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So now in Persia, a new Persian dynasty, the "Sassanians" have ascended. Thus begins a series of great wars against the Romans, because these two great empires were of equal strength, it was not possible for either side to gain decisive victory. So for year after year, the battles raged, and the two sides became weaker and weaker.






The Coptic Period


The "Coptic period" is an informal designation for Late Antiquity in Egypt, an era defined by the religious shifts in Egyptian culture to Coptic Christianity from paganism until the Muslim conquest of Egypt. It began in about the 3rd century, and depending on sources and usage, lasted until either around the noticeable decline of Christianity in Egypt, in the 9th century, or to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century. Although the term is widely utilized in popular discourse, its use in academia is generally avoided due to its imprecise nature, whereas "Late Antiquity" or "Byzantine Egypt" can be defined on chronological grounds. A remarkable number of Coptic textiles survive today, due to the Coptic custom of burying them with the dead, and to the aridity of Egyptian graves. The textiles are commonly linen or wool and use the colors red, blue, yellow, green, purple, black and brown.













The Arab/Eurasian Invasion

After for so long battling each other, the Persians and the Romans had little hope of defeating the Arab forces that came sweeping in from the south. The exact nature of these "Early" Arab forces is not well understood: for certainly it seems unlikely that sparsely populated Arabia, could on it's own, field an army large enough to defeat the combined forces of the Sassanian and Roman Empires: even less so, because the desert Bedouins had rejected Islam, and would not be conquered for some time to come. Later occurrences of course, make it obvious that Turks and Greeks were the dominant elements. These non-Arab troops would later be given the status and rights of Arabs. The painting below probably accurately depicts what the early Muslim armies looked like.





In 627 A.D, the Prophet Mohammed, the founder of Islam, caused letters to be written to several rulers, including letters to the governor of Alexandria and the Viceroy of Egypt. {No guarantee on the accuracy of this letter}.

In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad slave of Allâh and His Messenger to Muqawqas, vicegerent of Egypt.

Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Thereafter, I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore, if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allâh, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts.

There is controversy as to exactly who the Copt's are, though certainly NOT native Egyptian, they may perhaps be a combination of Greek and Levant Christians from the time of the Ptolemy's.

Native Egyptians, who had not governed themselves for almost 1,200 years, had no say in the matter. They were totally at the mercy of officials, bureaucrats and an elite class, that was of foreign blood. Who of course, had their own interest to think about, their home was now Egypt. The Egypt of the Pharaoh's was a long lost memory, save for the statues and monuments that they left behind. The Egypt they knew was the Egypt of their own making, and they had no desire to be uprooted.

Then as now, the portion of Egypt's population that is native Egyptian is a mystery. Though we know that there were massive influxes of Greeks, Romans, Turks and others, there is no data available as to what percentage of the population they comprised. One line of thought is that native Egyptians were forced south into what is now Sudan, {then Nubia}. This theory has to be given credence if for no other reason, than simply because it explains Egypt's acceptance of foreign rule for so long, cross-breeding of course, being another element. Logically it seems safe to assume, that if there had still been a sizable Egyptian element to the population, they would have had long ago reestablished their own governance, 1,200 years is a very long time.




Accordingly, in about 639-640 A.D, after much maneuvering and many intrigues, a treaty was signed by Roman representatives and Arab representatives, which called for the total withdrawal of Roman soldiers, it also stipulated certain monies to be paid to the Arabs. After occupying Egypt, Arabs forces later spread out over Northern Africa, the Middle-East, Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

The following post "Arab invasion history", though speaking of Egypt, may be considered typical of North Africa and the middle East.

The Prophet Muhammad, had made Medina his capital, and it was there that he died. Leadership then fell to Abu Bakr (632-634), Muhammad's father-in-law and the first of the four orthodox Caliphs, or temporal leaders of the Muslims. Umar followed him (634-644) and organized the governmental administration of captured provinces. The third caliph was Uthman (644-656), under whose administration the compilation of the Quran was accomplished.

An aspirant to the caliphate was Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. Upon the murder of Uthman, Ali became caliph (656-661). After a civil war with other aspirants to the caliphate, Ali moved his capital to Kufa Iraq, and was later assassinated at Al Kufah. Ali's followers established the first of Islam's dissident sects, the Shia (from Shiat Ali "party of Ali"). Those before and after Ali's succession remained the orthodox of Islam; they are called Sunnis - from the word sunnia meaning orthodox.

The Umayyad dynasty: After Ali's murder in 661, Muawiyah - the governor of Syria, (Syria - the Greek name for the region that connected three continents), and a kinsman of Uthman, and also a member of the Quraysh lineage of the Prophet - proclaimed himself caliph and established his capital in Damascus, Syria.

Muawiyah cultivated the goodwill of Christian Syrians by recruiting them for his army at double pay, appointing Christians to many high offices, and by appointing his son by his Christian wife as his successor. {Since the time of Alexander, Greeks had built many cities in Syria and had become the dominate element of the population. By virtue of the Roman occupation, most had become Christians. The province of Syria included the modern elements of Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria}.

The Syrian army became the basis of Umayyad strength, enabling the bypassing of Arab tribal rivalries. It was under Umayyad Caliph Umar II (reigned 717-720), that these discontented mawali (non-Arab Muslims) were placed on the same footing with all other Muslims, without respect to nationality. This decree allowed Greeks, Turks and other Eurasians to fully assimilate into the Muslim brotherhood.

The Abbasid dynasty: Later the mawali became involved with the Hashimiyah, a religious/political sect that denied the legitimacy of Umayyad rule. In 749 the Hashimiyah, proclaimed as caliph Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who thereby became first Caliph of the 'Abbasid dynasty. The Abbasid dynasty would rule over Islam for approximately the next 500 years. The Abbasids were descended from an uncle of Muhammad and were cousins to the ruling Umayyad dynasty. The Abbasids established the caliphate in the new city of Baghdad. The strength of the Abbasid dynasty was its Turkish troops.

The Tulunid dynasty: It was during the rule of Abbasid caliph Harun ar-Rashid (ruled 786-809), that the caliphs began assigning Egypt to Turks rather than to Arabs. The first Turkish dynasty was that of Ibn Tulun who entered Egypt in 868.

The Ikhshidid dynasty: 935 A.D. ushered in the Ikhshidid dynasty of Muhammad ibn Tughj, a Turk from Uzbekistan in Central Asia.

The Ikhshidid dynasty was usurped by their Abyssinian slave tutor named Kafur, he ruled Egypt with the caliphate's sanction.

The Fatimid Dynasty: When Kafur died in 968, the Fatimids (a contending force for the Caliphate), took advantage of the disorder in Egypt to attack, the attack was successful and led to the occupation of Egypt by a Berber army led by the Fatimid general Jawhar. The early Fatimids' reliance on Berber troops was soon replaced by the importation of Turkish, Sudanese, and Arab contingents. By the time of their decline however, the Fatimid army was under the leadership of Eurasian Armenian generals, (not Aramaean).

The Ayyubid dynasty: In 1169 The Turkish governor of Syria sent an army lead by Saladin (a Kurd born in Tikrit Iraq), to occupy Egypt.



Saladin, (born 1137/38, Tikrīt, Mesopotamia [now in Iraq] — died March 4, 1193, Damascus [now in Syria]), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyūbid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes. In wars against the Christian Crusaders, he achieved great success with the capture of Jerusalem (October 2, 1187), ending its nearly nine decades of occupation by the Franks.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm al-Dīn Ayyūb, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of ʿImad al-Dīn Zangī ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Baʿlbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.

His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad al-Dīn Shīrkūh, an important military commander under the emir Nūr al-Dīn, who was the son and successor of Zangī. During three military expeditions led by Shīrkūh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Christian (Frankish) rulers of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the king of Jerusalem; Shāwar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fātimid caliph; and Shīrkūh.

After Shīrkūh’s death and after ordering Shāwar’s assassination, Saladin in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops in Egypt and vizier of the Fātimid caliph there. His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title “king” (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan.

Saladin’s position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the weak and unpopular Shīʿite Fāṭimid caliphate, proclaiming a return to Sunni Islam in Egypt. Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nūr al-Dīn, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir’s death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.

Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt. This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the Crusaders, Saladin’s singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin’s every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad, or holy war. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions. He courted their scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works, especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favor, by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin Crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of Crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine. So great were the losses in the ranks of the Crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nāblus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months. But Saladin’s crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole Crusading movement came on October 2, 1187, when the city of Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to Saladin’s army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks.

Saladin planned to avenge the slaughter of Muslims in Jerusalem in 1099 by killing all Christians in the city, but he agreed to let them purchase their freedom provided that the Christian defenders left the Muslim inhabitants unmolested.

His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the Crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack. Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a Crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this Crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle. The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I (the Lion-Heart). Therein lies the greatest—but often unrecognized achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The Crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard left the Middle East, in October 1192, the battle was over. Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus.

Soon the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his grave. Saladin’s family continued to rule over Egypt and neighbouring lands as the Ayyūbid dynasty, which succumbed to the Mamlūk (Turkish Slave Soldiers) dynasty in 1250.


The Kurds

The progenitor of the Ayyubid dynasty was Najm ad-Din Ayyub bin Shadhi. He belonged to a Kurdish tribe whose ancestors settled in the town of Dvin, in northern Armenia. He belonged to the tribe of Rawadiya, itself a branch of the Hadhabani tribe. The Rawadiya were the dominant Kurdish group in the Dvin district. They were a member of the sedentary political-military elite of the town. Circumstances became unfavorable in Dvin when Turkish generals seized the town from its Kurdish prince. Shadhi left for Iraq with his two sons Najm al-Din Ayyub and Asad al-Din Shirkuh. He was welcomed by his friend Mujahed al-Din Bihruz—the military governor of northern Mesopotamia under the Seljuks Turks — who appointed Shadhi as the governor of Tikrit.

The Hadhabani tribe was a large medieval Kurdish tribe divided into several groups, centered at Arbil, Ushnu and Urmia in central and north-eastern Kurdistan. Their dominion included surrounding areas of Maragha and Urmia to the east, Salmas to the north and parts of Arbil and Mosul to the west. About 10th century they gradually immigrated northward to the areas around lake Urmia with Ushnu as their summer capital. They ruled the area for a while but later split to a few branches who spread across Azerbaijan (at the time Turks still had not invaded Azerbaijan), and Caucasus. Saladin the renowned Muslim ruler was descendant of one of Hadhabani branches.

Apparently the "REAL" unmixed Kurds, may have been descendants of the Sumerians/Akkadians/Assyrians, or perhaps even the Colchians or Artaxiads of Armenia.


The Mamluk dynasty: In 1250 A.D. The Mamluks rebelled and established their own dynasty.


It is at this time that the genius of Egyptians shows itself again. It is at this time that the Egyptians invent the first actual “Gun” which is first used by their Turkish Masters, the Mamluks, against the invading Mongols: At the battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 A.D. Once again, it will be hundreds of years, before Europeans understand the device sufficiently to copy it.





The Ottoman dynasty: In 1516 A.D. the Ottoman Turks along with other Eastern European troops (Serbs and Bosnians), defeated the Mamluks.


In 1798, the French army under Napoleon, invaded and occupied Egypt.

Link: Napoleon in Egypt, or Egomaniac on the Loose - University of Illinois



In 1801, the British invaded and occupied Egypt.



Muhammad Ali (Pasha): In March 1803 the British were evacuated in accordance with the Peace of Amiens. But the Ottomans, determined to reassert their control over Egypt remained, establishing their power through a viceroy and an occupying army of Albanians. The Albanians later mutinied and installed their own leader as acting viceroy. When he was assassinated shortly afterward, the command of the Albanians passed to his lieutenant, Muhammad Ali. The dynasty that he established would rule Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

In Arabia, the domination of Mecca and Medina by puritanical Wahhabi Muslims was a serious embarrassment to the Ottoman sultan, who was the titular overlord of the Arabian territory of the Hejaz and the leading Muslim sovereign. At the invitation of Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39), Muhammad Ali sent an expedition to Arabia that between 1811 and 1813 expelled the Wahhabis from the Hejaz. In a further campaign (1816-18), Ibrahim Pasha, the viceroy's eldest son, defeated the Wahhabis in their homeland of Najd, and brought central Arabia under Albanian control.

In 1820-21 Muhammad Ali sent an expedition up the Nile and conquered much of what is now the northern Sudan. By so doing, he made himself master of one of the principal channels of the slave trade, and began an African Empire that was to be expanded under his successors. The conquest of the Sudan was intended to provide recruits. But the slaves, encamped at Aswan, died wholesale, and Muhammad Ali had to look elsewhere for his troops. In 1823 he took to conscripting Egyptian peasants for the rank and file of his new army. On the other hand, the officers were mostly Turkish Ottomans, while the director of the whole enterprise, Sulayman Pasha (Colonel Sève), was a former French officer. The conscription was brutally administered.

In 1882 the British once again invaded and occupied Egypt. This occupation was to last until the end of WWI. After which, Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.





Egypt 1882

From the Brooklyn Museums Lantern Slide Collection


Egypt - Arabian Horse and man from Sais, Cairo



Egypt - Bisharin Man, Assuan/Aswan



Egypt - Donkey and Cart, Kasr-el-Nil

For more pictures of Egypt 1882: similar Algerian pictures, as well as erotic Picture Post Cards from North Africa, for the same period: Click here >>>




The British Spy - Colonel Gerard E. Leachman




Gerard Leachman

Brevet Lieut. Colonel Gerard E. Leachman CIE DSO (1880 – 1920), was a British soldier and spy who travelled extensively in Arabia.

Leachman was commissioned into the Royal Sussex Regiment and served in India and in the Boer War. He spent most of his career as a political officer and spy in Iraq, where he was instrumental in pacifying warring tribes to bring stability to the new country. Leachman also made various expeditions further south into Arabia, where he contacted Ibn Sa’ud on behalf of the British government. He travelled as a naturalist of the Royal Geographical Society, but was in fact a British agent. With his skill at riding a camel, Leachman was easily able to pass as Bedouin and often travelled incognito.

Leachman’s first major expedition South into the Arabian Peninsula was in 1909, during which he was involved in a ferocious battle between the Anaiza and Shammar tribes near Ha’il. In 1912 Leachman made a second expedition with the intention of crossing the Rub Al Khali, but was refused permission by Ibn Sa’ud when he reached Riyadh and instead went to Hasa. He was the first Briton to be received by Ibn Sa’ud in his home city.

In December, 1915, during the Siege of Kut, the British commanding officer, Major General Charles Townshend, ordered Leachman to save the British cavalry by breaking out and riding south. This he did and the cavalry were the only British unit to escape before the fall of the city to the Ottomans.

Leachman was close to Gertrude Bell‘s friend Fahd Bey and fought with the Muntafiq tribal federation. After the war, he was made first military governor of Kurdistan. He was murdered by Sheikh Dhari, a tribal leader, near Fallujah (Iraq) on August 12, 1920.



The Movie about Colonel Gerard E. Leachman


Clash of Loyalties aka The Great Question) is a 1983 Iraqi film focusing on the formation of Iraq out of Mesopotamia in the aftermath of the First World War. The film was financed by Saddam Hussain, filmed in Iraq (mainly at the Baghdad Film Studios in Baghdad's Mansour neighbourhood and on location at the Tigris-Euphrates marshlands, Babylon and Kut) at the height of the Iran–Iraq War and starred Oliver Reed as Gerard Leachman.













In 1922 Egypt was granted limited independence, and on March 15, the Sultan Ahmad Fuad, son of the Turkish Khedive (Viceroy), Ismail Pasha, became King Fuad I of Egypt.



On Feb.1,1958, Egypt and Syria proclaimed the two countries to be the United "Arab" Republic (U.A.R.). The union ended on Sept. 28, 1961, when Syria, following a military coup, declared itself independent of Egypt. Despite the dissolution of the union, Egypt retained the name United Arab Republic until Sept. 2, 1971, when it took its current name the "Arab Republic of Egypt".



Click Here for a Picture Gallery of Turkish Rulers of Egypt. Click >>>





Egyptian King and Ruler list

The ancient Egyptian Kinglist is very fluid, as new attestations for previously unknown kings or Queens are discovered (such as newfound Serekhs or Cartouches), the list is updated. Chronological dates are educated guesses.




Abbasid Rulers (governors operating under the authority of foreign Caliphs)

Saleh Ibn Ali Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abbas Ibn Abdul Mottalib Ibn Hisham (750-750 AD)
Abu Awn Abdul Malik Ibn Yazid (751-753 AD)
Saleh Ibn Ali Ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas Ibn Abdul Motallib Ibn Hisham (753-755 AD)
Abu Awn Abdul Malik Ibn Yazid (755-758 AD)
Moussa Ibn Ka'b Ibn Oyayna Ibn Aisha Ibn Amro Ibn Serri Ibn Aeiza Ibn al-Harith Ibn Emro'a al-Quays (758- 759 AD)
Mohammed Ibn al-Aha'th al-Khoza'i (759-759 AD)
Hamid Ibn Quahtaba (760- 762 AD)
Yazid Ibn Hatim al-Mohalabi (762- 772 AD)
Mohammed Ibn Abdul Rahman Ibn Muawya Ibn Hodeig (772 - 772 AD)
Moussa Ibn Ollai Ibn Rabah al-lakhmi (772- 778 AD)
Eissa Ibn Loquman al-Gomahi (778- 779 AD)
Wadih, Mawla of Abu Ga'far (779- 779 AD)
Mansour Ibn Yazid Ibn Mansour al-Re'ini (779- 779 AD)
Yahya Ibn Daoud al-horashi (Ibn Mamdoud) (779- 780 AD)
Salim Ibn Sawada al-Tamimi (780- 781 AD)
Ibrahin Ibn Saleh Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abbas (781- 784 AD)
Moussa Ibn Mous'ab al-Khath'ami (784-785 AD)
Asama Ibn Amro al-Ma'fri (785-785 AD)
Al-Fadl Ibn Saleh Ibn Ali al-Abbassi (785-785 AD)
Ali Ibn Salman al-Abbassi (786- 787 AD)
Moussa Ibn Eissa Ibn Moussa al-Abbassi (787-789 AD)
Muslima Ibn Yahia al-Bagli (789- 790 AD)
Mohammed Ibn Zoheir al-Azdi (790-790 AD)
Daoud Ibn Yazid al-Mouhallabi (790-791 AD)
Moussa Ibn Eissa Ibn Moussa al-Abbassi (791-792 AD)
Ibrahim Ibn Saleh Ibn Abdullah al-Abbassi (792-792 AD)
Abdullah Ibn al-Mousayyeb Ibn Zoheir al-Dabbi (792-793 AD)
Ishak Ibn Soliman (793-794 AD)
Harmatha Ibn A'youn (794-795 AD)
Abdullah Ibn al-Mosayyeb al-Abbassi (795 795 AD)
Abdullah Ibn al-Mahdi al-Abbassi (795-795 AD)
Moussa Ibn Eissa Ibn Moussa al-Abbassi (796-797 AD)
Oubeidullah Ibn al-Mahdi al-Abbassi (796-797 AD)
Ismail Ibn Saleh al-Abbassi (797-798 AD)
Ismail Ibn Eaissa al-Abbassi (789-798 AD)
Al-Layth Ibn al-Fadl (798-803 AD)
Ahmed Ibn Ismail Ibn Ali Ibn Abdullah al-Abbassi (803-805 AD)
Abdullah Ibn Mohammed al-Abbassi (Ibn Zeinab) (805-806 AD)
Al-Hussein Ibn Gamil (806-808 AD)
Malik Ibn Dalhem al-Kalbi (808-808 AD)
Al-Hassan Ibn al-Takhtakh (809-809 AD)
Hatim Ibn Harthama Ibn A'youn (810-811 AD)
Gaber Ibn Asha'th al-Ta'i (811-812 AD)
Abbad Ibn Mohammed Ibn Hayyan (812-813 AD)
Al-Mottab Ibn Abdullal al-Khoza'I, Rabei Awwal (813-814 AD)
Al-Abbass Ibn Moussa Ibn Eissa al-Abbassi (814-814 AD)
Al-Mottalib Ibn Abdullah al-Khoza'i (814-815 AD)
Al-Serri Ibn al-Hakam (815-816 AD)
Soliman Ibn Ghalib Ibn Gebril al-Bagli (816-817 AD)
Al-Serri Ibn al-Hakam (817-820 AD)
Abu al-Nassr Ibn al-Serri, Gomadi al-Akhera (820-822 AD)
Obeidullah Ibn al-Serri (822-822 AD)
Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Mazid al-Shibany (822-826 AD)
Abdullah Ibn Tahir Ibn al-Hussein (826-827 AD)
Eissan Ibn Yazid al-Gloudi (829-829 AD)
Omair Ibn al-Walid (829-829 AD)
Eissa Ibn Yazid al-Gloudi (829-830 AD)
Abd Waih Ibn Gabla (830-831 AD)
Caliph al-Ma'moun (831-832 AD)
Quaidar Nassr Ibn Abdullah (832-834 AD)
Mozzaffar Ibn Quaidar (834-834 AD)
Moussa Ibn Abi al-Abbass (834-839 AD)
Malik Ibn Quaidar (839-841 AD)
Ali Ibn Yahia al-Armani (841-843 AD)
Eissa Ibn al-Mansour (843- 847 AD)
Harthama Ibn al-Nadr al-Gabali (848- 849 AD)
Hatim Ibn Harthama Ibn al-Nadr (849-849 AD)
Ali Ibn Yahia al-Armani (849-850 AD)
Isshac Ibn Yahia Ibn Mo'az, (850-850 AD)
Khout Abdul Wahid Ibn Yahia (851-851 AD)
Anbassa Ibnn Isshac al-Dabbi (852-856 AD)


Non-Abbasid Rulers

Yazid Ibn Abdullah al-Tourki (856-867 AD)
Mozahim Ibn Khaqan (867- 868 AD)
Ahmed Ibn Mozahim Ibn Khaqan (868-868 AD)
Azgour al-Torki (868-868 AD)


Ahmad B. Tulan (Ibn Tulan)(868-884 AD)
Khumarawayh B. Ahmad (884-896 AD)
Abu al-Assaker Gaysh Ibn Khmaraweih Ahmed Ibn Tulan (896-896 AD)
Haroun Ibn Khmaraweih Ibn Ahmed Ibn Tulan (896-904 AD)
Sheiban Ahmed Ibn Tulan (Abu al-Manaquib) (904-904 AD)

Abbasid Rulers

(Note: Some rulers such as Abu Mansour Tekin ruled more than once)

Eissa al-Noushari (905-910 AD)
Abu Mansour Tekin (910-915 AD)
Zaka Al-A'war (915-919 AD)
Abu Mansour Tekin (920-921 AD)
Hilal Ibn Badr (921- 923 AD)
Ahmed Ibn Keghlegh (923-924 AD)
Abu al-Mansour Tekin(924-933 AD)


Fatimid Rulers

Gawhar El-Sakali (969-973AD)
Al-Mezz Leideinallah (973-975AD)
Al-Aziz Leideinallah (975-996AD)
Al-Hakim Biamrallah (997-1020AD)
Al-Zahir Lazazdinallah ( 1020-1094AD)
Al-Mustansir Biallah ( 1035-1094AD)
Al-Mustali Biallah (1094-1101AD)
Al-Amir Biahkamallah (1101-1130AD)
Al-Hafiz Ledeinallah (1130-1149AD)
Al-Zafir Biamrallah (1149-1154AD)
Al-Faiz Binasrallah (1154-1160AD)
Al-Adid Leideinallah (1160-1171AD)
Ayubbide rulers (Second Ayubbide Period)
Saladin (Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub) (1174-1192AD)

Aziz Emad Eddin (1192-1198AD)
Mansour Nasser Eddin (1198-1200AD)
Adel Seif Eddin (1200-1218AD)
Kamil Nasser Eddin (1218-1238AD)
Seif Eddin Abu Bakr (1238-1240AD)
Salih Nigm Eddin (1240-1249AD)
Turanshah (1250AD)
Queen Shajarat El-Dur (1250AD)

Bahari Mamlukes

Sultan Ezz Eddin Aybak (1250-1257)
Sultan Nur Eddin ben Aybak (1257-1259)
Sultan Muzafar Seif Eddin Qutuz (1259-1260)
Sultan Zahir Rukn Eddin Baybars (1260-1277)
Sultan Said Nasser Eddin Baraka (1277-1279)
Sultan Adel Badr Eddin Salamish (1279)
Sultan Mansour Seif Eddin Qalawoon (1279-1290)
Sultan Ashraf Salah Eddin Khalil (1290-1293)
Sultan Nasser Mohamed Ben Qalawoon (first time) (1293-1294)
Sultan Adel Zeen Eddin Katubgha (1294-1296)
Sultan Mansour Hossam Eddin Lagin (1296-1298)
Sultan Nasser Mohamed Ben Qalawoon (second time) (1298-1309)
Sultan Muzafar Rukn Eddin Bybars (1309)
Sultan Nasser Mohamed Ben Qalawoon (third time) (1309-1340)
Sultan Mansour Seif Eddin Ben Mohamed (1340-1341)
Sultan Ashraf Alladin Ben Mohamed (1341-1342)
Sultan Nasser Shahab El-Dein Ben Mohamed (1342)
Sultan Saleh Emad Eddin Ben Mohamed (1342-1345)
Sultan Kamil Seif Eddin Ben Mohamed (1345-1346)
Sultan Muzafar Zein Eddin Ben Mohamed (1346-1347)
Sultan Nasser Hassan Ben Mohamed (first time)(1347-1351)
Sultan Salah Eddin Saleh Ben Mohamed (1351-1354)
Sultan Nasser Hassan Ben Mohamed (second time) (1354-1361)
Sultan Salah Eddin Mohamed Ben Hagi (1361-1363)
Sultan Ashraf Zeen Eddin Ben Hassan (1363-1376)
Sultan Mansour Aladin Ben Shaban (1376-1381)
Sultan Salih Zeen Edin Hagi (1381-1382)




Circassian (Burgi) Mamlukes

Sultan Zaher Barqooq (1382-1399)
Sultan Farag Ben Barqooq (first time) (1399-1405)
Sultan Abd El-Aziz Ben Barqooq (1405)
Sultan Farag Ben Barqooq (second time) (1405-1412)
Sultan Muyaid Sheikh (1412-1421)
Sultan Ahmed Ben Muyaid (1421)
Sultan Zaher Tatar (1421)
Sultan Nasser Mohamed Ben Tatar (1421)
Sultan Ashraf Barsbay (1422-1438)
Sultan Aziz Gamal Ben Barsabay (1438)
Sultan Zaher Gaqmaq (1438-1453)
Sultan Mansour Osman Ben Gaqmaq (1453)
Sultan Ashraf Inal (1453-1460)
Sultan Muayaid Ahmed Ben Inal (1460)
Sultan Zaher Khoshkadam (1461-1467)
Sultan Seif Eddin Yalbai (1467)
Sultan Zaher Tamarbagha (1467)
Sultan Khair Bey (1467)
Sultan Ashraf Qaitbay (1468-1496)
Sultan Ashraf Mohamed Ben Qaitbay (first time)(1496-1497)
Sultan Qansuh Khumsamaah (1497)
Sultan Ashraf Mohamed Ben Qaitbay (second time)(1497-1498)
Sultan Qansuh Ashrafi (1498-1500)
Sultan Ganblat (1500-1501)
Sultan Adel Tumanbay I (1501)
Sultan Ashraf Qansuh Ghori (1501-1516)
Sultan Tumanbay II (1517)


Ottoman Rulers

Khayer Pasha (1517-22)
Moustafa Pasha (1522-23)
Kouzlagah Pasha (1523)
Ahmed Pasha (1523)
Ibrahim Pasha (1524)
Suliman Pasha (1524-34)
Khissru Pasha (1524-36)
Suliman Pasha (second time) (1536-38)
Daoud Pasha (1538-49)
Moustafa Pasha (1549)
Ali Pasha (1549-54)
Mohamed Pasha (1554-56)
Iskander Pasha (1556-59)
Ali Pasha (1559-1560)
Mustafa Pasha (1560-63)
Ali Pasha (1563-1566)
Mohamed Pasha (1566-67)
Sanan Pasha (first time)(1567-68)
Garkas Pasha (1568-71)
Sanan Pasha (second time)(1571-73)
Hussein Pasha (1573-74)
Massih Pasha (1575-80)
Hassan Pasha (1580-83)
Ibrahim Pasha (1583-85)
Sanan Pasha (1585-87)
Ouis Pasha (1587-91)
Hafiz Pasha (1591-95)
Mohamed Pasha (1595-96)
Mohamed Pasha El-Sharif (1596-98)
Khedr Pasha (1598-1601)
Ali Pasha (1601-3)
Ibrahim Pasha (1603-4)
Mohamed Pasha (1604-5)
Hassan Pasha (1605-7)
Mohamed Pasha Moamar (1607-11)
Mohamed Pasha Sadafi (1611-15)
Ahmed Pasha (1615-18)
Moustafa Pasha (1618-19)
Gaafar Pasha (1619)
Moustafa Pasha Hamidi (1619-20)
Hussein Pasha (1620-22)
Mohamed Pasha (1622)
Ibrahim Pasha (1622-23)
Moustafa Pasha Qurah (1623)
Ali Pasha (1623)
Moustafa Pasha (1624-25)
Bairam Pasha (1626-28)
Mohamed Pasha (1628-30)
Moussa Pasha (1630)
Khalil Pasha (1631-32)
Bekeirgi Pasha (1632-35)
Hussein Pasha (1635-37)
Mohamed Pasha Gawan (1637-40)
Moustafa Pasha (1640-42)
Mansour Pasha (1642-44)
Ayub Pasha (1644-46)
Haydar Pasha (1646-7)
Moustafa Pasha Sanari (1647)
Mohamed Pasha (1647-49)
Ahmed Pasha (1649-50)
Abd El-Rahman Pasha (1650-52)
Khasky Pasha (1652-56)
Moustafa Pasha (1656-57)
Mohamed Pasha Zada (1657-60)
Moustafa Pasha (1660-61)
Ibrahim Pasha (1661-64)
Omar Pasha (1664-67)
Ibrahim Pasha Sufi (1667-68)
Qurah Qash Pasha (1668-69)
Katkhuda Pasha (1669-73)
Hussein Pasha (1673-75)
Ahmed Pasha (1675-76)
Abd El-Rahman Pasha (1676-80)
Osman Pasha (1680-83)
Hamza Pasha (1683-87)
Katkhuda Hassan Pasha (1687)
Hassan Pasha (1687-89)
Ahmed Pasha (1689-91)
Ali Pasha (1691-95)
Ismail Pasha (1695-97)
Hussein Pasha (1697-99)
Qurah Pasha (1699-1704)
Suliman Pasha (1704)
Mohamed Pasha (1704-06)
Muslim Pasha (1706-07)
Hassan Pasha (second time)(1707-09)
Ibrahim Pasha (1709-10)
Khalil Pasha (1710)
Wali Pasha (1711-14)
Eibedi Pasha (1714-16)
Ali Pasha (1716-20)
Ragab Pasha (1720-21)
Mohamed Pasha (1721-25)
Ali Pasha (1725)
Mohamed Pasha (second time)(1726-27)
Abu Bakr Pasha (1727-29)
Kaburli Pasha (1729-33)
Mohamed Pasha (1733)
Osman Pasha (1733-34)
Abu Bakr Pasha (second time)(1734-36)
Suliman Pasha (1739-40)
Ali Pasha (1740-41)
Yehia Pasha (1741-43)
Mohamed Pasha (1743-44)
Mohamed Ragheb Pasha (1744-48)
Ahmed Pasha (1748-1750)
Abdallah Pasha (1750-52)
Mohamed Amin Pasha (1752)
Moustafa Pasha (1752-55)
Ali Hakim Pasha (1755-57)
Mohamed Said Pasha (1757)
Moustafa Pasha (1757-60)
Ahmed Pasha (1760-61)
Bakir Pasha (1761-62)
Hassan Pasha (1762-65)
Hamza Pasha (1765-67)
Mohamed Raqim Pasha (1767-68)
Mohamed Orphalli (1768)
Mohamed Abu El-Dahab (1773)
Khalil Pasha (1774)
Moustafa Pasha (1774-75)
Ibrahim Pasha (1775-76)
Mohamed Ezzat Pasha (1776-78)
Ra'ef Pasha (1778-79)
Ibrahim Pasha (1779)
Ismail Pasha (1779-81)
Mohamed Yakin Pasha (1781-82)
Sharif Pasha (1782-83)
Mohamed Salahdar (1783-84)
Sharif Mohamed Pasha (1784-86)
Ebeidi Pasha (1786-89)
Ismail Pasha Tunsi (1789-91)
Mohamed Pasha (1791-94)
Salih Pasha (1794-96)
Sayyid Pasha (1796)






Oghuz Turks - From Wikipedia.

The original homeland of the Oghuz was the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, which had been the domain of Turkic peoples since prehistory.
The Oghuz/Oguz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia.

The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs (Mongols). The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes. Today the residents of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Khorezm, Turkmens of Afghanistan, Balkans, Iraq and Syria are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (a.k.a. southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family.

Comment - why this Albino source fails to include the residents of Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel (Jews are Khazar Turks), Palestine, Jordan, etc. is unknown and incorrect.


The Turk Ottoman Empire - 1299 A.D. to November 1, 1922 A.D.

Countries once ruled by the Ottoman Empire:

Albania, Algeria, Arabia, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Eritrea, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Kosovo, Libya, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan.






Turks Rule Black Lands!


In these pages, we have made every effort to clearly say, and prove, that the White, and White-like, rulers and ruling elite in the former lands of Black civilizations, are not who they claim to be. Specifically; those of Egypt are NOT Egyptians, those of North Africa are NOT Berbers, those of Arabia are NOT Arabs, those of Palestine are NOT Hebrews, those of Lebanon are NOT Phoenicians, those of Iraq are NOT Mesopotamian's, those of Iran are NOT Persians or Elamites, those of Turkey are NOT Anatolians - THEY ARE ALL CENTRAL ASIAN TURKS!




That said with the understanding that in earlier times, Greeks and Romans settled in these areas: and in North Africa, they were followed by Alan's, Vandals, and Goths. And also in the 19th. century, French and Italians invaded, and settled in North Africa. And with the understanding that when the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, relinquished hegemony over those lands after WW I, they and the European powers, merely handed control over to local Turk elites.

But understanding that our say-so, and proofs, may be insufficient for some: We quote the eminent François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. We quote from his book:


With, an Introductory Note by William C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L.
LL.D., Vice-President of the Egypt Exploration Fund for the United States


Page 28

Click here for link to Online Book

Here he is discussing the origins of the Hyksos:


"How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."


How grotesque then, that the Turk, Zahi Hawass, the Vice Minister of Culture in Egypt: makes pronouncements about the non-Black nature of ancient Egyptians. When he does so, only to hide the true nature of his own people, and the illegitimacy of their presence in, and rule over Egypt.





This marks the end of this Egyptian presentation.


Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>



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