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Egypt

The Greek Occupation

 

DISCLAIMER: Please note, as the authentic "Real" artifacts plainly tell us, the ancient Greek and Roman societies were Black, Albino, and Mulatto - in other words - mixed race. As a matter of fact, Alexander the greats people, the Macedonians, are usually depicted in authentic artifacts as Mulattoes. And as we know, there are hundreds, maybe thousands, of Busts of Alexander as A white man. All of which are Albino Fakes, for the simple reason that the only authentic surviving image of Alexander, is the nondescript image of him in full armor on the Silver Decadrachm coin. As Persian artifacts clearly show us, the Central Asian Albino tribes like the Parthian's, Arian's, Bactrian's, and Scythian's, fought with the Black Persians against the Arab armies. For the sake of simplicity we here talk about Greeks and Romans as Albino entities exclusively, that is of course not accurate, as the Busts of Greeks and Romans as Whites are also not accurate. The world is flush with FAKE artifacts created by the Albino people showing themselves in historical roles, but very few artifacts of the actual People (Blacks) have survived Albino control. So we must make do with what we have available.

 

 

When Alexander left Egypt in 331 B.C. he left Cleomenes of Naukratis in charge of the territory. When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the Empire and Ptolemy took Egypt.

Note: Contrary to the flowery and inaccurate European portrayals of the Greek Occupation of Egypt. Egyptians did not like it, nor did they benefit from it. The Egyptians initially welcomed the Greeks, who had been longtime allies and adorers of all things Egyptian, as liberators from the hated Persians. Egyptians correctly saw one aspect of Persian aggression to be an attempt to usurp their position as intellectual and technological leaders of the world. The thought that Europeans would aspire to that position, never occurred to them. But as it became apparent that the now powerful Greeks would be nothing more than "New" conquers, their attitude changed. One can only wonder, how long it took them to realize, that they had gone from the frying pan into the fire.

European accounts of this period focus on Alexandria as the venue representing Egypt, which is of course ridiculous, Egypt is a large country with many cities. But it does serve to obscure events going on in the rest of Egypt. At the time of the Egyptian occupation, both Greeks and Rome were engaged in wars with Parthians, Persians, and sundry barbarians. Even without these conflicts, neither the Greeks nor Rome would have had sufficient forces to maintain marshall law in a country so large and populous as Egypt.

Logically then, there would have had to have been some other mechanism to maintain control. Whether the method used was local autonomy for Egyptians or perhaps a traitorous police force and army, (such as that in South Africa during their period of apartheid), cannot be gleaned with available information. Also missing from the historical record, is the occupation from the Egyptian point of view. Since the Egyptians did not Un-Learn how to read and write, it is safe to assume that there was much written on the subject, however that material has so far not been made available. Therefore the exact nature of the Greek and then Roman occupation cannot be accurately discussed.

However, one of the few instances of racial uprisings made available by Europeans, is in 206 B.C, when Upper Egypt openly rebelled. Suppressing these revolts took more out of the treasury than the Ptolemy's could afford, forcing them to seek Roman assistance. This weakness would bring Greek Egypt increasingly under the influence of Rome. Though lacking accurate historical text, one may glean a more realistic view of the Greek occupation by noting that the only Greek ruler to have bothered to learn the Egyptian language was the last, Cleopatra VII.

 


Ptolemy I (Soter I) 323-285 B.C.

Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C, the throne of Egypt fell to Ptolemy I, the son of Lagus. He was a veteran soldier and trusted commander who had been a childhood friend and served Alexander ever since.
He started the Ptolemaic Dynasty, which lasted almost 300 years. He ran Egypt like a business, strictly for profit. One of the few surviving works of Ptolemy I Soter is the temple of Kom Abu Billo, which was dedicated to Hathor "Mistress of Mefket".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arsinoe II

The story of Arsinoe II's life is much like a Greek tragic play. It is filled with death, greed, and intrigue. Arsinoe II (316-271 B.C.E.) was the daughter of King Ptolemy I and was married to King Lysimachus of Thrace at sixteen years of age. Now, at this time, her life was going exceptional well, she gave her husband three boys and in return she got whatever she wanted. Unfortunately, all good things come to an end.

When her husband died, she was offered a deal by a potential second mate. If she married him, she was promised to rule Thrace. This marriage, however, was a scam. Her second husband only wanted to get close enough to her sons to kill them. When he had succeeded in killing two of her sons and the third fled for his life, she returned to her homeland with a plan to gain power in Egypt. When she got there however, she was welcomed by a technicality that could destroy her plan.

Arsinoe's brother (Ptolemy II) the current king of Egypt, was already married to King Lysimachus' daughter Arsinoe I (282-247 B.C.E.). This little discovery put a kink in her plans, but Arsinoe II started to romance and win her brother's heart. By the year 278 B.C. Ptolemy II saw his wife, Arsinoe I as a threat, and he accused her of complicity in a plot to have him killed. Consequently, she was banished to Coptos in Upper Egypt. Arsinoe II siezed this opportunity and shortly afterward married her brother in accordance with Egyptian royal customs. Thus fulfilling the role of stepmother and sister-in-law to Arsinoe I.

She quickly became the true ruler of the country and was a key figure in court politics. Like all devoured by power and greed, once you taste it you want more. She was given divine statues and coinage was issued in her name, but it did not stop there. She wanted to reach the status of a goddess and actively pushed Arsinoe worship to achieve this task. She died at the age of forty-five, Ptolemy II built a shrine and had many cities named for her after death.

 

 

 

Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282-246 B.C.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus, which means 'Brother/Sister-loving', was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was married to his full sister Arsinoe II.

He also began a tradition of a four-yearly celebration to honor his father. It was intended to have a status equal to the Olympic games. According to the "Letter of Aristeas", Ptolemy II requested 70 Jewish scholars come from Jerusalem to translate the Pentateuch into a Greek version to be placed into the Great Library collection. He died on January 29, 246 BC.

 

 

 

 

 

Ptolemy III Euergeter I 246-222 B.C.

Ptolemy III Euergeter I was the third ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Arsinoe II and was married to Berenike, his sister. During the Third Syrian War of Ptolemy III, he make contact with the main port in the Aksumite kingdom (area of modern northern Ethopia), which was very important to the trade of ivory. He died in 222 BC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ptolemy IV Philopator          222-205 B.C.

Ptolemy IV Philopator was the fourth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Philopator means 'Father-loving'. He married his sister Arsinoe and the two received a cult as the Father-loving Gods (Theoi Philopatores). He died in the summer of 204. After his death, two of his most powerful ministers had his wife, Arsinoe III killed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180 B.C.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III. He became king after his father's death, when he was only five years old. After his father's death, his mother was eager to become the next regent. Ptolemy IV Philopator's two most powerful ministers, Sosibius and Agathocles had Arsinoe murdered. He was then passed from the control of one adviser to another. The Rosetta Stone gives the trilingual inscription of the ceremonies attending his coronation.

He was married to Cleopatra I. He died at the age of twenty-eight while putting down racial insurgencies in the Delta. There were rumors that he had been poisoned. He left his wife, who was the daughter of Antiochus, as regent for their young son Ptolemy VI Philomentor.

 

 

 

 

Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 & 163-145 B.C.

Ptolemy VI Philometor was the sixth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, who died when Philometor was a very young boy. His mother died approximately four years after Philometor took the throne, he was then under the control of his guardians, Eulaeus and Lenaeus.

His wife-sister was Cleopatra II and his younger brother was Ptolemy VII Euergetes II (Physcon). In 164 B.C, Philometor left Alexandria and went to Rome. Physcon ruled incompetently in his absence and it was becoming intolerable in Egypt. The Alexandrians soon were begging for Philometor to return to Alexandria. In May of 163 B.C. he returned and the two brothers agreed to split up the rule of Egypt. Physcon would rule the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor was ruler of Egypt. This lasted until Philometor's death in 145 B.C.

 

 

 

 

 

Which if any, is the REAL coin of Ptolemy Philometor?

 

 

 

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145 B.C.

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was the seventh ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II. Upon Philometor's death, Cleopatra's son, who was about 16 years old and had been appointed co-ruler by his father earlier that year, became king under his mother's regency. Philopator's uncle Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) wanted to rule and he had a large number of supporters. He could not get Cleopatra out of the way, so he did the next best thing, he married her. Her son Philopator was killed during the wedding feast.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II                                  (Physcon - which means Potbelly)                          170-163 & 145-116B.C.

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon) was the eighth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Ptolemy VI Philometor and the uncle of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. With Philopater out of the way, he became unchallenged king. He returned to Memphis as Pharaoh and expulsed many of the Alexandrians who had sided against him. He also married Cleopatra II's daughter, Cleopatra III. He died on June 26, 116 B.C. and left his power to Cleopatra III and whoever of her sons she might prefer.

 

{It seems safe to assume that the statue head on the left is more likely the true likeness of one nicknamed "Potbelly"}.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) 116-107 & 88-80 B.C.

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros) were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I, as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene. In Physcon's will he left the succession to Cleopatra III and to whichever son she preferred.

Of her sons, she hated Lathyros, but doted on the younger son Alexander. But the Alexandrians wanted Lathyros to be co-regent. He was then governor of Cyprus, so Lathyros was brought back to Alexandria to co-rule and Alexander was sent to Cyprus to replace Lathyros. Lathyros was married to Cleopatra IV, his sister, but his mother repudiated the marriage and replaced her with another sister, Cleopatra Selene. Cleopatra IV then went to Cyprus where she hoped to raise an army and to marry her brother Ptolemy Alexander.

She failed to marry him and moved on to Syria where she used her army as a dowry and married Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, who was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Cleopatra III finally succeeded in driving Lathyros out in 107 B.C. when she accused him of trying to murder her. He left behind his wife and his two sons. His brother Alexander returned from Cyprus and assumed the throne. Not long after Alexander came to rule, his mother soon grew tired of him as well, and forced him to flee from Alexandria. In 101, he returned under the pretense of a reconciliation with his mother. He came back and had her assassinated. Alexander was finally driven out of Egypt after selling off Alexander the Great's gold coffin to raise money.

As a way to raise money, he willed his kingdom to Rome. However, they could not claim their inheritance while he was still alive. But this did allow him to gain favor with moneylenders in Rome, and thus allow him to finance a fleet. He was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus. After the death of Alexander, Lathyros who was now in his mid-fifties, was brought back to Alexandria to try to put back together the Ptolemaic empire. He died at the age of 62 and left no legitimate heir to the throne, both of his sons by Cleopatra Selene appear to have died at a young age. His daughter Cleopatra Berenice ruled alone for a while after his death.

 

Cleopatra Berenice 81-80 B.C.

Cleopatra Berenice was the daughter of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II) and was married to Ptolemy X Alexander I. After the death of Alexander, she ruled for about one year alone. She was then forced to marry her much younger stepson (or possible son), Ptolemy XI Alexander II. Nineteen days after the marriage took place, Ptolemy XI murdered his new bride.

 

Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80 B.C.

Ptolemy XI Alexander II was the son of Ptolemy X Alexander. After the death of his uncle Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), his step-mother (or possibly mother) Cleopatra Berenice ruled for about one year alone. Ptolemy XI was required to marry his step-mother, who was much older than he. The marriage took place and nineteen days later, Ptolemy XI killed his new bride. He was then lynched by the Alexandrian mob, with whom his wife had been very popular

 

 

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes), 80-58 & 55-51 B.C.

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos was the illegitimate son of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II). His younger brother became governor of Cyprus and Ptolemy XII came to Alexandria to rule after the death of Ptolemy XI Alexander II. He was often referred to by his subjects as the Bastard or the Flute Player (Auletes). He referred to himself as 'Theos Philopator Philadelphos Neos Dionysos'. It is only in the history books that he is referred to as Ptolemy XII. He was married to his sister-wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena and was the father of the famous Cleopatra VII, who grew up to be the last of the Ptolemies.

In 59 B.C, in a bid to buy peace, he raised enough money to bribe Caesar, who was now consul for Rome. However, he was driven out of Alexandria in 58 B.C, because of his tameness when Rome took Cyprus. In his absence, he left as co-regents his wife-sister Cleopatra V Tryphaena, and their eldest daughter, Berenice IV. Cleopatra Tryphaena died about a year later, and thus Berenice IV ruled as sole regent. She was however expected to marry, she choose one Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but after a short time, she had him strangled. The second man she choose was one Archelaus. However, Archelaus' army suffered a great defeat and the Roman Pompey suggested that Auletes be returned to the throne. Upon his return, one of Auletes first acts was to have his daughter Berenice executed. Auletes returned to the throne in 55 B.C. and ruled until his death in 51 B.C. On his death, he left his regency to his daughter Cleopatra VII.

 

 

 

 

Cleopatra VII

In the springtime of 51 B.C, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 B.C in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and her father Auletes had her sister Berenice beheaded.

At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, no matter what age. She was soon married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII, he was twelve. However she soon dropped his name from all official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother. But at the same time, her world was crumbling down around her, Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home.

By 48 B.C, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria sons, when they came to ask for her assistance against the Parthians. A group of men led by one Theodotus the eunuch Pothinus, and a half-Greek general Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence, and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid as a result.

Between 51 and 49 B.C, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 B.C, which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she raised an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base.

In the meantime, the Roman Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 B.C. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 B.C. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry.

Riots followed in Alexandria, and Ptolemy XIII left for Pelusium. Meanwhile Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch Pothinus, brought Ptolemy XIII back to Alexandria. Hearing this, Cleopatra had no intention of being left out of any deals that were going to be made.

She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was thus delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII were invited to appear before Caesar. But by this time, she and Caesar were already lovers, and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out of the meeting, screaming that he had been betrayed, this in an effort to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards, and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler. He thought that she would be a puppet for Rome.

The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus rallied Ptolemy XIII's army in November of that year, they surrounded Caesar in Alexandria, with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which allowed him to control the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the Queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus, and Achillas was murdered by one Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee.

Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests.

By now Cleopatra was already pregnant with Caesars child. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria. Their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar), was born on June 23, 47 B.C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During July of the year 46 B.C, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold, placed by Caesar in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners.

However, on the Ides of March of 44 B.C, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will.

She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 B.C. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt.

Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 B.C. Cleopatra was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra waited and watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed, and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Rome very ill, so Antony was the one to work. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 B.C. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella.

Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 B.C. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class.

Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her, actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 B.C, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia.

She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl, had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out differently.

Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from the Cilician coast.

Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this, but in 36 B.C, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 B.C, he returned to Egypt with her.

Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian released troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 B.C. But Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this.

In 34 B.C, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's.

Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital."

In 32 to 31 B.C, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 B.C. Octavian's admiral Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 B.C. It is reported that native Egyptians blocked Cleopatra's escape, by now they were well weary of Greeks.

After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way.

She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which is an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 B.C. at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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