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Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

Canaan-7

Modern Palestine-Israel-Lebanon

 

When last we left Canaan, Judaea had been destroyed, and in 70 A.D, the city of Jerusalem had also been destroyed. Not much was left.

 

Hebrew Persecution

In 130 A.D. The Roman Emperor Hadrian planned a great temple to Zeus in the newly founded city of Aelia Capitolina, which was on the ruined site of Jerusalem. Moreover, Hadrian had recently outlawed circumcision. these Romanizing acts of the government, easily ignited the second great revolt of the Hebrews against Rome. This was the Bar Cochba or Kochba, (nickname for Simon - (Son of the Star), Revolt of 132 to 135 A.D, which was led by Simon ben Kosiba, (Simon son of Kosiba). Once again the Romans raised an enormous army to put down the revolt. Hadrian personally led the Roman attack on the rebels.

In the aftermath of the Bar Cochba Revolt, the Romans excluded Hebrews from a large area around Aelia Capitolina, which Romans only inhabited. The province now hosted two legions and many auxiliary units, two colonies, and a new name, "Syria Palaestina" to replace Judaea. The center of Hebrew settlement moved northward to Galilee and Gaulanitis. The number of Hebrew communities elsewhere declined, and many once Hebrew towns became Roman or received large numbers of Roman inhabitants. The towns lost their old Hebrew names for new Roman names. The ban on circumcision remained in effect until Antoninus Pius, who recognizing its dangerously provocative effect, revoked it.

After 135 A.D. Hebrews no longer had political, urban, or territorial institutions that could support another revolt, but they managed to maintain national identity as a result of the growth of rabbinical institutions and the patriarchate in Galilee. Poverty, famine, plague, and crime left the Hebrews too weak to mount any organized resistance.

The new state of Syria Palaestina thus became a good deal less problematic for the Roman government than Judaea had been. The government continued to permit the Hebrews certain religious freedoms, such as exemption from the imperial cult, and gradually the Roman governors permitted the Hebrews to recover certain of their communal rights, such as local courts and internal government, under the overall authority of the patriarch in Tiberias. The Samaritans (a sect practicing a strict and uncompromising version of the Hebrew religion), fared less well, as the Romans took steps to prevent a resurgence of Samaritan nationalism by founding a pagan temple on Mt Gerizim, just south of Neapolis, and refused to make concessions to Samaritan religious practices.

The conversion of Emperor Constantine to Christianity in about 300 A.D. set in motion events that made Palestine a major center of the Christian church. Before the fifth century A.D. very few Christians lived in Palestine. The non-Hebrew regions of the coast, the south, and Aelia Capitolina had several Roman and Greek Christian communities, and a few Minim (Hebrew Christians) lived in such Galilean towns as Sepphoris and Capernaum.

But beginning in the fourth century the government responded to Roman Christian interest in the Holy Land; by embarking on a massive program of patronage, especially church-building, that was designed to encourage Christians to move to Palestine. There was also an imperial policy geared to encourage Hebrews to convert to Christianity; this by offering protection and rewards.

As a result of Christian settlement in the vicinities of Nazareth, Capernaum, and Tabgha, the region of Galilee lost its Hebrew majority. By about 400 A.D. there were ninety six Christian communities in Palestine. The sack of Rome in 410 A.D. caused a new round of migration to Palestine as a group of aristocratic Romans responded to Jerome's invitation to settle in Aelia Capitolina and Bethlehem, (Jerome was a Caucasian born in Stridon (a city in modern Croatia), he was probably of Turkish/Khazar ethnicity, he was later canonized a Saint by the catholic Church. In addition, numerous Christians came to Palestine not to settle but to visit holy sites on pilgrimage and to scour the land for relics to take home.

On the other hand, the Hebrew population saw a constant and precipitous drop that lasted for centuries. In the second century, after the Bar Cochba Revolt, some two hundred Hebrew communities flourished in Palestine, but by the time of the Arab conquest in the late 630s we know of fewer than fifty. Except in the towns of Tiberias and Sepphoris and in the regions east of the Sea of Galilee, the Hebrews had become a minority in their own country.

The Christian and Hebrew leadership had encouraged their followers to have nothing to do with each other. Most Christian-Hebrew exchange took the form of vigorous attacks on the opinions and principles of each other. Now, after the conversion of Constantine, Christians found themselves in a position not merely to keep themselves separate from contamination by Judaism but to actively suppress it.

The Roman Emperors codified the separation of the two religions by forbidding intermarriage and conversion from Christianity to Judaism. However, Hebrew converts to Christianity; received protection from Hebrew retribution. Increasingly the Hebrews lost civil status. Imperial legislation labeled Judaism a wild and nefarious sect. Until about 500 A.D. Roman emperors regularly reaffirmed the Hebrews right to the free exercise of their religion, but it became increasingly difficult to control violence against the Hebrews and their property.

The accession of Roman Emperor Justinian, in 527 A.D. initiated the last great phase of Roman persecution of the Hebrews. The new emperor redefined heretics to include the Hebrews and excluded them from military and civilian offices. They had never served in the army, but now they could not even serve even in local municipal government. The leadership of the last Hebrew cities, Tiberias and Sepphoris, passed into Greek and Roman hands. Justinian dealt a further blow to the Hebrews when the new compilation of Roman law, the Codex Iustinianus, omitted the ancient law declaring Judaism a legitimate religion, and began to attack Hebrew religious practices and to force baptism.

 

 

 

 

 

Click Here for the History of Early Christianity. <<CLICK>>

 

 

Click Here for the histories and images of some of the first Christians: <<CLICK>>>

 

 

 

Meanwhile there appeared renewed resistance from the Samaritans (a sect practicing a strict and uncompromising version of the Hebrew religion), they had never received any of the privileges that the Romans afforded the more liberal Hebrews. They were forbidden to circumcise their children since the second century, and forced to sacrifice to the pagan gods during the Tetrarchy. Now they were suffering under the Christian empire, even greater oppression than the Hebrews.

The Samaritans revolted against Emperor Zeno in 484 A.D. The Roman government put them down ruthlessly, and built a Christian church on their holy mountain, (Mt Gerizim) near Neapolis. Again in 529 A.D, they revolted after Justinian ordered the destruction of their synagogues. After they restored control, the Romans deported or forcibly baptized Samaritans and installed a garrison there. In both great revolts the Samaritans briefly set up their own royal state in the Davidic style.

In 603 A.D. the last war between Rome and Persia began. The Persians gradually occupied the eastern parts of the empire and in 613 A.D. they took Damascus. Then later, with Hebrew assistance, they occupied all of Palestine. They took Aelia Capitolina in 614 A.D. and gave it to the Hebrews. But within a few years they restored it to the Christians, because it was easier to deal with the majority population, which was Christian. In 622 A.D. Roman Emperor Heraclius turned the tide against Persia, and in 629 A.D. he recovered Palestine.

 

The Arab/Eurasian Invasion

But within a few years the Muslims - a conglomeration of Turks, Greeks, and Arabs, under the banner of the Prophet Muhammad - attacking from the south, through a Hebrew population that had no love for the Roman Empire, easily conquered Palestine.

 

 

The invasion began in 634 A.D, Gaza fell first, and the attack continued northward until, after the Battle of the Yarmuk southeast of the Sea of Galilee in 636 A.D. the Roman army withdrew from Palestine and Syria. Jerusalem held out until the spring of 638 A.D. Caesarea fell last, in 641 A.D, and with its conquest, the Muslims ended seven hundred years of Roman rule in Palestine.

From the time of the Roman occupation, Canaanites and Hebrews and begun to leave Canaan. By the time of the Muslim invasion, with the majority of the population already killed or displaced by Romans and Greeks, there is no telling how many were left alive to flee.

One group whose flight can be traced, is that of the Lemba tribe in Zimbabwe. They have maintained their Hebrew religion and traditions through the many centuries. { They were genetically tested, and confirmed to be Hebrews}. Hebrews also fled to Ethiopia and other countries.

 

 

 

 

 

Hebrews in Arabia

 

Wiki:

Battle of Khaybar/Khaibar:

The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (93 mi) from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Muslim sources, the Muslims attacked Jews who had barricaded themselves in a fort.

On the reasons for the attack, Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in Khaybar of the Banu Nadir, who were inciting hostilities among with neighboring Arab tribes against the Islamic community in Medina. Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri, while giving full credence to Watt's view, claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns.

The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years until they were expelled by caliph Umar. The imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from non-Muslims under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community. In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and the Zakat, which is obligatory upon Muslim citizens.

The Banu Nadir

The Banu Nadir were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina). The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina. and planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.

In early Medina, in addition to the Banu Nadir, there were two other major Jewish tribes: the Banu Qurayza and the Banu Qaynuqa. They were joined centuries later by two non-Jewish Arab tribes from Yemen, Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj.

Like other Medinese Jews, Banu Nadir bore Arabic names, but spoke a distinct dialect of Arabic. They earned their living through agriculture, money lending, and trade in weapons and jewels, maintaining commercial relations with Arab merchants of Mecca. Their fortresses were located half a day's march to the south of Medina. Banu Nadir were wealthy and lived in some of the best lands in Medina.

 

 

 

Ludovico di Varthema, also known as Barthema and Vertomannus (c. 1470 – 1517), was an Italian traveller, diarist and aristocrat known for being the first non-Muslim European to enter Mecca as a pilgrim. Nearly everything that is known about his life comes from his own account of his travels, Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema Bolognese, published in Rome in 1510.

 

 

 

 

Click here for Addendum - Libyan and Arab Hebrews

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note: Nowhere in this history, have we shown how the Hebrews turned into White people. For an answer to that question, Click Here. Click >>>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Those Hebrews who could not, or would not flee were Doomed. The Muslim Holy Books tell of their fate.

Qur'an 059.014
YUSUFALI: They (Hebrews) will not fight you (even) together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Strong is their fighting (spirit) amongst themselves: thou wouldst think they were united, but their hearts are divided: that is because they are a people devoid of wisdom.

PICKTHAL: They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified villages or from behind walls. Their adversity among themselves is very great. Ye think of them as a whole whereas their hearts are divers. That is because they are a folk who have no sense.

SHAKIR: They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified towns or from behind walls; their fighting between them is severe, you may think them as one body, and their hearts are disunited; that is because they are a people who have no sense.

Qur'an 033.026
YUSUFALI: And those of the People of the Book (Hebrews) who aided them - Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts. (So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners.

PICKTHAL: And He brought those of the People of the Scripture who supported them down from their strongholds, and cast panic into their hearts. Some ye slew, and ye made captive some.

SHAKIR: And He drove down those of the followers of the Book who backed them from their fortresses and He cast awe into their hearts; some you killed and you took captive another part.

Qur'an 033.027
YUSUFALI: And He made you heirs of their lands, their houses, and their goods, and of a land which ye had not frequented (before). And Allah has power over all things.

PICKTHAL: And He caused you to inherit their land and their houses and their wealth, and land ye have not trodden. Allah is ever Able to do all things.

SHAKIR: And He made you heirs to their land and their dwellings and their property, and (to) a land which you have not yet trodden, and Allah has power over all things.

 

Tabari VIII:121 Ali struck the Hebrew with a swift blow that split his helmet, neck protector, and head, landing in his rear teeth. And the Muslims entered the city. Muhammad conquered the [Hebrew] neighborhood. Safiyah was brought to him, and another woman with her. Bilal led them past some of the Hebrews we had slain including the woman's dead husband. When she saw them, the woman with Safiyah cried out, slapped her face, and poured dust on her head. When Allah's Prophet saw her, he said, Take this she-devil away from me!

 

Safiyah
Safiyah Bint Huyeiy Ibn Akhtab, was a Hebrew woman who was captured when Muhammads troops attacked Khaibar. Safiyah was seventeen and very beautiful when Muslims killed her father, husband and many of her relatives. She was brought to the Prophet as his share of the booty. The Prophet desired her, but Safiyah requested the Prophet to wait till he had gone a stage away from Khaibar. One mile from Khaibar, the Prophet married Safiyah.

 

Bilal
Bilal ibn Rabah was an Ethiopian slave born in Mecca in the late 6th century. Slavery was common in Mecca, and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection, and they were subjected to persecution. Abu Bakr felt for these slaves, so he purchased eight slaves, four men and four women and set them free. Bilal ibn Rabah was one of the slaves purchased by Abu Bakr.

The Islamic prophet Muhammad, chose Bilal as his muezzin (The chosen person at the mosque who leads the call to Friday service and the five daily prayers.), effectively making him the first official muezzin of the Islamic faith. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers.

 

The population of Phoenicia (later Lebanon), also began to take its present form in the 7th century A.D. At some time during the earlier Byzantine period, a military group of uncertain origin, the Mardaites, had established themselves in the north among the indigenous population there. From the 7th century onward, another group entered the country, these were the Maronites, a Christian community adhering to the Monothelite doctrine. They had been forced by persecution, to leave their homes in northern Syria.

They settled in the northern part of Lebanon, and absorbed the Mardaites and the indigenous peasants, to form the present Maronite Church. Originally Syriac speaking (a Anatolian dialect of Aramaean), they gradually adopted the Arabic language although keeping Syriac for liturgical purposes. In the south of Lebanon, Arab tribesmen came in after the Muslim conquest, and settled among the indigenous people. In the 11th century A.D. many of these were converted to the Druze faith, an esoteric offshoot of Shi‘ite Islam.

Crusader rule to Ottomans
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. It lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks (formerly Turkish Slave Soldiers of the Arabs).

In 1486, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks in a battle for control over western Asia. The Mamluk armies were eventually defeated by the forces of the Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, and lost control of Palestine after the 1516 battle of Marj Dabiq.

After the Ottoman conquest, the name "Palestine" disappeared as the official name of an administrative unit, as the Turks often called their (sub)provinces after the capital. Following its 1516 incorporation in the Ottoman Empire, it was part of the vilayet (province) of Damascus-Syria until 1660. It then became part of the vilayet of Saida (Sidon), briefly interrupted by the 7 March 1799 – July 1799 French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea. During the Siege of Acre in 1799, Napoleon prepared a proclamation declaring a Jewish state in Palestine.

 

 

The Khazars

(Modern Jews)

 

 

The Khazars were semi-nomadic Turkic people who established one of the largest polities of medieval Eurasia, with the capital of Atil and territory comprising much of modern-day European Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, large portions of the northern Caucasus (Circassia, Dagestan), parts of Georgia, the Crimea, and northeastern Turkey. Khazar inscriptions are mainly in an Eastern Turkish runic script.

A successor state of the Western Turks, Khazaria was a polyethnic-multifaith state with a population of Turkic, Uralic, Slavic, and Paleo-Caucasian peoples. Khazaria was the first feudal state to be established in Eastern Europe. Khazaria was one of the major arteries of commerce between northern Europe and southwestern Asia, as well as a connection to the Silk Road. The name "Khazar" is found in numerous languages and seems to be tied to a Turkic verb form meaning "wandering" (Modern Turkish: Gezer). Pax Khazarica is a term used by historians to refer to the period during which the Khazaria dominated the Pontic steppe and the Caucasus Mountains.

The period when the Khazars had their most power corresponded with the European Dark Ages, and took place at a very important time for the creation of capitalism. Its strategic importance between China on one side and the Middle East and Europe on the other, temporarily gave all of Eurasia incredible riches. Khazaria was referred to as Eastern Tourkia, meanwhile Hungary was referred to as Western Tourkia (Greek: Τουρκία) in medieval (10th and 11th centuries) Byzantine sources.

Khazaria had an ongoing entente with Byzantium. Serving their partner in wars against the Abbasid Caliphate, Khazars aided the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (reigned 610–641) by sending an army of 40,000 soldiers in their campaign against the Persians in the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. In 775, Leo (son of Tzitzak) was crowned as the sole emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Sarkel (a Turkish word meaning White Fortress) was built in 830s by a joint team of Greek and Khazar architects to protect the north-western border of the Khazar state. The chief engineer during the construction of Sarkel was Petronas Kamateros (Πετρωνς Καματηρός) who later became the governor of Cherson.

Khazars played a role in the balance of powers and destiny of world civilization. After Kubrat's Great Bulgaria was destroyed by the Khazars, some of the Bulgars fled to the west and founded a new Bulgar state (present day Bulgaria) near the Danubian Plain, under the command of Khan Asparukh. The most of the rest of the Bulgars fled to the north of the Volga River region and founded another state there called Volga Bulgaria (present day Chuvashia). The eldest son of Kubrat, Bat-Bayan Bezmer allied his Kara-Bulgars (Black Bulgars) with the Khazars, and became the forefather of the Hungarian Royal House of Árpád via Almysh. Kara-Bulgars were descendent of the tribes from Attila's right wing state called Kutrigurs.

By serving as a buffer state between Christians and Muslims, the Khazars helped to block the western spread of Islam in Europe. Some scholars go to the extreme extent to posit that, in the unlikely scenario Arabs had occupied what is now Ukraine and Russia, the Rus might never have been able to push south and east from the Baltic to establish Russia. The Khazars had, for years, been venturing forth southward, in their marauding raids on the Muslim countries south of the Caucasus.

Islamic armies conquered part of Persia, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Armenia, and what is now the modern-day post-Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan and surrounded the Byzantine heartland (present-day Turkey) in a pincer movement which extended from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus and the southern shores of the Caspian. This was the time when the long series of wars called the Khazar-Arab Wars began. These wars largely ended with Arab defeats, with a fairly well-known commander, Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah, perishing in one instance. The Arab armies' inability to traverse the Caucasus played a role in preventing them from succeeding in their siege of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Coupled with the military barrier presented by the Khazars themselves, this protected Europe from more direct and intensive assaults by the forces of Islam.

After fighting the Arabs to a standstill in the North Caucasus, Khazars became increasingly interested in replacing their Tengriism with a state religion that would give them equal religious standing with their Abrahamic neighbors. During the 8th century, the Khazars converted to a form of Judaism. Yitzhak ha-Sangari is said to be the name of the rabbi who converted the Khazars to Judaism according to Khazar Jewish sources.

By welcoming educated and worldly Jews from both Christian Europe and the Islamic Middle East, Khazars rapidly absorbed many of the arts and technologies of civilization. As a direct result of this cultural infusion, they became one of the very few Asian steppe tribal societies that successfully made the transition from nomad to urbanite. Settling in their newly created towns and cities between the Caspian Sea and the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea, they became literate and multi-lingual agriculturalists, manufacturers and international traders.

Between 965 and 969, Khazar sovereignty was broken by Kievan Rus. Sviatoslav I of Kiev defeated them in 965 by conquering the Khazar fortress of Sarkel. Two years later, Sviatoslav conquered Atil, after which he campaigned in the Balkans. Medieval Ruthenian epic poems mention Ruthenian warriors fighting the Jewish Giant (Богатырь Жидовин). The Rus and the Hungarians both adopted the dual-kingship system of the Khazars (The kingship is divided between the khagan and the Bek. The Khagan was purely a spiritual ruler or figurehead with limited powers, while the Bek was responsible for administration and military affairs). The Rus princes even borrowed Turkic words like Khagan and Bogatyr. Many artifacts from the Khazars, exhibiting their artistic and industrial talents, have survived to the present day.

With the destruction of Khazaria, Khazar Jews dispersed throughout the world. So that by 1933, approximately 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe. This number represented more than 60 percent of the world's Jewish population at that time, estimated at 15.3 million. The majority of Jews in prewar Europe resided in Eastern Europe. The largest Jewish communities in this area were in Poland, with about 3,000,000 Jews; the European part of the Soviet Union, with 2,525,000; Romania, with 756,000. The Jewish population in the three Baltic States totaled 255,000: 95,600 in Latvia, 155,000 in Lithuania, and 4,560 in Estonia. In prewar central Europe, the largest Jewish community was in Germany, with about 500,000 members. This was followed by Hungary with 445,000, Czechoslovakia with 357,000 and Austria with 191,000, most of who resided in the capital city of Vienna.

In Western Europe the largest Jewish communities were in Great Britain, with 300,000 Jews; France, with 250,000; and the Netherlands, with 156,000. Additionally, 60,000 Jews lived in Belgium, 4,000 in Spain, and 1,200 in Portugal (see below). Close to 16,000 Jews lived in Scandinavia, including 6,700 in Sweden, 5,700 in Denmark, 1,800 in Finland, and 1,400 in Norway. In southern Europe, Greece had the largest Jewish population, with about 73,000 Jews. There were also significant Jewish communities in Yugoslavia 68,000, Italy 48,000, and Bulgaria 48,500, 200 Jews lived in Albania.

The Spanish Inquisition was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It is estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 Jews lived in Spain before 1478 (protected there by Muslim Turks: Turks having taken control of Islam in 1055 by the Turkic chief Toghrïl Beg). But the Reconquista of Spain (Defeat of the Muslims), which was completed in 1492, changed all of that. The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. At that time - THE TURKIC SULTAN OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WAS: Bayezid II (1447–1512) he was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. He is most notable for evacuating Jews (Turkic Khazars) from Spain after the proclamation of the Alhambra Decree, and resettling them throughout the Ottoman Empire.

In his book "Civilization and the Jews" author Abba Eban attributes the Khazar Jews accumulation of great wealth, to their ability to act as transcendent merchants, able to act as the sole mediums of trade between the warring Christian and Muslim worlds during the medieval period.

 

News Headline:

 

Genes Of Most Ashkenazi Jews Trace Back To Indigenous Europe, Not Middle East

 

Click here for link to the study: >>

 

"A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages."

Nature Communications 4 (October 8, 2013) Martin B. Richards et al

 

Quote: The origins of Ashkenazi Jews—the great majority of living Jews—remain highly contested and enigmatic to this day. The Ashkenazim are Jews with a recent ancestry in central and Eastern Europe, in contrast to Sephardim (with an ancestry in Iberia, followed by exile after 1492), Mizrahim (who have always resided in the Near East) and North African Jews (comprising both Sephardim and Mizrahim).

A team of international researchers from Malaysia to Salt Lake City found in a study published Tuesday that most variance in mitochondrial DNA — passed from mother to daughter, like Judaism — derives from the indigenous peoples of Western and Central Europe, as opposed to the Levant, as previously thought. Four of the major “founders” of Ashkenazi Jewry derive most variance from European sources, accounting for some 40 percent of the genome. The remaining 60 percent from minor founders, too, comes mostly from Europe.

Like Judaism, mitochondrial DNA is passed along the maternal line. Its variation in the Ashkenazim is highly distinctive, with four major and numerous minor founders. However, due to their rarity in the general population, these founders have been difficult to trace to a source. Here we show that all four major founders, ~40% of Ashkenazi mtDNA variation, have ancestry in prehistoric Europe, rather than the Near East or Caucasus. Furthermore, most of the remaining minor founders share a similar deep European ancestry. Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed, nor recruited in the Caucasus, as sometimes suggested, but assimilated within Europe. Comment: all non-Black, so-called "Jews", whether Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Maghrebi, or Mizrahi, can ultimately be traced to the Turkic Khazars of Asia.

 

 

 

 

Are the White people who call themselves Jews, really of the Turkic tribe called Khazars?

Genetic analysis says - YES!

 

 

Click here for link to the full study >>>

 

 

 

 

The Masoretic text (MT)

The MT was primarily copied, edited and distributed by a group of Khazar Jews known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. (This work is falsely attributed to Hebrews, but as history tells us, by this time, the Hebrews were already almost nonexistent). Though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century (and also differ little from some Qumran texts that are even older), it has numerous differences of both greater and lesser significance when compared to (extant 4th century) manuscripts of the Septuagint, a Greek translation (made in the 3rd to 2nd centuries B.C.) of the Hebrew Scriptures that was in popular use in Egypt and Israel and that is believed by scholars to be the source often quoted in the New Testament. (There are no known authentic copies of the Septuagint in existence).

 

The Talmudic period

The Talmud "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of mainstream Judaism, considered second to the holy written Torah. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions.

The whole Talmud is over 6,200 pages long, written in Aramaic and quotes the Hebrew Bible at least once a page with the Hebrew version in use at the time. The Talmud contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis, many of whom are left unnamed, on a variety of subjects, including law, ethics, philosophy, customs, history, theology, lore and many other topics. The rabbis often argue with one another in a civilized manner on the pages. The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law; and the Gemara, an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The terms Talmud and Gemara are often used interchangeably. The Gemara is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is much quoted in other rabbinic literature. The whole Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah.

Of course, like with the writing of the Masoretic texts, the Talmudic period could not possibly have anything to do with actual Hebrews. After practicing their religion for over a thousand years, they would hardly need to discuss the meanings and rules of their religion.

 

Out of the Talmudic period were born many customs that were not known to the Hebrews.

 

 
     
Payot is the word for sidelocks or sidecurls. Payot are worn by some men and boys in the Orthodox Jewish community based on an interpretation of the Biblical injunction against shaving the "corners" of one's head. Literally, pe'ah means corner, side or edge. There are different styles of payot among Haredi, Yemenite, and Hasidic Jews. Yemenite Jews call their sidelocks simonim Hebrew: סִימָנִים‎, literally signs, because their long curled sidelocks served as a distinguishing feature in Yemenite society (distinguishing them from their non-Jewish neighbors).   A kippah or kipa, is a hemispherical or platter-shaped cap, usually made of cloth, often worn by Orthodox Jewish men to fulfill the customary requirement held by some orthodox halachic authorities that their head be covered at all times, and usually worn by men and, less frequently, women in Conservative and Reform communities at times of prayer.

 

 

 
     
A shtreimel (Yiddish: שטרײַמל, pl. שטרײַמלעך shtreimlech) is a fur hat worn by many married haredi Jewish men, particularly (although not exclusively) members of Hasidic groups, on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and other festive occasions. In Jerusalem, the shtreimel is also worn by 'Yerushalmi' Jews (non-Hasidim who belong to the original Ashkenazi community of Jerusalem, also known as Perushim). The shtreimel is generally worn only after marriage, except in many Yerushalmi communities, where boys wear it from their bar mitzvah.   The Tallit katan ("small tallit") is a fringed garment traditionally worn either under or over one’s clothing by Jewish males. It is a poncho-like garment with a hole for the head and special twined and knotted fringes known as tzitzit attached to its four corners. The requirements regarding the fabric and fringes of a tallit katan are the same as that of a tallit gadol. Generally a tallit katan is made of wool or cotton.

 

 

 

Palestine

 

 

 

 

The modern Hebrews

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Bedouin man talking in Negev desert in Israel   Bedouin woman on donkey with crops in Negev desert in Israel

 

 

Young bedouin girl israel , negev desert

 

 

Sinai Santa Katerina Jebaliya Bedouin Gardener with Grapes

 

 

Israel , negev , young bedouin girl in traditional clothes during a dance

 

 

 
Israel , negev , young bedouin girl in traditional clothes facing and smiling at camera  
Bedouin woman in Negev desert in Israel

 

Israel , negev , bedouin camel racing in the desert camel and trainer preparing for the race

 

 

Israel , Negev desert , Bedouin festival , Dancers in the tent

 

 

Israel , Negev desert , Bedouin festival young boy and his camel

 

 

Bedouin little boy, Israel

 

 

Bedouin woman at Beersheva Market Israel

 

 
Bedouin boys playing soccer ball
   

 

Israel , Negev desert , Bedouin festival three female youths

 

 

 

 

 

Sheep Sale at the Bedouin Market

 

 

Poverty - Bedouins of the Negev Desert

 

 

Bedouin Camel Race in Israel's Negev Desert

 

 

Bedouin Camel Race in Israel's Negev Desert

 

 

Poverty - Bedouins of the Negev Desert

 

 

Poverty - Bedouins of the Negev Desert

 

 

Poverty - Bedouins of the Negev Desert

 

 

Israeli Bedouins attend a conference with Prime Minister July 18, 2007

 

 

Israeli Bedouins take part in a camel race near the southern Israeli city of Be'er Sheva

 

 

An Israeli Bedouin woman casts her ballot near Rahat

 

 

Palestinians lite candles for Prisoners' Day at Red Cross - Gaza City

 

 

Negev Bedouins protest in front of Israeli Knesset May 27, 2013

 

 

 

Israeli settlers solution to the problem.

 

 

 

 

Oghuz Turks - From Wikipedia.

The original homeland of the Oghuz was the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, which had been the domain of Turkic peoples since prehistory.
The Oghuz/Oguz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia.


The Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs (Mongols). The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes. Today the residents of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Khorezm, Turkmens of Afghanistan, Balkans, Iraq and Syria are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz (a.k.a. southwestern Turkic) group of the Turkic languages family.

Comment - why this Albino source fails to include the residents of Arabia, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel (Jews are Khazar Turks), Palestine, Jordan, etc. is unknown and incorrect.

 

The Turk Ottoman Empire - 1299 A.D. to November 1, 1922 A.D.

Countries once ruled by the Ottoman Empire:


Albania, Algeria, Arabia, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Eritrea, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Kosovo, Libya, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan.

 

 

 

 

 

Turks Rule Black Lands!

 

In these pages, we have made every effort to clearly say, and prove, that the White, and White-like, rulers and ruling elite in the former lands of Black civilizations, are not who they claim to be. Specifically; those of Egypt are NOT Egyptians, those of North Africa are NOT Berbers, those of Arabia are NOT Arabs, those of Palestine are NOT Hebrews, those of Lebanon are NOT Phoenicians, those of Iraq are NOT Mesopotamian's, those of Iran are NOT Persians or Elamites, those of Turkey are NOT Anatolians - THEY ARE ALL CENTRAL ASIAN TURKS!

 

 

 

That said with the understanding that in earlier times, Greeks and Romans settled in these areas: and in North Africa, they were followed by Alan's, Vandals, and Goths. And also in the 19th. century, French and Italians invaded, and settled in North Africa. And with the understanding that when the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, relinquished hegemony over those lands after WW I, they and the European powers, merely handed control over to local Turk elites.

But understanding that our say-so, and proofs, may be insufficient for some: We quote the eminent François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. We quote from his book:

"OUTLINES OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HISTORY"

TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES, BY MARY BRODRICK
With, an Introductory Note by William C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L.
LL.D., Vice-President of the Egypt Exploration Fund for the United States

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK, 1892

Page 28

Click here for link to Online Book

Here he is discussing the origins of the Hyksos:

Quote:

"How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."

 

How grotesque then, that the Turk, Zahi Hawass, the Vice Minister of Culture in Egypt: makes pronouncements about the non-Black nature of ancient Egyptians. When he does so, only to hide the true nature of his own people, and the illegitimacy of their presence in, and rule over Egypt.

 

 

 

The Ottoman Empire

The Muslim conquest; of which Turks and Greeks were the major component, will lead to the creation of the last great Middle-Eastern Empire, that of the Ottoman Turks. The power and influence of the Turkic Ottoman Empire was pervasive in all areas until it's breakup just after World War I.

As with all great Empires; the Ottoman Empire had it's own religion, the Muslim religion of the Prophet Mohammad - Islam. Which during the duration of the Ottoman Empire, was termed the Turkish religion, rather than the Arab religion. Islam was spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. Today, the world-wide acceptance and practice of Islam is due to the power and influence of the great Ottoman Empire.

This was in conformity with other Empires established by migrants from the Eurasian plains. Earlier the Romans had accepted and adapted one branch of the Hebrew religion (Christianity), and made it their own. Thus making it a de facto European religion, Christianity was spread as the Roman Empire expanded. Today, the world-wide acceptance and practice of Christianity is due to the Romans and other Europeans they influenced, not to the Hebrews, who considered Christianity, a Hebrew "only" religion.

Another Turkic group "the Khazars" who in the late 6th century A.D, had established a major commercial Empire covering the Caucasus region of Russia, accepted and adapted the Main Hebrew religion; thus also making it a de facto European religion. It is often times called Judaism or the Jewish religion, the origin of the term "Jewish" is however unknown, Hebrews did not call themselves Jews.

Today, because of the long duration of the Turkic Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1922), and the great influx of Turkic peoples throughout the centuries: The ruling elite of Egypt, North Africa and the Entire Middle-East is predominantly of Turkic stock, rather than the common perception of Arab stock. Though the term "Arab" is used as the common unifier of the various ethnicity's of the Middle-East. Please see the Anatolia-3 page, for a history of the Turkic peoples.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Marks the End of The Canaan Presentation.

 

 

Please visit the "Additional Material Area" for many more photographs of each civilization, and related material <Click>

 

 

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