"New" DEEP Search All of Realhistory using Keyword or Phrase  

Elam & Akkadian Empire

Babylonian Empire
Assyrian Empire
Achaemenid Persian Empire
Alexanders Empire
Seleucid Empire
Parthian Empire
Sassanian Persian Empire
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire-2

Ancient Man and His First Civilizations


Modern "Iran"




Throughout the pages of Realhistoryww we rail against the lies of Albinos as relates to history and Race. We offer proof of our claims and hope to shame Albinos into better behavior. But alas, it has all been for naught, Albinos haven’t gotten better, they have gotten even worst! Note these latest examples.


This is the authentic face mask of King Tut found in his tomb   This is the forensic mockup of King Tut created by a French artist named Élisabeth Daynès. This mockup is displayed in National Geographic and many academic venues.



Élisabeth Daynès

Élisabeth Daynès is a French sculptor (self-taught, without formal education). In 1981 she worked with the Théâtre de la Salamandre in Lille creating masks for the theatre. In 1984, she founded her own studio, Atelier Daynès, in Paris. A few years later the Thot Museum in Montignac, close to the Lascaux caves, asked her to sculpt a life size woolly mammoth with a group of hominids. She has since specialized in reconstructing hominids from remaining bones. Her work is present at museums all over the world, like Musée des Merveilles in Tende, Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Transvaal Museum in Pretoria, Sangiran Museum in Indonesia, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet in Stockholm and Museum of Human Evolution in Burgos (Spain). One of her most notable sculptures is at the Krapina Neanderthal Museum in northern Croatia where she made a reconstruction of an entire seventeen member Neanderthal family. In 2005 she created a life like model of Pharaoh Tutankhamun in a project with National Geographic. In 2010 Daynes won the John J. Lazendorf Paleoart prize, widely regarded as the most prestigious reward given to artists in science art related to paleontology, in the 3-Dimensional Art category.



Just look at that, the Albinos are so desperate to get their lies out, with at least some support, that they are now taking UNEDUCATED hacks and commissioning them to make forensic mockups of ancient Blacks.

And then Albinos had the nerve to give them prizes, as if they had done something worthwhile: when in fact all they had done was to do great injury to truth, and hopes for Brotherhood and understanding.



Here is what it takes to actually do "REAL" forensic mockups

Google search: Requirements to Become a Forensics Anthropologist

This is a career requiring extensive education. You will need a bachelor’s degree in anatomy, biology, chemistry, physiology or anthropology as well as a graduate degree in human biology or anthropology. Though a degree at the Master’s level may qualify you to begin your investigative career, most forensic anthropologists have a Ph.D. degree.




Here is more of Élisabeth Daynès lying handiwork.



Magdalenian Girl is the common name for a skeleton dated ca. 15,000 to 13,000 years ago, in the Magdalenian period. The remains were discovered in 1911 in the Dordogne region of southwestern France in a limestone cave known as the Cap Blanc rock shelter.

Below is how the racist, lying, Élisabeth Daynès made that Black woman look!


The "Pataud woman" is the name given to the remains of a young woman, about 20 years old, deposited with the body of a newborn child in the Abri Pataud shelter in southwestern France. The remains are about 21,000 years old.

Below is how the racist, lying, Élisabeth Daynès made that Black woman look!


The Chancelade man was discovered in 1888 in the cave of Raymonden Chancelade in Dordogne France. The skeleton was that of an adult man, estimated to have been between 55 and 65 at death. The man had been intentionally buried and liberally coated with ochre. The grave also contained Magdalenian tools, dating from 17,000 to 12,000 years before present.

Below is how the racist, lying, Élisabeth Daynès made that Black Man look!



These "REAL" people, not the silly Albino mockups of Albino imagination above: were of course Africans settling Europe at the end of the last "Ice Age". In all pages in Realhistoryww relating to Europe, you will find the scientific proof of that. We are particularly fond of the scientific Study "Cranial Discrete Traits in a Byzantine Population and Eastern Mediterranean Population Movements": but for those wanting more, there are many other scientific studies cited and displayed on our pages.



So why are we making so much fuss about a simple Albino lie, one of so many? Because it feeds into the overall Albino lie methodology used to keep Blacks ignorant and powerless. We have said that Albino media, Academia, and Institutions, are all a part of the Albino lie infrastructure. Here is a nice example of Albino Newspapers promoting the lies.









Now here is the "REAL" story



Quote above: Strikingly, the mummies were more closely related to

ancient Europeans and Anatolians than to modern Egyptians.



Well here are the ancient Europeans!




And here are the ancient Egyptians!



There are TWO kinds of MODERN Egyptians,

Anatolians (Turkey), Arabians, and Middle Easterners generally:

The White and Mulatto ones are Turks!





The others are the Black ones

that Albino media never show you!




Modern Egyptians



Modern Persians aka Iranians





Modern Arabs



Now do you see how the Albino Lie Machine Works?




The Nonsense that White People are Cold Adapted Humans

One of the Albinos most outrageous lies is that they are “WHITE SKINNED” because they are a “COLD ADAPTED” People who EVOLVED light Skin to better absorb Sunlight for vitamin “D” synthesis. That is a ridiculous lie, and it is thoroughly and scientifically debunked Here: << Click here >>






Before going on to Ancient History,

let us first establish some "Modern" backgrounds.



2016 study - The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran.


White people (Albinos) invariably state or imply that they were the founders of civilization. As a matter of fact, even in scientific studies like this one, which disproves that assertion, they NEVER say that it's Blacks they are talking about. Instead they hide that truth behind scientific "Mumbo jumbo" intended to obfuscate the race of the subjects and confuse the reader. Assuming most Black readers of this material have a similar experience in Albino schools and universities with Albino books, materials and curriculums, and Albino teachers. How often, if EVER, have you been clearly informed as to the "Race" of any people or individual? Most likely NEVER, because Albinos "Condition" you to assume that they are talking about people like themselves, NOT you.

The fact is that neither they nor us have any idea when "OUR" Albinos first grouped together to form a racial entity. Some say it was 5,000 - 12,000 years ago, but that has not been proven. Needless to say, we have no idea when Humans (Blacks); first developed the genetic mutations which causes the disease of Albinism. But of course, whatever the time, that would have been long before Albinos chose to group together in Central Asia.

Additionally - they never admit that they are Albinos - or derived from Albinos for those later admixed with Blacks, who reacquired pigmentation and the ability to tan. All the while, in studies like this one, they use the presence or absence of Albinism genes SLC45A2 and SLC24A5 to determine if the subject was WHITE or BLACK! Ponder that for a moment: scientifically they test for Albinism to determine if a subject was like THEM or Black. Yet all the while, denying that they are Albinos.




The agricultural transition started in a region comprising the Ancient Near East and Anatolia ~12,000 years ago with the first Pre-Pottery Neolithic villages and the first domestication of cereals and legumes1,2. Archaeological evidence suggests a complex scenario of multiple domestications in a number of areas3, coupled with examples of trade4. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has revealed that this cultural package was later brought into Europe by dispersing farmers from Anatolia (so called ‘demic’ diffusion, as opposed to non-demic cultural diffusion5,6) ~8,400 years ago. However a lack of aDNA from early Neolithic individuals from the Near East leaves a key question unanswered: was the agricultural transition developed by one major population group spanning the Near East, including Anatolia and the Central Zagros Mountains; or was the region inhabited by genetically diverse populations, as is suggested by the heterogeneous mode and timing of the appearance of early domesticates at different localities?

(Please note: we present this study simply to augment our proofs of Albino falsification of history. It is NOT intended to provide factual history! Consider the absurdity of the above assertion - to wit: Africans came up through Africa, then through the Levant and into Anatolia (now Turkey). In the Levant or Anatolia; they "Suddenly" figured out that they could "plant" Flora, watch it grow, then harvest it when it ripened: Instead of constantly moving around to find already ripened Flora. Then once they learned this, they sent word back to Africa! We wonder if they are really that stupid, or just that racist. {Note: Modern Man (Blacks) were in the Levant prior to 100,000 B.C. and in Europe - after the passing of the Ice age - at about 45,000 B.C.}

Note_2: Levant is the name applied widely to the eastern Mediterranean coastal lands of Asia Minor and Phoenicia (modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon). In a wider sense, the term can be used to encompass the entire coastline from Greece to Egypt. The Levant is also part of the Fertile Crescent.




Back to the study:
To answer this question, we sequenced the genome of an early Neolithic female from Ganj Dareh, GD13a, from the Central Zagros (Western Iran), dated to 10000-9700 cal BP7, a region located at the eastern edge of the Near East. Ganj Dareh is well known for providing the earliest evidence of herd management of goats beginning at 9,900 BP7,8,9. It is a classic mound site at an altitude of ~1400 m in the Gamas-Ab Valley of the High Zagros zone in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran. The individual sampled, 13A (referred to as GD13a throughout the text), was a 30–50 year old female; the other individuals in the burial unit were a second adult (13B) and an adolescent (13). The mitochondrion of GD13a was assigned to haplogroup X, most likely to the subhaplogroup X2, which has been associated with an early expansion from the Near East and has been found in early Neolithic samples from Anatolia5, Hungary and Germany.

We compared GD13a with a number of other ancient genomes and modern populations using principal component analysis (PCA)28, ADMIXTURE29 and outgroup f3 statistics30. GD13a did not cluster with any other early Neolithic individual from Eurasia in any of the analyses. ADMIXTURE and outgroup f3 statistics identified Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers of Western Georgia, just north of the Zagros Mountains, as the group genetically most similar to GD13a:




Recall our statement: "Albinos "Condition" you to assume that they are talking about people like themselves, NOT you." Well we have just experienced a perfect example of that very thing. Haven't we all been conditioned to associate the Caucasus (Caucasians - Caucasoid) with WHITE people?

Here is how the TERM came about - from Wikipedia:

The term Caucasian originally referred in a narrow sense to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus region. In his The Outline of History of Mankind (1785), the German philosopher Christoph Meiners first used the concept of a "Caucasian" (Kaukasischen) race in its wider racial sense. Meiners acknowledged two races: the Caucasian or beautiful, and the Mongolian or ugly. His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia (including the Phoenicians, Hebrews and Arabs), the autochthones of Northern Africa (Berbers, Egyptians, Abyssinians and neighboring groups), the Indians, and the ancient Guanches.

In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin". In a series of articles, Meiners boasts about the superiority of Germans among Europeans, and describes non-German Europeans' color as "dirty whites", in an unfavorable comparison with Germans. Such views were typical of early proto-scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races. This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey, who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans. (Comment - yet they refuse to accept that they are Albinos)!



Before returning to the study, let us first establish who were the "REAL" Caucasians:



The first civilization in the Caucuses was the Colchian culture. Here is how the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 440 B.C.) described the Colchians - Quote: "Egyptians said that they believed the Colchians to be descended from the army of Sesostris. My own conjectures were founded, first, on the fact that they are black-skinned and have woolly hair, which certainly amounts to but little, since several other nations are so too; but further and more especially, on the circumstance that the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians (Nubians) , are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times."



Back to the study:

whilst PCA also revealed some affinity with modern Central South Asian populations such as Balochi, Makrani and Brahui. Also genetically close to GD13a were ancient samples from Steppe populations (Yamanya & Afanasievo) that were part of one or more Bronze age migrations into Europe, (Kinda - but not fully - admitting that Whites are NOT native to Europe); as well as early Bronze age cultures in that continent (Corded Ware) in line with previous relationships observed for the Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers.
GD13a appears to be related to Caucasus Hunter Gatherers and to modern South Asian populations.

The phenotypic attributes of GD13a are similar to the neighboring Anatolian early farmers and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers. Based on diagnostic SNPs, she had dark, black hair and brown eyes (see Supplementary). She lacked the derived variant (rs16891982) of the SLC45A2 gene associated with light skin pigmentation (In other words - SHE WAS A BLACK WOMAN!), but likely had at least one copy of the derived SLC24A5 allele (rs1426654) associated with the same trait. The derived SLC24A5 variant has been found in both Neolithic farmer and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer groups suggesting that it was already at appreciable frequency before these populations diverged. Finally, she did not have the most common European variant of the LCT gene (rs4988235) associated with the ability to digest raw milk, consistent with the later emergence of this adaptation5,15,21.

{Could she be of the Gutians? - just a thought}


Partial Albinism list


Note: The ability to digest raw milk is a nonsense "Tell" and of unknown purpose. As BOTH Blacks and Whites happily drink Milk, and BOTH populations have people who can't digest Milk - what's the point?




The question is often asked: "if White people are really Albinos,

then how can there be SO MANY of them: especially since Albinism is so RARE?

Firstly - WHO told you that it's rare? This is where the axiom "Consider the source" comes into play.
Secondly: let’s look at the Worlds Populations:

There are approximately 7.6 billion people on this Earth.
Between Europe and the Americas, it is estimated that there are 800 million Albinos on this Earth.
There are about 1.5 Billion "light-skinned" Mulatto Mongols (formerly called the "Yellow Race" because of the tell-tale yellow hue of some mulattoes - of ANY race): these are the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans. The number of "Pure" Albinos in these countries is unknown and probably exaggerated because these societies tend to "Feature" them to outsiders. Likewise the number of Native Blacks in these societies (Jomon, Ainu, Nigrito, Mon), is unknown because these societies tend to hide them from outsiders: (see the China section for more).

The South East Asian populations (Philippines, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia: are darker, and obviously Mulatto from the migrations of Chinese into those Nigrito/Mon lands starting in the 1600s. Indonesia is actually still mostly Black, but with a Chinese ruling elite. See the relevant section or “Special Subject Page” for more. So for obvious reasons, we make no attempt to racially classify these people - as with the Mulatto populations of North Africa, the Middle-East, and the Americas.


The rest of the Worlds people (Over 5 Billion of them) are Blacks of every kind!

So in answer to the question: "how can there be SO MANY of them".

Actually there is not as many of them as they make it seem:

and it appears that in "certain" populations, the MAJORITY of the offspring are Albino.


While in other populations, Albinism is truly rare.


But one thing is certain, Albinos mating with Albinos, can ONLY produce more Albinos.

Only Blacks can make Blacks AND Albinos too!





It was not that long ago when Albino and Mulatto media told us that those "Half-White" and White people in North Africa, the Middle-East, and Arabia, were Berbers, Arabs, Egyptians or Persians. But now, with the conflict between them and European Albinos heating up, it appears that a crack has developed in their common anti-Black armor. Some European Albinos no longer feel the need to continue those parts of Albino Race and History lies, which served to legitimize them as descendants of the aforementioned ancient Black people.

Oghuz Turks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources called the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling the Muslim, as opposed to shamanist or Christian Oghuz, the Turkmens. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage, and the Oghuzes were now overwhelmingly Muslim.

The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs, (Jeti-su/Zhetysu: is the historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the southeastern part of modern Kazakhstan). The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes.

Today the residents of Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Khorezm, Turkmens of Afghanistan, Balkans, Iraq and Syria are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (also known as southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family.

Comment - Why this Albino source fails to include the residents of Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel (Jews are Khazar Turks), Palestine, etc. as also being Turks, is unknown and incorrect.




They were White!


As anyone who has ever read modern Albino history, or watched an Albino movie, or done any such thing can tell you, all of the original ancient cultures of man were made up of White people. Forget that the average European would quickly die from UV exposure working the fields of Egypt, Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkadia, Assyria, Babylonia), Arabia, etc: bare-chested as the ancient art indicates. But it doesn't matter, in their delusion European Albinos sincerely believe that they are old, and not Albinos. Therefore it is illuminating when we see that the old guard of Albino historical scientists were not so crazy, they actually admitted that the original founders of mans cultures and civilizations were Africans.




By Professor G. F. SCOTT ELLIOT, M.A., B.Sc., F.L.S., F.R.G.S.

With Seventy Illustrations and Diagrams. Demy 8vo. 7/6 net.


The Aurignacians found the Moustierian or Neander-thaler in France, and during all the changes sketched above, the former seem to have held their own in that country. After the Wurm Ice Age the Aurignacians modified their weapons and mode of life, and, after the theory which we have adopted, became the men of La Madeleine.

These Aurignacians and their Magdalenian descendants pervaded all Central and Southern Europe. Their remains have also been discovered in Valetta (Malta), in Phoenicia (Nahr Antelias), and elsewhere, as we shall try to show later. But during this long period of time two other races also succeeded in entering France and Italy. These were a “ negroid,” perhaps pygmy, folk and the men of Solutrean.

We have seen that the Aurignacian was originally an African, and if he traversed North Africa on his way from Egypt and Mesopotamia, it would have been a very remarkable fact if he had not come in contact with the African pygmy or his ancestors, for the Bushman, Wam-battu, and the other pygmies are the oldest African race known to us.

The “ negroids ” discovered by Dr. Verneau in the Grotte du Grimaldi, though differing greatly from modern Bushmen, show that the Aurignacians were acquainted with a negroid stock, which may perhaps be assumed to be an ancestor of, or allied to, the pygmy. It is difficult to say exactly what was the relation between the Aurignacian and this “ negroid ” race.

Moreover, since the discovery of this burial, characteristic skulls of the same negroid affinity have been found in Spain, in Brittany (of Neolithic date), at Sierra (not earlier than the thirteenth century), in Sardinia, at Ostorf, and perhaps in Caithness.






Please note:

Albino historians and writers, in their efforts to obfuscate and Whiten history, commonly call Whites, such as the Saffarids: Persians, or of “Persian origin” simply because they were formerly a part of the Persian Empire. The fact is that at least 30 ethnic groups were a part of the Persian Empire. Judging from the appearances of the subject peoples of the Persian Empire, as depicted on the tomb of Darius I (the Great): approximately nine of them were Central Asian Albinos. Among them - the Parthians, the Arians, the Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians, two types of Saca (Scythians), the Carians, and the recent Albino conquerors of Thrace of unknown name. Later, the Black Arabs of the Abbasid dynasty imported hundreds of thousands of Turkish Slave soldiers called "Mamluks". These Turks turned into the millions as Turks, and all other Dravidian type Albinos, were driven from Central and East Asia by the Mongols. The only true (black) Persians were the Mede of Media, and the Parsa of Pars, next in importance were the original people of the land – The Elamites. The many massacres of Persians, by Whites and Mongols, as detailed in these pages, explains why so few Blacks still exist in Iran.


Concerning Literature

Egyptians, Sumerians, Mohenjo-daroans, Harappans, and Cretans, Elamites, and Nubians, were literate 3,000 years, 4,000 years, who knows how many thousands of years, before the world ever heard of Greeks or Romans. And there is ample evidence of their literacy.

Yet there is not one single entry: describing any of the people of their times, whether it be friends, foes, or invaders: or even more incredulously, there is not one single entry describing invading Whites in any of their literature.

Contrast that with Greek and Roman writings, in which these NEWLY literate people, describe EVERYTHING and EVERYONE!

The discrepancy is of course, not accidental, nor for lack of material.

Hopefully, the White man has simply withheld this material, and not destroyed it.



Culture and structure

Little is known of the cultures of Iran during the early Bronze ages. However, it is clear that during these early periods, the rugged broken landscape of the Iranian Plateau, forced man into a variety of relatively isolated cultures. These cultures did not participate in the developments, that led to the fully urban civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia to their west, or in the Indus Valley to their south.



Except for Elam, which was contemporary with its neighboring cultures in every way. Here they had the same high level of civilization as their neighbors, with the same agriculture, the same architecture (the Elamites built Ziggurats too), and the same technology in mathematics and the sciences. The center of Elam was (what is now) "Khuzestan". Though geographically, Elam included more than Khuzestan, it was a combination of the lowlands, and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. The major cities of Elam were, Awan, Anshan, Simash, and Susa. Susa later became Elam's capital.




Model of a temple, called the Sit-shamshi, made for the ceremony of the rising sun -12th century B.C.

At the Louvre.


Click here for a blow-up picture


The ceremony

Two nude figures squat on the bronze slab, one knee bent to the ground. One of the figures holds out open hands to his companion who prepares to pour the contents of a lipped vase onto them. The scene takes place in a stylized urban landscape, with reduced-scale architectural features: a tiered tower or ziggurat flanked with pillars, a temple on a high terrace. There is also a large jar resembling the ceramic pithoi decorated with rope motifs that were used to store water and liquid foodstuffs. An arched stele stands by some rectangular basins. Rows of dots in relief may represent solid foodstuffs on altars, and jagged sticks represent trees. The men's bodies are delicately modeled, their faces clean-shaven, and their shaved heads speckled with the shadow of the hair. Their facial expression is serene, their eyes open, the hint of a smile on their lips. An inscription tells us the name of the piece's royal dedicator and its meaning in part: "I Shilhak-Inshushinak, son of Shutruk-Nahhunte, beloved servant of Inshushinak, king of Anshan and Susa [...], I made a bronze sunrise."


Chogha Zambil: a religious capital

The context of this work found on the Susa acropolis is unclear. It may have been reused in the masonry of a tomb, or associated with a funerary sanctuary. It appears to be related to Elamite practices that were brought to light by excavations at Chogha Zambil. This site houses the remains of a secondary capital founded by the Untash-Napirisha dynasty in the 14th century BC, some ten kilometers east of Susa (toward the rising sun). The sacred complex, including a ziggurat and temples enclosed within a precinct, featured elements on the esplanade, rows of pillars and altars. A "funerary palace," with vaulted tombs, has also been found there.


The royal art of the Middle-Elamite period

Shilhak-Inshushinak was one of the most brilliant sovereigns of the dynasty founded by Shutruk-Nahhunte in the early 12th century BC. Numerous foundation bricks attest to his policy of construction. He built many monuments in honor of the great god of Susa, Inshushinak. The artists of Susa in the Middle-Elamite period were particularly skilled in making large bronze pieces. Other than the Sit Shamshi, which illustrates the complex technique of casting separate elements joined together with rivets, the excavations at Susa have produced one of the largest bronze statues of Antiquity: dating from the 14th century BC, the effigy of "Napirasu, wife of Untash-Napirisha," the head of which is missing, is 1.29 m high and weighs 1,750 kg. It was made using the solid-core casting method. Other bronze monuments underscore the mastery of the Susa metallurgists: for example, an altar table surrounded by snakes borne by divinities holding vases with gushing waters, and a relief depicting a procession of warriors set above a anel decorated with engravings of birds pecking under trees. These works, today mutilated, are technical feats. They prove, in their use of large quantities of metal, that the Susians had access to the principal copper mines situated in Oman and eastern Anatolia. This shows that Susa was located at the heart of a network of circulating goods and long-distance exchange.






Elam's strength was based on it's ability to hold these various areas together, under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of natural resources that were unique to each region. (Elam was, as Afghanistan is today, the worlds major source of lapis Lazuli, which was greatly prized). Traditionally this was done through a federated government structure. Closely related to this form of government, was the Elamite system of inheritance and power distribution. The normal pattern of government for Elam was that of a king or overlord, ruling over vassal princes.

In the earliest times, the king was required to live in Susa, which functioned as the federal capital. With him ruled his brother closest in age (the viceroy), who usually had his seat of government in the native city of the currently ruling king. This viceroy was heir presumptive to the king. Yet a third official, the regent or prince of Susa (the district), shared power with the king and the viceroy. He was usually the kings son, or if no son was available, his nephew. On the death of the king, the viceroy became king. The prince of Susa remained in office, and the brother of the old viceroy nearest to him in age became the new viceroy. Only if all brothers were dead, was the prince of Susa promoted to viceroy, thus enabling the king to name his own son (or nephew), as the new prince of Susa.

Such a complicated system of governmental checks, balances, and power inheritance, often broke down, despite bilateral descent and levirate marriage, ( the compulsory marriage of a widow to her deceased husband's brother). What is remarkable is how often the system did work; it was only in the Middle and Neo-Elamite periods that sons more often succeeded fathers to power. The Elamite people were closely tied, culturally and otherwise, to Mesopotamia. Later, perhaps because of domination by the Akkadian dynasty (2334-2154 BC), Elamites adopted the Sumerian-Akkadian system of writing (the cuneiform script).












Little is known of the Elamite pantheon, except to say that the Elamites, in their many excursions into Sumer, were very fond of carrying off huge Sumerian statues of their gods, and installing them in Susa.

Consequently, perhaps the best way to think of the Elamites and their cities, is simply as an extension of Sumer and its cities. The two countries were culturally pretty much the same, and the people were ethnically the same - as attested to by later Assyrian relief's of the two peoples, in appearance and dress, they are indistinguishable one from the other.



Politically, Elam was closely involved with Sumer, Akkad, and Assyria, sometimes through peaceful trade, more often through war. In like manner, Elam was often a participant in the events of the Iranian Plateau. These involvements were related to the combined need of all the lowland civilizations to control the warlike peoples to the east, and to exploit the economic resources of the plateau.

The earliest kings in the Old Elamite period, may date to approximately 3,000 B.C. Already conflict with Sumer, especially with the city of Ur, was characteristic of Elamite history. In one case, according to the Sumerian King list, “Sumerian king Enmenbaragesi, made Elam submit”. The early Susa rulers were succeeded by the Awan (Shustar) dynasty. An early king of this dynasty, returned the favor to Sumer, he attacked and defeated Ur, and Elam ruled Sumer for the next 350 years.



Elamite rule was broken when King Susuda of Kish defeated the Elamites. There soon appeared a new ruling house in Elam, the Simash dynasty, (Simash may have been in the mountains of southern Luristan). The most notable event of this period, was the virtual conquest of Elam by King Shulgi of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (2094–2047 BC). Eventually the Elamites rose in rebellion, and overthrew the 3rd Ur dynasty, an event long remembered in Mesopotamian dirges and omen texts.

At about 1900 B.C, power in Elam passed to a new dynasty, that of Eparti. The third king of this line "Shirukdukh" was active in various military coalitions against the rising power of Babylon, but Hammurabi (1792–1750 B.C.) was not to be denied, and Elam was crushed in 1764 B.C. The Old Babylon kingdom however, fell into rapid decline following the death of Hammurabi, and it was not long before the Elamites were able to gain revenge.

Elamite king "Kutir-Nahhunte I" attacked Samsuiluna (1749–1712 B.C.) Hammurabi's son, and dealt so serious a defeat to the Babylonians that the event was remembered more than 1,000 years later in an inscription of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. It may be assumed that with this stroke Elam once again gained independence. The end of the Eparti dynasty, which may have come in the late 16th century B.C, is buried in silence.


Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>



< Back Home Next >