This is a specific subject page, dealing exclusively with, or primarily with, the subject in the title. Because of need, there are many such pages at RHWW: usually, but not always, linked to primary pages. For those in a hurry, they enable a quick summary of many important subjects. The menu for these pages is here: Click>>>

 

 

In the vein of calculus for dummies:

(A difficult subject made easier)

Albinism for Dummies

 

 


Albinism is a disease of the Skin, therefore if we want to investigate Albinism we must begin with Human Skin. Like with just about everything, when we query for information on "Human Skin" we are directed to sources created by "Unpigmented Humans". These unpigmented or poorly pigmented humans are of course Albinos. And over the last several hundred years, they have gone to great and horrible lengths to unnecessarily protect themselves from normal (Pigmented) Humans, and conceal the reality of their disease.

When we query National Geographic on Human Skin we get this - which is typical:

Skin

Skin is the human body's largest organ; skin is made up of three layers. The outermost is the epidermis. This consists mainly of cells called keratinocytes, made from the tough protein keratin (also the material in hair and nails). Keratinocytes form several layers that constantly grow outwards as the exterior cells die and flake off. It takes roughly five weeks for newly created cells to work their way to the surface. This covering of dead skin is known as the stratum corneum, or horny layer, and its thickness varies considerably, being more than ten times thicker on the soles of the feet than around the eyes. The epidermis harbors defensive Langerhans cells, which alert the body's immune system to viruses and other infectious agents.


The epidermis is bonded to a deeper skin layer below known as the dermis, which gives the organ its strength and elasticity thanks to fibers of collagen and elastin. Blood vessels here help regulate body temperature by increasing blood flow to the skin to allow heat to escape, or by restricting the flow when it's cold. A network of nerve fibers and receptors pick up feelings such as touch, temperature, and pain, relaying them to the brain.


The dermis houses hair follicles and glands with ducts that pass up through the skin. Sweat glands bring down internal temperature through perspiration while ridding the body of the waste fluids urea and lactate. Apocrine glands, which develop during puberty, produce a scented sweat linked to sexual attraction that can also cause body odor, especially around the armpits. Sebaceous glands secrete oil-like sebum for lubricating the hair and skin. The skin's base layer is the subcutis, which includes a seam of fat laid down as a fuel reserve in case of food shortage. It also works as insulation and cushions us from knocks and falls.


Skin Color

Skin color is due to melanin, a pigment produced in the epidermis to protect us from the sun's potentially cancer-causing ultraviolet (UV) rays. Dark-skinned people produce more numerous and deeper-colored melanin particles. People with the darkest complexions are native to tropical regions, particularly those with few densely forested areas. (Comment - ALL Humans are of course "Tropical Creatures" in that they "Evolved" in Africa: and left Africa just recently, in geological time).

Fair skin is an adaptation found in people from northern latitudes where solar rays are relatively weak. Here the benefits of dark skin are outweighed by the need for bone-strengthening vitamin D, produced through exposure to UV rays. But hotter, sunnier environments bring the risk of serious skin damage. Australia, where the majority of the population is of northern European descent, has the world's highest rates of skin cancer, accounting for more than 80 percent of all cancers diagnosed there each year. (Comment - It is here where we see how our Albinos try to delude others, and perhaps themselves, about their true nature).

 

 

 

 


This young African mother had no thoughts of Vitamin "D" when she produced her White baby.

All she knew was that she was going to have a hard time keeping it healthy and alive.

 


When we point out that the African Albino Baby

looks "EXACTLY" like a European baby..

 

Europeans say: "They are different from us; they have "Nappy Hair" and Negroid features! Well, some do, some don't: The healthy (Black) Human Race is made up of EVERY human feature, and EVERY Phenotype and Genotype - and defects in the Albinism Genes is common to ALL of them, as we shall see.

 

     

 

 


Europeans say: "We are not Albinos" we "EVOLVED" White skin so that we could get enough Vitamin "D" and live in the Northern climes. Well, a whole lot of studies by Europeans and others have proved that false.

 

 

 

 

Besides, isn't it funny, that the people who are actually "Native" to the Northernmost areas of Planet Earth, all have "DARK" skin?

(Native meaning that they were there LONG before White People (Albinos) showed up).

 

 

 

 

   

Eskimos - {on the right} Seems Albino Mongol Females get around:

Judging by the number of Mulattoes (1.5 billion): they were, and still are, quite popular.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The reason that Humans really "Native" to the Northern Climes are dark, is because our Sun, with it's killer light Rays, is our planets principal Power Source. Every inch of our planet with outside exposure, is at one time or another "Bathed" in Sunshine, with its accompanying "Killer Rays". Creatures without protection will be killed!

 

Even the coldest, most Sun-Deprived place on the Earth, is not safe for White people!

Antarctic researchers need solid Sun block - Study

Expeditioners to Antarctic train for freezing temperatures and social isolation, but a study has found there is something else to be wary of -- SUNBURN!

The recent joint study by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency found that more than 80 percent of researchers to the South Pole were potentially exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays in excess of the recommended limits. Almost a third received more than five times these limits.

The study showed that in some cases the UV exposure levels in Australian Antarctic stations can reach an index level of 8 or more, making exposure levels there similar to what lifeguards in Australia's sunny Queensland state potentially receive.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/12/21/us-antarctica-sunburn-idUSTRE5BK10120091221

 

 

 

 

We hate to show these horrible pictures of what the Sun can do to the

Unmelaninated or poorly Melaninated human body, but it's reality.

 

 

 

Sunlight - Wikipedia

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. The World Meteorological Organization uses the term "sunshine duration" to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day". The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a principal source of vitamin D3 and a mutagen.

Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens, although not always necessarily so. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication, repair and recombination.

 

There are of course many other spurious claims made to explain European Whiteness, they are all debunked at different places on this site. Having dispelled the nonsense, let us now delve into what actually causes loss of Melanin in the Skin - Albinism.

 


The Human cell

Cells are small, deformable, and often motile objects, filled with an aqueous medium and enclosed in a flimsy plasma membrane; yet they can combine in their trillions to form a structure as massive, as strong, and as strictly ordered as a horse or a tree. The building technologies of animals and plants are different, and each type of organism is formed of many types of tissues, in which the cells are assembled and bound together in different ways. In both animals and plants, however, an essential part is played in most tissues by the extracellular matrix. This complex network of secreted extracellular macromolecules has many functions, but first and foremost it forms a supporting framework. It helps hold cells together, and, in animals, it provides an organized environment within which migratory cells can move and interact with one another in orderly ways. What holds Cells together is as complicated and involved as the cell itself, so we will leave it at this.

Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy, and carry out specialized functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves. Cells have many parts, each with a different function. Some of these parts, called organelles, are specialized structures that perform certain tasks within the cell. Human cells contain the following major parts, listed in alphabetical order:

Cytoplasm

Within cells, the cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid (called the cytosol) and other structures that surround the nucleus.

Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a network of long fibers that make up the cell’s structural framework. The cytoskeleton has several critical functions, including determining cell shape, participating in cell division, and allowing cells to move. It also provides a track-like system that directs the movement of organelles and other substances within cells.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

This organelle helps process molecules created by the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum also transports these molecules to their specific destinations either inside or outside the cell.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the cell.

Lysosomes and peroxisomes

These organelles are the recycling center of the cell. They digest foreign bacteria that invade the cell, rid the cell of toxic substances, and recycle worn-out cell components.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are complex organelles that convert energy from food into a form that the cell can use. They have their own genetic material, separate from the DNA in the nucleus, and can make copies of themselves.

Nucleus

The nucleus serves as the cell’s command center, sending directions to the cell to grow, mature, divide, or die. It also houses DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the cell’s hereditary material. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope, which protects the DNA and separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell.

Plasma membrane

The plasma membrane is the outer lining of the cell. It separates the cell from its environment and allows materials to enter and leave the cell.

Ribosomes

Ribosomes are organelles that process the cell’s genetic instructions to create proteins. These organelles can float freely in the cytoplasm or be connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (see above).

 

 

 

UNDERSTANDING DNA:


DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences. It is the main constituent of chromosomes, and is the carrier of genetic information.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human Skin Cells

 

The skin has three layers. The top layer, or epidermis, is made primarily of tough keratinocyte cells that ward off everything from pathogens to blunt objects – and also prevent vital water and nutrients from escaping. These cells are born near the edge of your body’s network of blood vessels. Over the course of a month, they are pushed away from the blood supply by even newer cells until they die and slough off. Tens of thousands of skin cells flake off your body every minute – nearly 10 pounds each year!


The epidermis also contains pigment-producing melanocyte cells that give your skin its color. Darker skin provides increased protection from the sun’s UV rays. Beneath the epidermis, the dermis layer contains the blood vessels that help regulate temperature and the nerves that allow you to feel heat and touch. In addition, the dermis supports the oil and sweat glands that keep the skin lubricated and waterproof, and acts as an anchor for your hair follicles. Finally, a thin layer of subcutaneous fat cells provides you with a measure of insulation and food storage.

 

 

 

Albinism

 

Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection.

Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. It is sometimes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. Albinism is considered to be a hereditary condition characterised by the absence of melanin in particular, in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, feathers or cuticle. The term is from the Latin albus, "white".

 

Chromosomes

Chromosomes - are a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division. In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

 

 

 

 

 

This is a graphic of a Chromatid: A chromatid is either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates itself as part of the early stages of cell division. The chromatids are joined together by a single centromere and later separate to become individual chromosomes. Each contains a double helix of DNA.

 

 

Our genetic information is stored in 23 pairs of chromosomes that vary widely in size and shape. Chromosome 1 is the largest and is over three times bigger than chromosome 22. Each chromosome is a very long molecule, so it needs to be wrapped tightly around proteins for efficient packaging.


Near the center of each chromosome is its centromere, a narrow region that divides the chromosome into a long arm (q) and a short arm (p). We can further divide the chromosomes using special stains that produce stripes known as a banding pattern. Each chromosome has a distinct banding pattern, and each band is numbered to help identify a particular region of a chromosome. This method of mapping a gene to a particular band of the chromosome is called cytogenetic mapping. For example, the hemoglobin beta gene (HBB) is found on chromosome 11p15.4. This means that the HBB gene lies on the short arm (p) of chromosome 11 and is found at the band labeled 15.4.

 

 

 

Partial list of Diseases associated with Chromosome 15,

and the band location of the Mutated/Defective Gene.

 

 

Almost complete list of Diseases associated with Chromosome 15,

and the band location NUMBER of the Mutated/Defective Gene.

 

 

 

Autosome - any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (22 in number).

 

Genes

Genes - (Technical use) a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.

 

Monomers - A molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

Mendelian inheritance

Mendel found that there are alternative forms of factors—now called genes—that account for variations in inherited characteristics. For example, the gene for flower color in pea plants exists in two forms, one for purple and the other for white. The alternative "forms" are now called alleles. For each biological trait, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. These alleles may be the same or different. An organism that has two identical alleles for a gene is said to be homozygous for that gene (and is called a homozygote). An organism that has two different alleles for a gene is said be heterozygous for that gene (and is called a heterozygote).

Genotype/Phenotype

The genotype of an individual is made up of the many alleles it possesses. An individual's physical appearance, or phenotype, is determined by its alleles as well as by its environment. The presence of an allele does not mean that the trait will be expressed in the individual that possesses it. If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ (the heterozygous condition), then one determines the organism’s appearance and is called the dominant allele; the other has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance and is called the recessive allele. Thus, in the example above the dominant purple flower allele will hide the phenotypic effects of the recessive white flower allele. This is known as the Law of Dominance but it is not a transmission law, dominance has to do with the expression of the genotype and not its transmission. The upper case letters are used to represent dominant alleles whereas the lowercase letters are used to represent recessive alleles.

A Perfect Everyday Example of Mendelian inheritance is the Disease of Albinism

What is Albinism? Albinism is an inherited genetic condition that reduces the amount of melanin pigment formed in the skin, hair and/or eyes.

 

Types of Albinism and their Genetic Causes

 

 

 

 

Type 1 (OCA1) Albinos

 

 

 

 

(The great majority of Mongols are Mulattoes).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EUROPEANS:


Today’s European type White people (White Mongols have a slightly different path), are formerly Black Skinned Humans from Africa of the (nonsense term) Caucasian Facial features type. Specifically, they are mostly the Albinos of Black Dravidians of India and certain East and Central Africans (see the distribution of Y-dna Haplogroup R1&2 {though not exclusively}). Their White Skin or lack of pigmentation is due to defects (Mutations) in certain "Autosomal Genes". The associated disease is called Albinism. Each type of Albinism (of the 8 types so far discovered), is caused by a different defective gene.

The White Race is believed to have formed in Central Asia, where the aforementioned Dravidian and African Albinos congregated to avoid Strong Sunlight: (at this time (OOA) it is assumed Europe was still "Iced In" by the last Ice Age).


The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period,

which occurred from c. 110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. Wikipedia


Humans (Blacks) were not able to settle Europe until circa 45,000 B.C. Though Blacks make Whites (Albinos) daily, Whites (Albinos) CANNOT make Blacks. Therefore those Albinos congregating in Central Asia, as they mated with each other, they simply made more Albinos, thus giving birth to the White Race.

 

 

 

Type 2 (OCA2) Albinos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As can be clearly see, the type 2 (OCA2) Dravidian Albino Boy

is IDENTICAL to the typical European.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today's Europeans are mostly type 2 (OCA2) Albinos, but they weren't always that way. The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) said this about them: For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations, and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves. Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames, fit only for a sudden exertion. They are less able to bear laborious work. Heat and thirst they cannot in the least endure; to cold and hunger their climate and their soil inure them. It sounds like Tacitus is describing type 1 (OCA1) Albinos - doesn't it?

Xenophon the Athenian was born 431 B.C. He was a pupil of Socrates. He marched with the Spartans: he described the White Europeans in Anatolia this way: "When, in the course of their march, they came upon a friendly population, these would entertain them with exhibitions of fatted children belonging to the wealthy classes, fed up on boiled chestnuts until they were as white as white can be, of skin plump and delicate, and very nearly as broad as they were long, with their backs variegated and their breasts tattooed with patterns of all sorts of flowers. They sought after the women in the Hellenic army, and would fain have laid with them openly in broad daylight, for that was their custom. The whole community, male and female alike, were fair-complexioned and white-skinned. It was agreed that this was the most barbaric and outlandish people that they had passed through on the whole expedition, and the furthest removed from the Hellenic customs, doing in a crowd precisely what other people would prefer to do in solitude, and when alone behaving exactly as others would behave in company, talking to themselves and laughing at their own expense, standing still and then again capering about, wherever they might chance to be, without rhyme or reason, as if their sole business were to show off to the rest of the world.

 

 

Ya, the Hellenes (Greeks) were Black, just like the original people

EVERYWHERE were Black. Albinos in Spain did a study which proved it.

 

 

 

 

Clearly our Albinos look much different today, than they did when they first entered Black Europe from Central Asia. Their White skinned, Red haired Mummies in Tarim China, attest to that. Black admixture was of course the reason for their initial change back to normalizing their skin pigment, as it is today. And even though Europe was "Cleansed" of it's Original People as a result of the "Race Wars" of the late Medieval: (the Civil Wars in Britain and the "Thirty Years Wars" on the Continent), some testaments to that admixture still remain.

 

 

 

 

Even now our Albinos are STILL CHANGING: "Since the turn of the century, people born with blue eyes in the United States have dramatically decreased, with only about 10 percent having blue eyes today. According to Mark Grant, an epidemiologist from Loyola University in Chicago. During the turn of the last century, the percentage of people with blue eyes stood at 57.4% for those born between 1899 through 1905; and 33.8% for those born between 1936 through 1951. According to Grant, in a study titled "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye color among US whites." This decrease in the occurrence of blue eyes is due to many factors, with the majority pointing to the increase in brown-eyed immigrants, mainly Hispanics and Asians, as well as heightened interracial relationships: as the other determinant. Blue eyes, next to green, are the rarest eye color in the world, as people of counties in Asia and Africa possess brown eyes."

That is of course, another in an endless line of Albinos lies, (some attribute this lying to a lack of Neuromelanin (NM), which is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin). In any event, there are many pictures of "Dark Black" people with Blue, Green, Gray eyes, as well as Blonde hair, etc. scattered across this site. The logic is SIMPLE: Black People MAKE White People (Albinos), therefore whatever our Albinos have, we MUST have first!

 

 

Freckles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type 3 (OCA3) Albinos

 

 

 

 

 

 


The question was asked: If Europeans are Albinos, then how is it that they still make Albinos?


This confusion is due to believing THEIR definition of Albino. In order to confuse pigmented people, European Albinos try to say that ONLY type 1 (OCA1) Albinos exist. They say: "Though we have White Skin, we DON'T have White Hair and Red eyes. We also have good vision and can TAN, so that proves that we are NOT Albinos! As Always, Albinos are liars: Type "1" Albinos are the ones with White hair, White Skin, Red Eyes, and poor eyesight. There are "8" (so far discovered) types of Albinism, with type 2 (OCA2) being by far the MOST COMMON!

The phenotype typical of type 2 Albinism (OCA2) is "TANNABLE WHITE SKIN, BLONDE to BROWN HAIR, and BLUE, GREEN, GRAY, or BROWN EYES - sound familiar? And how is it that type 2 (OCA2) Albinos can still make type 1 (OCA1) Albinos? Simple, normal everyday European Albinism is caused by mutation of the “P” (OCA2) gene. Whereas type 1 (OCA1) Albinism is caused by a mutation of the tyrosinase gene. These genes are at different locations of the cell Chromosome, therefore one mutation does not exclude the other. Consequently type 2 Albinos producing type 1 Albinos is not unusual in the least. And just like in Blacks with Albinism, future generations are dependent only on the mating partner’s mutations or lack of mutations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click for Realhistoryww Home Page