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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations


Ancient Americas cultural and Racial Affinities with Africa




Who Were The First Americans?

Stefan Lovgren for National Geographic News
September 3, 2003

A study of skulls excavated from the tip of Baja California in Mexico suggests that the first Americans may not have been the ancestors of today's Amerindians, but another people who came from Southeast Asia and the southern Pacific area. The question of who colonized the Americas, and when, has long been hotly debated. Traditionally, Native Americans are believed to have descended from northeast Asia, arriving over a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska some 12,000 years ago and then migrating across North and South America.

But recent research, including the Baja California study, indicates that the initial settlement of the continent was instead driven by Southeast Asians who occupied Australia 60,000 years ago and then expanded into the Americas about 13,500 years ago, prior to Mongoloid people arriving from northeast Asia. The skulls from Baja California, which may date back only a few hundred years, have slender-looking faces that are different from the broad-cheeked craniums of modern Amerindians, the descendants of the Mongoloid people.

"Our results change the traditional idea that all modern Amerindians present morphological affinities with East Asians as a result of a single migration," said Rolando González-José of the University of Barcelona, Spain, who led the study. "The settlement of the New World is better explained by considering a continuous influx of people from Asia."


Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in Underwater Cave?

Eliza Barclay for National Geographic News
September 3, 2008

Deep inside an underwater cave in Mexico, archaeologists may have discovered the oldest human skeleton ever found in the Americas. Dubbed Eva de Naharon, or Eve of Naharon, the female skeleton has been dated at 13,600 years old. If that age is accurate, the skeleton—along with three others found in underwater caves along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula—could provide new clues to how the Americas were first populated. The remains have been excavated over the past four years near the town of Tulum, about 80 miles southwest of Cancún, by a team of scientists led by Arturo González, director of the Desert Museum in Saltillo, Mexico."We don't now how [the people whose remains were found in the caves] arrived and whether they came from the Atlantic, the jungle, or inside the continent," González said, "But we believe these finds are the oldest yet to be found in the Americas and may influence our theories of how the first people arrived."

In addition to possibly altering the time line of human settlement in the Americas, the remains may cause experts to rethink where the first Americans came from, González added. Clues from the skeletons' skulls hint that the people may not be of northern Asian descent (Chinese), which would contradict the dominant theory of New World settlement. That theory holds that ancient humans first came to North America from northern Asia via a now submerged land bridge across the Bering Sea.

"The shape of the skulls has led us to believe that Eva and the others have more of an affinity with people from South Asia (see Thailand - Mani, Andaman Islands, Malay peninsula - Semang people below), González explained. Complete story at the bottom of page.

For obvious reasons, none of the scientists bothered to explain just WHO these "South Asians" and Polynesians were - But we will!


Note: Polynesian is a term that the Albino people have applied to Pacificans/Austronesians who have significant "White Mongol/European" admixture. They reserve the term Melanesian for the original "Pure Black" Pacificans/Austronesians who have resisted admixture.




To be Clear:

These people are NOT the original settlers of the Americas!

They entered much later.

North American Indian

Afraid of Eagle, Oglala tribe

Central American Indian

Kuna Indians Panama         

Caribbean Islands Indian

Carib tribe

South American Indian

Fuegian man, Native of Tierra del Fuego



The first human settlers of the Americas, were Africans who left Africa, followed a coastal route across southern Asia, went down the Malay peninsula, and Island hopped to New Guinea, and from there crossed the 300 miles of the Timor Sea, to reach Australia, this some 60,000 plus years ago. After reaching Australia, they eventually migrated to the southern coast of Australia, and from there crossed into the Island of Tasmania - see map below. Later, other humans reached the Americans by atlantic Ocean crossings, and the Bering Sea crossing.



The Africans


Predominate among the Africans heading East, were a diminutive Pygmy type people, now called Negritos.




What is now called India, became the coalescence point for humans who had left Africa, and would be heading North, East, and South. And still today, India has the greatest diversity of Human types outside of Africa.


The Indians



Some of these African migrants headed East, and then turned Northward into China, with them went the ancestors of those we now call, the Mongol type humans.

The Albinos - which are produced by all Humans: In search of less intense sunlight and a cooler climate, migrated through the Khyber Pass of the Hindu Kush range, of what is now Afghanistan, and entered the steppe plains of Central Asia, where they settled. Genetic analysis has not been able to determine at what time the Albinos started mating exclusively with each other, (two Albinos mating can only produce another Albino), thus giving a clue as to when this split took place: but the best guess is at about 40,000 B.C. (Note: when an Albino mates with a Melaninated person, the offspring, as mapped by the Davenport chart, will be any of sixteen shades relative to the parents. There is a one in sixteen chance that the offspring will be the exact same color as one of the parents).


The Albinos


At about 1,500 B.C, the Albinos returned to India by this same route: though now as invaders (the Arian's/Aryans). Their return produced the modern population of mixed-race Indians called Hindu. At about 1,200 B.C, the Hellenes and Latin's reached Greece in Europe. And at about 1,000 B.C, another Albino group would enter China (the Zhou), destroying the Black Shang dynasty there, thus leading to the creation of the modern Chinese people.





Later movements of White people out of Asia and into Europe (the Germanics and Slavs circa 200 A.D.), is attributed to the Huns of Mongolia chasing them westward. Being mindful that the Mongol type people were originally Black Africans, one wonders if that may have had something to do with the Albinos overthrow of the Shang? The last of the Albinos, the Turks, were chased out of Asia, and into southern Europe and the Middle East by the Mongols, circa 600 A.D.


As the Africans left India, those who headed South, All along their route, these first settlers left human and cultural remnants of their passing.


Thailand - Mani
Andaman Islands
Malay peninsula - Semang
Indonesia - Tamil



Papua New Guinea


We know that these people where great boat builders and sailors; because they later crossed great expanses of ocean to settle the Pacific Islands. As an example; The Hawaiian islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent. But as in the Americas, all of these lands saw a significant influx of Mongol and White people in modern times.


Philippines - Aeta


Solomon Islands








The Americas


In South America, there are indications of human settlement from 55,000-60,000 years old. Contrary to the White mans self-serving view, the Americas were not isolated lands: common sense and the artifacts, tell us that there was a constant flow of people into the Americas, and possibly out of the Americas too.

A common topic of discussion, is how did ancient humans reach the Americas: as there is currently no land connection between the Americas and the rest of the world. The closest land connections are the Arctic Bering straits (53 miles wide), connecting the Americas and Asia. And the Drake passage (500 miles wide passage between Cape Horn and Livingston Island), connecting South America, the Shetland Islands, and Antarctica. Note: there are many studies which compare the flora of the Americas with distant lands, in order to glean possible migration scenarios. That is not within the scope of this presentation.

There are currently three theories as to how humans reached the Americas, each has its own logical support, and perhaps all of these methods were used.


The Antarctic Route

In South America, a skull belonging to a roughly 20 year old Australoid woman was unearthed in Brazil by the French archaeologist Annette Amperaire in 1971, nicknamed “Luzia”. Keeping in mind that the Earth's climate has changed many times over the last 100, 000 years, and that the original Australians: left Africa, Island hopped to New Guinea, and then crossed the 300 miles of the Timor Sea to reach Australia. Once in Australia, they later colonized the Island of Tasmania, this some 60,000 plus years ago. Thus the ancient Tasmanians journey to the Americas, as indicated on the map below, is quite plausible.






Evidence in the Americas that supports the Antarctic Route

Two roughly contemporary early Paleo-indian cultures have been identified in far southern South America. The Fell culture of Patagonian, (southern end of south America). Fell artifacts were once equated with Clovis points but now are known to have been made and shaped differently. Monte Verde, Chile, is a boggy stream-bed in which mastodon bones and a few stone tools, including three bi-pointed points and a crude bi-face - circa 14,000 B.C.

Note: It should be understood that the "Oldest" evidence or artifact thus far found, is NOT the same as the "Oldest" evidence or artifact! We do not know what is still in the ground, or buried in the Lakes, Rivers, Oceans and Seas, where there was once dry ground: not to mention what may lay underwater, because of drowning's and watercraft sinking's. Discovering Human history is an on-going endeavor, and with each new discovery, we adjust our presentation of Human History.


As has happened everywhere that Whites have conquered and settled, death and destruction was brought to the native peoples, sometimes to the point of genocide. The last of the Tasmanians, William Lanne or Laney, died in 1869. Dr. Lodewyk Crowther removed his head in the name of science at the Colonial Hospital, and made a tobacco pouch out of his scrotum. The Tasmanians are now Extinct! (Of course, the fate of the Tasmanians is rendered almost insignificant by that of the approximately 90 million original Americans who were killed or died of European diseases between 1492 and 1650).


The Tasmanians







The Atlantic Ocean Route


Many people insist that Africans, particularly the Olmec, came directly to the Americas from Africa via an Atlantic Ocean crossing. Here is the evidence for that.

The ancient Saharan Rivers to the Atlantic Ocean

At least 30 million years ago, researchers maintain, volcanic eruptions and shifts in the Earth's crust carved out the Saharan system's major streams, which flowed southwest from headwaters in Egypt and the Sudan, across northern Africa and into the Atlantic Ocean at the Gulf of Guinea. In 1984, guided by specially processed maps from Landsat, radar and other sources, USGS researchers located some of the radar-exposed Saharan river system channels. Excavations on the "shores" of two sand-covered valleys, directed by archaeologist William P. McHugh (who died in May), uncovered hand axes and other stone artifacts dating to approximately 200,000 years ago.

17 Dec 2008: Two new dinosaurs found in ancient Saharan river system
The beak of a giant flying reptile and the leg of a giant long-necked plant eating dinosaur were found in Morocco. The British and Irish scientists also discovered rare dinosaur footprints and other fossils including the remains of 18m long crocodiles and predatory fish. At the time the creatures lived, the Sahara was covered in lush vegetation, with waterways and lakes. (The last dry-out of the Sahara occurred around 3400 B.C, when the monsoons retreated south to approximately where it is today, leading to the gradual desertification of the Sahara).



Evidence in the Americas that supports an Atlantic Ocean crossing

Pedra Furada, is a large sandstone rock-shelter located in the thorn forest of northeastern Brazil. Site investigators found stone tools and charcoal hearths at the earliest levels, and radiocarbon dates suggested the site might have been occupied as early as 40,000 – 50,000 years B.C. Unlike Clovis sites, those in Brazil include painted caves and rock shelters. Food remains include nuts, legumes, fish, shellfish, and small game animals. Among the artifacts are triangular, sometimes stemmed points but no fluted points, (points referrers to spear and arrow tips). Newly dated sites include Caverna da Pedra Pintada, Santana de Riacho, and Boquete in Brazil.



How would Africans make an Atlantic Ocean crossing?

With the worlds most advanced Boat designs!



Nigeria. "Africa's oldest known boat" (6,000 B.C.) the Dufuna Canoe was discovered near the region of the River Yobe. Various Radio-Carbon tests conducted in laboratories of reputable Universities in Europe and America indicate that the Canoe is over 8000 years old, thus making it the oldest in Africa and 3rd oldest in the World. Ranking the Dufuna canoe as the world’s third oldest known dugout. Older than it are the dugouts from Pesse, Netherlands, and Noyen-sur-Seine, France - which are very primitive.


Dugout canoe of Pesse, Netherlands. According to C14 dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8,200 and 7,600 B.C. Dugout canoe of Noyen-sur-Seine France. According to C14 dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8,000 and 7,000 B.C. By around 3,000 B.C, Egyptians had ships capable of trans-continental travel, many of these ships {143 ft. in length}, were found buried in King Khufu's tomb. (These Ships WERE fitted with Sails).

It is amusing to see how the French have this boat displayed: (with White people in the background). Whites did not enter Europe until about 1,200 B.C. See the display: click here


By way of comparison, the Egyptian ship from 3,000 B.C. (which was 143 ft.), and Columbus' ships: Of the three ships of Columbus, the Santa Maria (a small carrack) was a much slower, heavier ship, about 70-feet long — and carried close to 40 men. The Nina and Pinta were caravel-type ships just 66 feet long and with a width of 23 feet - each carried 26 men, the crew slept on deck. Having learned the hammock from native Americans, the crews slept better on their return trip.


Columbus' Ships

The Nina
The Pinta
The Santa Maria


As a logical point: aside from the ancient Egyptian ship, which was much larger than Columbus' ships, and the fact that ancient African ships were better designed: The Cretans were known to make regular voyages to Britain for Tin, at around 2,000 B.C. The Phoenicians were renowned Seafarers at about 1,100 B.C. Why then would the concept of ancient Africans traveling to the Americas by ship, be considered controversial? It contradicts the White mans version of history!


The most prominent archaeological feature of the Americas, are it's pyramids. And there is a continuous string of pyramid building cultures stretching across the Sahara, from Sudan to the Atlantic Ocean, who may have provided pyramid building knowledge to the Americans. It should be remembered that pyramid building knowledge came long after the Americas were first settled: therefore "New" people must have brought it in. We know that West Africans had an advanced Boat Building culture from ancient times, and could have reached the Americas, because of the very modern design of the 8,000 year old boat found in Nigeria.


Songhai - West Africa




The Arctic Bering straits Route




It is believed that the people of the Clovis culture, entered the Americas by crossing the Bering straits at a time when the straits may have been dry land.

This big game-hunting culture has been labeled the Clovis culture, and is primarily identified with fluted projectile points. The culture received its name from artifacts found near Clovis, New Mexico, the first evidence of this tool complex, excavated in 1932. The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by distinctive "Clovis point", a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute by which it was inserted into a shaft; it could then be removed from the shaft for traveling. This flute is one characteristic that defines the Clovis point complex. Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B.P. (before present). This evidence suggests that the culture flowered somewhat later and for a shorter period of time than previously believed.


It seems that the people who crossed the Bering Straits, may have also brought a pyramid building culture of their own. As is seen in a comparison of the various types of American pyramids.


Asian style pyramids in the Americas

The tumulus mound covering the tomb of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 156-141 BCE), located outside of Xi'an China
Norte Chico Peru
A modern model portraying how Emperor Jing's tomb complex would have appeared upon completion
Mississippian culture - North America



African style pyramids in the Americas

Teotihuacán Mexico
Mayan Chichen Itza


African and Sumerian pyramids

The Step Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser)
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu )


Surprisingly, perhaps the most enduring evidence of the African mans travels around the world, is the African Totem - it is found in every corner of the world!


African Totem
Canadian Native American Totem


The Totem is of course, a group emblem with religious significance. However, the religious beliefs and practices that Africans carried with them, as they populated the world, is beyond our scope. There are online sites which deal with this aspect of the African mans travels. One such site is here linked. Note: the material here linked, is not necessarily recommended, it just happens to deal with the subject.

African religious affinities



Teeth Filing


Human tooth sharpening is the practice of manually sharpening the teeth, usually the front incisors. Historically it was done for spiritual purposes, with some exceptions, but in modern times it is usually aesthetic in nature as an extreme form of body modification.

As Africans traversed the World, they carried this custom with them too. And as new peoples eventually joined Africans in the new lands, they learned this African practice too.








This cultural custom did NOT make it across the atlantic:

at some point, people realized that it was not a very good idea.


Neck Rings













Other Kayan people








The ancient American people and their African cultural affinities


One perplexing problem in determining American affinities, is the question, when did the Mongol type people first arrive? We know that in China, the African type people, the Shang, were overthrown at about 1,000 B.C, by what may have been a White (Albino) type people called the Zhou from central Asia. Evidence of this can be found with the Tarim mummies of Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, which is at the border of China and central Asia. These mummies show a White people at about 1,800 B.C. But they begin to show Mongol admixture at about 1,000 B.C. Suggesting the beginnings of the modern Chinese people, who show various combinations of Black and Albino, skin colors and facial features.

In the Americas, the oldest artifacts do not depict a Mongol type people, the Mongols only begin to show up in the artifacts at about 1,000 B.C, with the Olmec (who may have been of Shang stock), and the Mayans. So it may be, that the Mongol type people only began to cross into the Americas following the upheaval in China, caused by the demise of the Shang dynasties. This is of course conjecture; only with the information gained from a genetic map of the Americas ancient remains can a definitive judgment be made. This genetic mapping is probably well underway, but if past practice is any indicator, it will never be made public. Because the results would certainly contradict the White mans version of history! (See list at the bottom of the page for the ancient American remains currently without published genetic results).


An example of how White media disseminates false information

Kennewick Man

The ancient bones were discovered in 1996, along the Columbia River in Washington state, during a hydroplane race on the Columbia River. Spectators stumbled upon the landmark find while wading in shallow water along the river's edge. Kennewick Man is one of the oldest and most complete human skeletons ever found in North America.

The Controversy

Public interest, debate, and controversy began when an independent archaeologist, working on contract to the Kennewick coroner, decided the bones were ancient but might not be Native American. He described them as "Caucasoid" and sent a piece of bone to a laboratory to be dated. With that unscientific and unsubstantiated declaration, White media around the world declared that it proved that Whites were the original settlers of the Americas.

REPORT: The National Park Service - U.S. Department of the Interior

Report on the Osteological Assessment of the "Kennewick Man" Skeleton (CENWW.97.Kennewick)
Joseph F. Powell and Jerome C. Rose

February, 1999 - Quote: The canonical variates analysis places Kennewick closer to southern Asians! (See pictures above). Note: the current Mongoloid people in Southern Asia, such as the Thai, Viet, etc. First entered South Asia from the North, circa 1,000 A.D.

In a later follow-up Report: “It’s similar to what we’re seeing with other ancient skeletons in both North and South America — there’s some difference between them and any modern people anywhere in the world,” said Joseph Powell, a professor of anthropology at the University of New Mexico. In a newly released report for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Powell and scientist Jerome Rose, part of a federal team appointed to examine the bones, wrote that Kennewick Man “appears to have the strongest … affinities with populations from Polynesia and southern Asia, and NOT with American Indians or Europeans in the reference samples.”


Few White media outlets bothered to report the actual scientific analysis.

And NONE bothered to explain, just WHO the ancient South Asian and Polynesian people were!

Even today, Wiki Encyclopedia: one of the prime sources for White nonsense history - still calls Kennewick man Caucasian!



In the first 158 years after Columbus landed in the Americas, 9 out of every 10 Americans were killed or died of European diseases between 1492 and 1650. Since then, they have all cross-bred with each other, and with White people. Therefore, it is not really possible to glean what the original people looked like, by simply looking at the modern people. As an example: Today, most North American Indians look like White people. In Central and South America, today, most people of native stock, have a very noticeable Mongol look, suggesting that their populations were mostly spared.

Nowhere is this more telling than with the Aztec, who today, have all manner of Mongol type people claiming Aztec heritage. Though Whites destroyed almost all things relating to them, and falsified descriptions of them. A few artifacts survived, as well as this picture of perhaps the last Aztecs, it was taken in the 1800s. From these, we can see that the Aztec were a prototypical Africa people. However, the unusual nature of the Aztec nose, led us to search for modern people with a similar nose - they were not hard to find!


The Aztec   

The Aztec nose






Aztec artifacts and their African affinity

Hair style
Nose Ring
Earlobe Plug




The Inca

As with the Aztec, Whites destroyed almost all evidence of the Inca, except for a few artifacts. So they made these portraits. And in typical White fashion; they falsely made the Inca look WHITE!



Therefore, there is no way of knowing which of these Peruvians groups are the descendants of the Inca.


A note here: Part of the White mans campaign to falsify history, and thus write the Black man out of history. Has been the White mans claim that Blacks in the Americas are the result of the Slave trade - this in spite of the fact that ancient skeletal remains of Blacks, and ancient artifacts depicting Blacks, and of course African culture, predominated in the Americas before Columbus's landing.

As a matter of documentation: The Viceroyalty of New Granada, was a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, and parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

A census in the Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, showed the free Black population in 1789 was 420,000, whereas African slaves numbered only 20,000. Free Blacks also outnumbered slaves in Brazil. In Cuba, by contrast, free Blacks made up only 15% in 1827; and in Saint-Domingue it was a mere 5% in 1789. A few European painters produced portraits of these native American Blacks in the early 1800s.




<< UPDATE! >>


Having only the false painting below to go on, we could not determine exactly what the Inca people looked like





Fortunately we have since secured pictures of the true and original Inca kings portraits







From the true and original Inca kings portraits, we can clearly see that the Inca were NOT a Mongol type people, but rather, a standard phenotype looking Black people, just like their descendants below.




The North American Indians of the previous century, show obvious admixture with Blacks, Mongols, and Whites (there is no way of knowing - without genetic testing - if admixture happened only in the Americas, or in both the Americas and Asia).




But what is really strange, is the North American Indians, and Eskimo's, almost total lack of Chinese cultural affinity. Everything about them culturally (as it is in the rest of the Americas) is totally African! Even the hat below.














African Dance
North American Indian Dance


African Dance
African Dance


Walpi Hopi Indian Reservation, Arizona 1926


African Dance




Native American Artifacts









Modern Native American People


Brazil - Pataxó People Bahia
Brazil Yanomami




Mexico - Huichol Indians
Mexico - Tarahumara Indians




Panama Chiriqui
Panama Embera






In South Asia and the Pacific:

Where did the Mongol (Chinese) type people come from?


After reading the above, an intelligent person might well ask: So if Blacks were the original South Asians and Pacific Islanders, where did the Mongol (Chinese) type people come from?

The Mongol presence in South Asia and the Pacific is very recent - all in the current era. We have separate pages for the original Black inhabitants of Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Hawaii. In South Asia, of course the invading Mongols came from the North. But for the Islands to the South, the Mongol starting point was different:



Surprisingly, it's Taiwan: Who's indigenous Black peoples, originally from southern Asia, had lived on Taiwan for 12,000 to 15,000 years before being supplanted by the Mongols from China.




Significant migration to Taiwan from the Chinese mainland began as early as A.D. 500. Dutch traders first claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the China coast. Two years later, the Spanish established a settlement on the northwest coast of Taiwan, which they occupied until 1642, when they were driven out by the Dutch. Dutch colonists administered the island and its predominantly aboriginal population until 1661. The first major influx of migrants from the Chinese mainland came during the Dutch period, sparked by the political and economic chaos on the China coast during the Manchu invasion and the end of the Ming Dynasty.


From these 1800s photographs, we can see that the gradual Mongolization of the original Black Taiwanese is well underway.

Paiwan King with Mongol wife


Mulatto Paiwan musicians using nose flute


Mulatto Rukai chief
Mulatto Atayal man with tattoo marks indicating his manhood
Mulatto Taiwanese aborigine woman and infant 1871



In 1664, a fleet led by the Ming loyalist Cheng Ch'eng-kung (Zheng Chenggong, known in the West as Koxinga) retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan. Cheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. He died shortly thereafter, and in 1683, his successors submitted to Manchu (Qing Dynasty) control. From 1680, the Qing Dynasty ruled Taiwan as a prefecture and, in 1875, divided the island into two prefectures, north and south. In 1887 the island was made into a separate Chinese province.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, migration from Fujian and Guangdong provinces steadily increased, and Chinese supplanted indigenous peoples as the dominant population group. In 1895, a weakened Imperial China ceded Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki following the first Sino-Japanese war. During its 50 years (1895-1945) of rule, Japan expended considerable effort in developing Taiwan's economy. At the same time, Japanese rule led to the "Japanization" of the island, including compulsory Japanese education and pressuring residents of Taiwan to adopt Japanese names. At the end of World War II in 1945, Taiwan reverted to Chinese rule.

Taiwan now has a population of 23 million. More than 18 million, of the so-called "native" Taiwanese, are descendants of Chinese who migrated from Fujian and Guangdong Provinces on the mainland, primarily in the 18th and 19th centuries. The "mainlanders," who arrived in Taiwan after 1945, came from all parts of mainland China. About half a million indigenous peoples inhabit the mountainous central and eastern parts of the island and are believed to be of Malayo-Polynesian origin.


Modern Mongol Taiwanese






The Philippines


The Philippines are a perfect example of how the Mongol types spread out from Taiwan.

Popular belief holds that the majority of Philippine people are descendants of migrants from Indonesia and Malaysia who came to the islands in successive waves over many centuries and largely displaced the aboriginal inhabitants. But modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence, however, strongly suggests that those migrants originated in Taiwan and went on from the Philippines to settle Indonesia and Malaysia.

Pre-Spanish Period
The first people in the Philippines, the Negritos, are believed to have come to the islands 30,000 years ago from Borneo and Sumatra, making their way across then-existing land bridges. According to popular belief, Malays subsequently came from the south in successive waves, the earliest by land bridges and later in boats by sea. In contrast, modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence strongly suggests that those successive waves of migrants came from Taiwan as the Austronesian sub-group, Malayo-Polynesians. From Taiwan, the Austronesians first spread southward across the Philippines, then on to Indonesia, Malaysia, and as far away as Polynesia and Madagascar. The migrants settled in scattered communities, named barangays after the large outrigger boats in which they arrived, and ruled by chieftains known often as datus.

Mainland Chinese merchants and traders arrived and settled in the ninth century, sometimes traveling on the ships of Arab traders, who introduced Islam in the south and extended some influence even into Luzon. The Malayo-Polynesians, however, remained the dominant group until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century.

Spanish Period
Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the Philippines and claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, but was killed shortly after arriving when he intervened in a dispute between rival tribes. Christianity was established in the Philippines only after the arrival of the succeeding Spanish expeditionary forces (the first led by Legazpi in the early 16th century) and the Spanish Jesuits, and in the 17th and 18th centuries by the conquistadores.

Until Mexico proclaimed independence from Spain in 1810, the islands were under the administrative control of Spanish North America, and there was significant migration between North America and the Philippines. This period was the era of conversion to Roman Catholicism. A Spanish colonial social system was developed with a local government centered in Manila and with considerable clerical influence. Spanish influence was strongest in Luzon and the central Philippines but less so in Mindanao, save for certain coastal cities.

The long period of Spanish rule was marked by numerous uprisings. Towards the latter half of the 19th century, European-educated Filipinos or ilustrados (such as the Chinese Filipino national hero Jose Rizal) began to criticize the excesses of Spanish rule and instilled a new sense of national identity. This movement gave inspiration to the final revolt against Spain that began in 1896 under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo (another Chinese Filipino) and continued until the Americans defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.

American Period
Following Admiral George Dewey's defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the U.S. occupied the Philippines. Spain ceded the islands to the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) that ended the Spanish-American war.

The largest ethnic minority now is the mainland Asians (called Chinese), who have played an important role in commerce for many centuries since they first came to the islands to trade. Arabs and Indians also traveled and traded in the Philippines in the first and early second millennium. As a result of intermarriage, many Filipinos have some Asian mainland, Spanish, American, Arab, or Indian ancestry. After the mainland Asians, Americans and Spaniards constitute the next largest minorities in the country.

More than 90% of the people are Christian as a result of the nearly 400 years of Spanish and American rule. The major non-Hispanicized groups are the Muslim population, concentrated in the Sulu Archipelago and in central and western Mindanao, and the mountain aboriginal groups of northern Luzon. Small forest tribes still live in the more remote areas of Mindanao.

About 87 languages and dialects are spoken, most belonging to the Malay-Polynesian linguistic sub-family. Of these, eight are the first languages of more than 85% of the population. The four principal indigenous languages are Cebuano, spoken in the Visayas; Tagalog, predominant in the area around Manila; Ilocano, spoken in northern Luzon, and Maranao and related languages spoken in Mindanao. Since 1939, in an effort to develop national unity, the government has promoted the use of the national language, Filipino, which is based on Tagalog. Filipino is taught in all schools and is widely used across the archipelago. Many use English as a second language. Most professionals, academics, and government workers are conversant or fluent in English. In January 2003, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo ordered the Department of Education to restore English as the medium of instruction in all schools and universities.

For the 1904 World's Fair, held in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. The Philippines government uprooted approximately forty aboriginal people from the Philippine province of Abra, and built a village for them on the Philippine Reservation at the World's Fair. There they were on display, with daily programs held in the village which showed how the Negritos lived at home. The programs included celebrations of marriage, music, dances, shooting of arrows, wild-boar hunting, rice planting, and the making of baskets, combs and bracelets.








Modern Filipinos











The Philippines is a microcosm of race relations in many parts of the world. The "Near-White" Mulattoes in the Philippines (descendants of Chinese and Japanese traders/merchants who first settled in the archipelago starting at about the 12th century A.D. and interbred with the original Black People): Are like the Mulattoes in North Africa, the Middle-east and Arabia. These Mulattoes are no longer willing to be what they are: Mulattoes! Now they want to be considered "ORIGINAL" people. (As we know, such monumental lying is emblematic of Albinos, so obviously these Mulattoes are much closer to their Albino parentage). Filipino television mirrors the racial confusion and mores of the Filipino people, in that those closest to the Albinos (both oriental and occidental) try to, and often succeed, in getting the darker, more standard Mulattoes, to identify with them instead of the original Filipinos.

To this end, Filipino writer Agnes Gagelonia - Uligan, created a television show for GMA Network of the Philippines called "Nita Negrita" The story revolves around a Filipino/African-American girl named Nita (Barbie Forteza). Her mother is Filipina and her father is African-American Filipino. At an early age, she was separated from her mother and was raised at an orphanage. With her (dark) complexion, she is always being teased and humiliated.








Back to the Americas


Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in Underwater Cave?
Eliza Barclay
for National Geographic News
September 3, 2008

Deep inside an underwater cave in Mexico, archaeologists may have discovered the oldest human skeleton ever found in the Americas.
Dubbed Eva de Naharon, or Eve of Naharon, the female skeleton has been dated at 13,600 years old. If that age is accurate, the skeleton—along with three others found in underwater caves along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula—could provide new clues to how the Americas were first populated.

The remains have been excavated over the past four years near the town of Tulum, about 80 miles southwest of Cancún, by a team of scientists led by Arturo González, director of the Desert Museum in Saltillo, Mexico."We don't now how [the people whose remains were found in the caves] arrived and whether they came from the Atlantic, the jungle, or inside the continent," González said, "But we believe these finds are the oldest yet to be found in the Americas and may influence our theories of how the first people arrived."

In addition to possibly altering the time line of human settlement in the Americas, the remains may cause experts to rethink where the first Americans came from, González added. Clues from the skeletons' skulls hint that the people may not be of northern Asian descent (Chinese), which would contradict the dominant theory of New World settlement. That theory holds that ancient humans first came to North America from northern Asia via a now submerged land bridge across the Bering Sea.

"The shape of the skulls has led us to believe that Eva and the others have more of an affinity with people from South Asia (see Thailand - Mani, Andaman Islands, Malay peninsula - Semang people above), González explained. The three other skeletons excavated in the caves have been given a date range of 11,000 to 14,000 years ago, based on radiocarbon dating. The remains were found some 50 feet (15 meters) below sea level in the caves off Tulum. But at the time "Eve of Naharon" is believed to have lived there, sea levels were 200 feet (60 meters) lower, and the Yucatán Peninsula was a wide, dry prairie.

If González's finds do stand up to scientific scrutiny, they will raise many interesting new questions about how the Americas were first peopled.
Many researchers once believed humans entered the New World from Asia as a single group crossing over the Bering Land Bridge no earlier than 13,500 years ago. But that theory is lately being debunked. Remains found in Monte Verde, Chile, in 1997, for example, point to the presence of people in the Americas at least 12,500 years ago, long before migration would have been possible through the ice-covered Arctic reaches of North America.

Genetic test results were never published.

Ancient American remains in North America, currently without published genetic results:


Arlington Springs Woman
10,000-13,000 years old
DNA Testing Underway
Location: California
Discovered in 1959 on Santa Rosa Island, one of eight Channel Islands off the southern California coast
Browns Valley Man 8,900 years old
Location: Minnesota
The Browns Valley man was discovered on October 9, 1933, in a gravel pit on the Plateau Addition of Browns Valley.
Buhl Woman
10,800 years old
Location: Idaho
This 11,000-year-old skeleton of a woman was found in a quarry near the town of Buhl in 1989
Horn Shelter, 9,600 years old Location: Texas
In 1970, a double burial of an adult and child was discovered at the Horn Shelter, Number 2, in central Texas.
Hourglass Cave Man
7,900-7,700 years old
Location: Colorado
The Hourglass Cave man.
Gordon Creek Woman
9,700 years old
Location: Colorado
Discovered in 1965, the Gordon Creek woman had a relatively small face with a distinctive alveolar prognathism
Grimes Point Woman
9,700 year old
Location: Nevada
The Grimes Point Archaeological site is noted for its rock carvings and petroglyphs. Archaeological excavations unearthed the remains of a female believed to be 8-10 years of age at the time of her death.
Kennewick Man
9,300 years old
Location: Kennewick, Washington
Kennewick Man was named after the city where he was discovered. He was found in July of 1996
Pelican Rapids Woman (Minnesota Woman)
7,800 years old
Location: Minnesota
In 1932, a crew of road builders near Pelican Rapids dug into the silt of a lake bed and found the well-preserved fossilized remains of a young girl.
Spirit Cave Man
9,400 years old
Location: Nevada
The Spirit Cave man burial was discovered in a small cave in 1940.
Wizard's Beach Man
9,200-9,500 years old
Location: Nevada
Wizard's Beach Man was found in 1978 after a prolonged drought had lowered the level of Pyramid Lake northeast of Reno. The discovery site is only about 100 miles from Spirit Cave.
9,000 -11,000 years old
Location: Texas
The Wilson-Leonard site was discovered in 1973
2008 - Fossil Feces (coprolites) discovered in a cave in Oregon, shows humans lived in North America more than 14,000 years ago, 1,000 years earlier than had previously been known. fossil feces yielded DNA indicating these early residents were related to people living in Siberia and East Asia
2011- Cremated Ice Age Child Found in excavation trench in central Alaskan site. 11,500 years old.