|Geographical location of other early human skeletal remains in the Americas showing Paleoamerican morphology and their respective chronological range.|
Peñon Woman III - Mexico
Luzia - Brazil
|Dr Silvia Gonzalez, a geoarchaeologist, and her colleagues at Liverpool John Moores
University in England radiocarbon-dated the skull, the analysis showed Peñon Woman III is
12,755 years old, older than any known ancestor of modern Native Americans.
Based on skull comparisons, Gonzalez announced in September, she believes Peñon Woman III was an ancestor of the Pericu, Dr Silvia Gonzalez conducted a study of ancient bones found in Mexico and
found that they have very different characteristics to Native Americans. These skulls have long and narrow heads that are very different from the short, broad skulls of today's Native Americans.
"We think there were several migration waves into the Americas at different times by different human groups." She said there was very strong evidence that the first migration came from Australia via Japan and Polynesia and down the Pacific coast of America.
Dr Gonzalez said the research would be controversial. Quote: "Native Americans cannot claim to have been the first people there," Dr Gonzalez said. She also hinted that DNA recovered from Penon Woman would corroborate measurements of the skulls.
A skull belonging to a roughly 20 year old Australoid woman that was unearthed in Brazil by the French archaeologist Annette Amperaire in 1971 and nicknamed “Luzia”. Since Luzia's discovery, at least 50 similarly "un-mongoloid" Palaeoamerican remains have been found in the Lagoa Santa area near where "Luzia" herself was found. They all seem to have been buried within a small area that may have been a cemetery. This raises the intriguing question of whether the Lagoa Santa population at this early time, was perhaps already settled in a specific area and perhaps were even no longer just hunter-gatherers.
In 2007, the skeleton of a teenage girl was found in an underwater cave in Mexico. The new discovery comes from a spectacular underwater cave on Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. Divers stumbled across a trove of prehistoric animal bones and one of the oldest, most complete human skeletons in the Western Hemisphere. The human remains are those of a teenage girl, who apparently took a fatal tumble into the limestone cavern between 12,000 and 13,000 years ago, before slowly rising seas engulfed the formation. The divers who found the skeleton in 2007 named her “Naia,” Greek for water nymph.
Jim Chatters, as the first scientist to study the skeleton of Kennewick Man, unearthed in Eastern Washington almost two decades ago. Chatters was embroiled in a controversy over race and cultural identity stirred up by the 9,500-year-old bones. His assertion that the mystery man didn’t look anything like modern Native Americans infuriated Northwest Tribes, who consider the remains those of an ancestor and sued for the right to rebury what they call the Ancient One. Now the Bothell archaeologist is back in the spotlight with another set of prehistoric bones, along with DNA evidence that helps resolve a long-standing puzzle about the first Americans.
The young woman’s skeleton shares many of the physical traits that led Chatters to question Kennewick Man’s relationship to modern Native Americans. Quote: “Even though she is extremely feminine looking, and he is very masculine looking, they look a lot alike,” he said. Both skeletons have narrow brain cases, short faces and prominent foreheads typical of people from the Pacific Rim, Australia and Africa.
Naia - Mexico
Kennewick - United States
Native Americans more closely resemble (MODERN) people from northeast Asia. That jibes with genetic studies documenting their descent from Siberians believed to have migrated east into the land mass that once linked Asia and Alaska, and thence into the Americas beginning about 17,000 years ago. To explain why the bones of the Western Hemisphere’s oldest inhabitants — called paleoamericans — have such an unexpected appearance, Chatters and other scientists hypothesized that the Americas were colonized twice in prehistoric times: first by people from Southeast Asia or even Europe, then by migrants from Siberia.
James C. Chatters is an American forensic anthropologist, archaeologist, and paleontologist. As of 2012, he is the owner of forensics consulting firm, Applied Paleoscience; and serves as a Research Associate in the Office of Graduate Studies, Research, and Continuing Education at Central Washington University; Deputy Coroner of Benton County, Washington; and a consulting scientist on staff with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation of Bothell, Washington. In 1996, Chatters was the first scientist to excavate and study the prehistoric skeletal remains, known as Kennewick Man, which were discovered on the banks of the Columbia River
The enslavement of Africans in the Spanish Americas began in 1502 and was finally outlawed in 1716 in all colonies with the exceptions of Cuba and Puerto Rico, where it remained in a semi-legal state until it was finally abolished 1866 and 1863 respectively. Native slavery was prohibited during the first half of the sixteenth century, although some enslavement continued under the guise of just war. Most of the earliest black immigrants to the Americas were born in Spain and were not slaves, men such as Pedro Alonso Niño, a navigator who accompanied Christopher Columbus on his first voyage, and the black colonists who helped Nicolás de Ovando form the first Spanish settlement on Hispaniola in 1502. The name of Nuflo de Olano appears in the records as that of a black slave present when Vasco Núñez de Balboa sighted the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Other blacks served with Hernán Cortés when he conquered Mexico and with Francisco Pizarro when he marched into Peru.
Estevanico, one of the survivors of the unfortunate Narváez expedition from 1527 to 1536, was a black slave. With three other survivors, he spent six years traveling overland from Texas to Sinaloa and finally Mexico City, learning several Native American languages in the process. Later, while exploring what is now New Mexico for The Seven Cities of Gold, he lost his life in a dispute with the Zuñi. Juan Valiente, another black person, led Spaniards in a series of battles against the Araucanian people of Chile between 1540 and 1546. He was rewarded with an estate near Santiago and control of several Native American villages. José de Rodríguez was another prominent Black Spaniard who served as a buccaneer during the 17th century in the Caribbean waters at Spain's service. He was known for his brutality against British and Dutch prisoners.
In 1502 the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves. Opponents of their enslavement cited their weak Christian faith and their penchant for escaping to the mountains. Proponents declared that the rapid diminution of the Native American population required a consistent supply of reliable work hands, since the Spanish population at the time was far too low to carry out all the manual labour needed to assure the economic viability of the colonies as the first years of Spaniard presence in America were marked by a terrible outbreak of a tropical epidemic flu in the Caribbean that decimated the populations of local natives and Spaniard explorers. In 1518 the first shipment of African-born slaves was sent to the West Indies. The Spaniards, although purchasers of slaves, mostly from the Portuguese and the British, did not engage on slave trade on the African coast themselves, and the number of African slaves in their colonies was sensibly inferior to those of Portuguese or British.
The White Lie
According to the wiki "White Latin Americans" A study, conducted by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN), reported that mestizo Mexicans were 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (Amerindian mostly), and 5.03% African. (A study of which we have not been able to obtain a copy).
The same study found that the haplogroup of Mexico's population was most similar to that of Europeans, with the percentage of haplotypes shared being 81%, followed by the Asian haplogroup, at 74%, and finally the African haplogroup, at 64%. Investigators noted that the African admixture in general did not come from the African slaves brought by the Europeans, but was already part of the genetic makeup of the colonizers themselves.
Of course these Albino genographic studies are designed to show what the Albinos want shown. And of course, there are no uniquely European, Asian, or African haplogroups, except the very oldest African ones. (All Humans carry African Haplogroups). That is explained here: >>>
However, the study does serve to prove the lie that Black Mexicans are the descendants of African Slaves. An Albino lie foolishly carried forward by Negroes who depend on Albinos for their data, rather than gathering their own.
Viceroyalty of New Granada census 1789
The Viceroyalty of New Granada, was a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, and parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
In the Americas, the largest number of African slaves were shipped to Brazil. However, in the Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, the free Black population in 1789 was 420,000, (only the truly STUPID would think that the "Free Black" population were emancipated Slaves), whereas African slaves numbered only 20,000. Free Blacks also outnumbered slaves in Brazil. In Cuba, by contrast, free Blacks made up only 15% in 1827; and in Saint-Domingue it was a mere 5% in 1789. Some half-million slaves, most of them born in Africa, worked the booming plantations of Saint-Domingue (the Caribbean island of Hispaniola - Haiti and the Dominican Republic).
Note: The Spanish could only take a census of people in their settlements and the surrounding areas. The actual native population was of course much larger, the estimated native population of south America alone (pre-Columbus) was 44 million.
|As dean of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, Ben Vinson III provides leadership vision and guidance to more than 40 academic departments and programs, 27 research centers and institutes, over 1,000 faculty members, and approximately 7,700 graduate and undergraduate students. With a vision to create an “engaged liberal arts,” he has overseen a number of ambitious initiatives that have helped to expand the college’s profile in both the arts and the sciences. These initiatives include creation of the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design—which positions the college as a pivotal player in creative and innovative arts education—and completion of Science and Engineering Hall, a state-of-the-art facility that places world-class researchers from an array of disciplines under one roof to foster collaborative discoveries.
In addition, as leader of the university’s largest academic unit, he is playing a critical role in the success of the GW’s historic $1 billion Making History comprehensive fundraising campaign—the most ambitious in GW’s 200-year history. During his tenure, Columbian College has received record-breaking philanthropic support from alumni and donors, which will translate into advancing a number of key initiatives to assist the academic enterprise.
Elected to the National Humanities Center board of trustees in 2013, Dean Vinson’s scholarship focuses on colonial Mexico, especially the African presence in Mexico. He has authored and co-authored several books and numerous articles on the military participation of blacks in the militias, labor, free black populations in Mexico, slavery in Latin America more broadly, African American experiences in Mexico and Afro-Mexican experiences in the United States. He is currently researching the colonial Latin American caste system.
Prior to his arrival to GW in 2013, Dean Vinson was the vice dean for centers, interdepartmental program, and graduate programs at the Johns Hopkins University’s Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. A member of the faculty since 2006, he was the Herbert Baxter Adams Professor of Latin American History and formerly directed the university’s Center for Africana Studies. Before his time at Hopkins, Vinson held faculty positions at Penn State University and Barnard College. He has been awarded fellowships from the Fulbright Commission, National Humanities Center, Social Science Research Council, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Ford, Rockefeller and Mellon foundations. Vinson earned a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College and a doctorate from Columbia University.
|Henry Louis Gates, Jr., is the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University. Emmy Award-winning filmmaker, literary scholar, journalist, cultural critic, and institution builder, Professor Gates has authored seventeen books and created fourteen documentary films, including Wonders of the African World, African American Lives, Black in Latin America, and Finding Your Roots, series three of which is currently in production. His six-part PBS documentary series, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross (2013), which he wrote, executive produced, and hosted, earned the Emmy Award for Outstanding Historical Program—Long Form, as well as the Peabody Award, Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Award, and NAACP Image Award. Having written for such leading publications as The New Yorker, The New York Times, and Time, Professor Gates now serves as chairman of TheRoot.com, a daily online magazine he co-founded in 2008, while overseeing the Oxford African American Studies Center, the first comprehensive scholarly online resource in the field. In 2012, The Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Reader, a collection on his writings, was published.
The recipient of fifty-five honorary degrees and numerous prizes, Professor Gates was a member of the first class awarded “genius grants” by the MacArthur Foundation in 1981, and in 1998, he became the first African American scholar to be awarded the National Humanities Medal. He was named to Time’s 25 Most Influential Americans list in 1997, to Ebony’s Power 150 list in 2009, and to Ebony’s Power 100 list in 2010 and 2012. He earned his B.A. in English Language and Literature, summa cum laude, from Yale University in 1973, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in English Literature from Clare College at the University of Cambridge in 1979. Professor Gates has directed the W. E. B. Institute for African and African American Research—now the Hutchins Center—since arriving at Harvard in 1991, and during his first fifteen years on campus, he chaired the Department of Afro-American Studies as it expanded into the Department of African and African American Studies with a full-fledged doctoral program. He also is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and serves on a wide array of boards, including the New York Public Library, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, the Aspen Institute, Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Whitney Museum of American Art, Library of America, and the Brookings Institution.
Today, Mexico is a modern, wealthy country, with the worlds 14th largest economy and a large (White) middle class.
In 2005, during the administration of President Vicente Fox:
Mexico paid homage to the Blacks of Mexico with a set of postage stamps.
Unfortunately for them, all the stamp set did was expose Latin Americas "Dirty little secret". All over Latin America, the Albinos and the "Mestizo" mulattoes (Mestizos are the mulattoes of Mongol Indians and Europeans), have conspired to denigrate and marginalize Blacks and the "Black" mulattoes. Leaving them and the Black Indians with opportunity to be little more than the lowest rung of society. Beggars in Mexico are always Black Indians.
Bolivian President Evo Morales
Venezuelan President Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías
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