in big cities such as Athens and Alexandria. And Rome was connected to Greece and the Middle East by the Mediterranean Sea, which was far easier to traverse than overland routes through the Alps, he says.
"The genetic information parallels what we know from historical and archaeological records," Killgrove says. She and others have identified individuals from imperial Roman cemeteries who likely didn't grow up in Rome, based on isotopes in their teeth that reflect the water they drank when young—though the studies couldn't show their precise origins. Ancient texts and words carved on tombstones also point to large populations of immigrants in the city, Harper says.
But once the empire split in two and the eastern capital moved to Constantinople (what is now Istanbul, Turkey) in the fourth century C.E., Rome's diversity decreased. Trade routes sent people and goods to the new capital, and epidemics and invasions reduced Rome's population to about 100,000 people. Invading barbarians brought in more European ancestry. (Romes invaders came ONLY from the EAST!) Since when is Europe "East" of Rome? That's just the typical Albino lie, trying to link Central Asian Albinos to Europe. Rome gradually lost its strong genetic link to the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. By medieval times, city residents again genetically resembled (Black) European populations. (That changed when Blacks lost the "Thirty Years Wars" on the Continent and the "Civil Wars in Britain).
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